The Civil War: Union vs Confederacy

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The Civil War The Civil War: Union vs Confederacy The Causes of the Civil War Sectionalism Loyalty to the interests of ones own area of the country rather than to the country as a whole US Economic
The Civil War The Civil War: Union vs Confederacy The Causes of the Civil War Sectionalism Loyalty to the interests of ones own area of the country rather than to the country as a whole US Economic Divisions Social Divisions Political Divisions Economic Divisions Free States Vs. Slave States Mainly Located in the North Small family farms Large industrious Cities Mainly Located in the South Large commercial farms Smaller more rural towns and cities Very small slave populations Economies relied on manufacturing and used little to no slave labor Huge Slave Populations Economies relied heavily on slave labor and farming Social Divisions Slavery Abolitionist Movement Abolish means to end or get rid of something The Abolitionists were mainly Northerners who wanted to end slavery Abolitionists Frederick Douglas was a free black and the editor of an abolitionist newspaper. Underground Railroad Some abolitionists in the North would help slaves escape via a system of secret routes and safe houses called the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman helped many slaves escape to the North in this way Dred Scott Case Supreme Court ruled that living in a free state did not change a slaves status Slaves have none of the rights and privileges of American citizens Stated: Congress had no right to outlaw slavery because the Constitution protects people s right to own PROPERTY and slaves were PROPERTY!!! John Brown A radical abolitionist, he brutally murdered 5 slave masters in Kansas. (1858) Tried to incite a slave revolt by arming slaves with weapons from the Harper s Ferry armory Uncle Tom s Cabin 1852 Anti-Slavery Novel written by Harriet Beecher-Stowe Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade! Harriet Beecher Stowe So this is the lady that started the Civil War -- Abraham Lincoln Political Divisions: States Rights Nullification Crisis Nullify means to cancel or ignore In 1832, South Carolina claimed they could nullify federal tax laws by simply ignoring it. President Jackson threatened to send federal troops. South Carolina relented Political Differences Expansion of Slavery U.S. territory expand dramatically between 1800 and 1850 (Louisiana Purchase, Mexican- American War, Oregon Territory) The question arose; Should the New Territory be Slave or Free? Missouri Compromise 1820 Missouri enters the Union as a Slave State Maine enters the Union as a Free State Limited slavery to the Territories South of the Mason Dixon line (36 degrees North latitude) Kept the peace for 40 years The Compromise of 1850 California was allowed to enter as a free state Utah, New Mexico, Kansas, and Nebraska Territories were given popular sovereignty or the choice whether or not to become free or slave Fugitive Slave Act: Runaway slaves must be returned to the south OR ELSE!!!! Bleeding Kansas Popular Sovereignty in the territories led to a series of violent confrontations between Free Soil settlers and Pro-Slavery settlers in Kansas In many ways it was a microcosm for the later civil war Political Divisions A house divided against itself cannot stand Republican Party The abolitionist movement helped to form the Republican Party Republicans felt that slavery kept the poor white men in the south from making an honest living on Free Labor (labor not performed by slaves) Southern Democrats argued that it was hypocritical to complain about the slave system when the North used so much slave grown cotton and tobacco 1860 Election Results Lincoln Elected The first Republican ever elected President was Abraham Lincoln The South knew he had abolitionist leanings and decided if he were elected they would secede or leave the Union The first States secede South Carolina seceded from the nation on Dec. 20 th 1860 Within 3 months 7 states had left the union S. Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Texas, and Louisiana Eventually 11 states would leave and join the rebellion The rebel states setup their own government called the Confederate States of America They elected Jefferson Davis to be their President Who should get control of the military buildings and supplies in the South? Why? Fort Sumter The Confederates set about taking control of military installations in the South. Fort Sumter in South Carolina, refused to surrender to the rebels, but had limited supplies If they were not resupplied by the North, they would have to surrender the fort to the Confederacy. Fort Sumter The Confederates tried to negotiate a peaceful surrender of the fort The Northerners refused Lincoln still hoped to reunite the country without war and so delayed sending reinforcements A Difficult Decision Lincoln had to make an important decision, and made the decision he thought would be best. He would send supplies ships to the fort. Then he waited to see what happened. Davis Response Faced with South Carolina fire-eaters (radical Confederates who threatened to seize the fort on their own) Jefferson Davis was forced to take action. He decided to attack the fort before the supply ships arrived. On April 12, 1861, Confederates fired on Fort Sumter. Fort Sumter The Confederates shelled Fort Sumter for 34 hours, before the Forts commander Major Robert Anderson surrendered Not a single person died but the conflict at Fort Sumter would mark the beginning of the American Civil War There would be no turning back What a change now greets us! The Government is aroused, the dead North is alive, and its divided people united The cry now is for war, vigorous war, war to the bitter end, and war till the traitors are effectually and permanently put down. - Frederick Douglass in May of 1861 Preparing for War Strengths of the North and the South Northern Advantages: Better Transportation More Railroads Better Industry Better balance between farming and industry More Factories More money More People Two thirds of the nation s population A functioning government, army, and a navy Southern Advantages: Leadership: Most of the nation s military colleges were in the South; most officers sided with the Confederacy. Military tactics: Because the South was defending its borders, its army needed only to repel Northern advances rather than initiate military action. Morale: Preparing for War Strengths of the North and the South Many Southerners were eager to fight to preserve their way of life and their right to self- government. Preparing for War Military Strategies Union Military Strategies Confederate War Strategies Tactics and Technology Military blockade of the south. Also known as the Anaconda Plan Gain control of the Mississippi River. Cut the Confederacy in two, along the Mississippi River to limit their ability to resupply and assist each other. Jefferson Davis hoped that Lincoln would let the Confederacy go in peace. The South planned for a war of attrition. Or simply warring until the North s ability to fight ran out Outdated muskets were replaced with more accurate rifles. Artillery improved with the invention of shells, devices that exploded in the air. Outdated tactics were still being used against this new technology resulting in mass death. Surrender at Appomattox On April 2, 1865, Lee tried to slip around Grant s army hoping to join his troops with those of General Johnston. Their combined strength would allow the Rebels to continue the war. On April 9, 1865, Lee s forces came to the Virginia town of Appomattox where they were surrounded by Grant s much larger Union force. Surrender at Appomattox Lee s officers suggested that the army could scatter and continue to fight as guerrillas (soldiers who use surprise raids and hit-and-run tactics). Lee rejected this idea. That afternoon Generals Lee and Grant met in a private home and Lee officially signed the surrender papers. The Civil War Ends Lee s Surrender in April 1865 is often viewed as the end of the Civil War However Confederate resistance continued through May. Battle of Palmetto Ranch in Texas May12-13 th 1865 is considered the last battle Lincoln Is Assassinated Abraham Lincoln did not live to see the official end of the war. On April 15th 1865 Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a confederate sympathizer, while watching a play a Ford s Theater Booth was later found and killed in a shoot-out with Federal Troops His coconspirators failed to assassinate other top union officials on the same night They were all eventually caught and hung as traitors Conspiracy There were an estimated 620,000 deaths during the Civil War (all of them Americans) A New Birth of Freedom The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified by the states and became law in December Thanks in large part to the efforts of Lincoln and the Republican controlled Congress Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Reconstruction Reconstruction was the effort to re-unite the Confederate States with the Union after the Civil War. However The Legislative and Executive branches of the Government disagreed on how to accomplish this goal.
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