StationHandbook Issue Nov2008

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    1  SP CE R DIO MONITORING ST TION LEEHEIM Station Handbook Issue: November 2008  BNetzA, 5110-6, Nov2008 2Table of contents 1 Descriptive Specifications of the Space Radio Monitoring Station..................................3   1.1 General Description...........................................................................................................................3 1.2 Functions...........................................................................................................................................3 1.2.1 As an aid for planning and coordination..................................................................................3 1.2.2 As a tool for satellite positioning and operation......................................................................3 1.2.3 Detection of uplink interferers.................................................................................................3 1.3 System Characteristics......................................................................................................................4 1.3.1 Antenna 1................................................................................................................................4 1.3.2 Antenna 2................................................................................................................................4 1.3.3 Antenna 3................................................................................................................................4 1.3.4 Antenna 4................................................................................................................................5 1.3.5 Antenna 5................................................................................................................................5 1.3.6 Omnidirectional Antennas.......................................................................................................5 1.3.7 Computer Controlled Antenna Tracking..................................................................................5 1.3.8 Antenna Parameters...............................................................................................................5 1.3.9 Transmitter Location System (TLS)........................................................................................5 1.3.10 Reference Transmitter for the TLS.........................................................................................5 1.3.11 Frequency Range....................................................................................................................6 1.3.12 Frequency Spectrum Recorder...............................................................................................6 1.3.13 Device For Measurements Below The Noise Floor................................................................6 1.4 Measurement Parameters.................................................................................................................6 2 Tasks......................................................................................................................................7 2.1 Spectrum Occupancy Monitoring......................................................................................................7 2.2 Position Measurements.....................................................................................................................7 2.3 Interference Measurements..............................................................................................................7 2.4 Pre-Launch Monitoring......................................................................................................................7 3 Working Hours.......................................................................................................................8 4 Contact Address....................................................................................................................8 5 Annexes List..........................................................................................................................9  Annex 1 Antenna Parameters................................................................................................................10  Annex 2 Request for Measurements......................................................................................................11  Annex 3 Essential Parameters for Transmitter Location........................................................................12  Annex 4 Example Frequency Atlas........................................................................................................14  Annex 5a Example Spectrum...................................................................................................................15  Annex 5b Example Spectrum...................................................................................................................16  Annex 6 Example Spectrum Measured Below the Noise Floor.............................................................17  Annex 7 Example Spectrogram of an Emission of a Low Earth Orbiting Satellite.................................18  Annex 8 Example Sub-Satellite Tracks in the Geographical Grid..........................................................19  Annex 9 Example Result of a Transmitter Location Measurement........................................................20  BNetzA, 5110-6, Nov2008 3 1 Descriptive Specifications of the Space Radio Monitoring Station 1.1 General Description The Space Radio Monitoring Station Leeheim belongs to the ‘Bundesnetzagentur für Elektrizität, Gas, Telekommunikation, Post und Eisenbahnen’ (Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Posts and Railways) or in short ‘Bundesnetzagentur’ / ‘Federal Network  Agency’. The Agency's responsibilities include spectrum management and spectrum monitoring. The Monitoring Station Leeheim is located at the river Rhine approximately 35 kilometres south-west of Frankfurt/Main. Its full motion antennas of up to 12 metres in diameter are pointed towards satellites in space. These antennas do not serve commercial transmission purposes. They form the heart of an installation used to monitor the frequency spectrum allocated to space radio services and to detect interference on frequencies used for satellite communications. 1.2 Functions 1.2.1 As an aid for planning and coordination General orbit observations reveal the actual use of the frequency spectrum for space services. This includes satellite transponder occupancy measurements and the determination of orbital positions in the geostationary orbit. Specific frequency occupancy observations, for example in conjunction with radio frequency coordination procedures, enable potential interference to be detected early during the planning stage of satellite systems. Field experiments can support the optimization of theoretical models that facilitate the shared use of frequencies by space and terrestrial services. 1.2.2 As a tool for satellite positioning and operation Pre-launch observations on telemetry and tracking frequencies guarantee the successful positioning of geostationary satellites. Monitoring satellite emissions, transponder occupancy and satellite positions is an indispensable tool which enables the competent authorities to check whether a satellites is operated as advance published, coordinated and notified internationally. Interference handling allows sources of harmful interference being detected which otherwise would continue to hinder proper operation of satellite or terrestrial radio services. 1.2.3 Detection of uplink interferers Cases of up-link interference, i.e. not a satellite is the source of interference but a satellite is the victim, appear more and more. Since users have obtained direct access to satellite capacities, the number of earth stations has risen rapidly. Earth stations are the major source of up-link interference. It can be caused by both technical and operational faults. Illicit uses of satellite transponders and cases of intentional interference to transponders have also been observed. Authorities, operators and users have to cope with this situation. The monitoring system locates interferers by receiving their signals on 2 different paths, i.e. via the interfered satellite and a neighbouring satellite. The time difference and the frequency difference of the signals received at Leeheim are processed to obtain the geographical co-ordinates of the transmitter. As soon as the location of the interferer is known, the interference can normally be swiftly eliminated.  BNetzA, 5110-6, Nov2008 4  1.3 System Characteristics Location: 49°51'13 N 08°23'50 E Visible Geostationary Arc: 67° W to 83° E 1.3.1 Antenna 1  Antenna 1, a 12 m Cassegrain-Beam-Waveguide-Antenna is a broadband antenna designed to cover the 1.0 - 13 GHz frequency range. Rather narrow feeds with optimized characteristics at 1.5 - 1.8 GHz and 2.1 - 2.3 GHz as well as at 10.7 - 12.75 GHz are a pre-requisite for the so-called monopulse tracking for high precision antenna pointing. An adjustable rotary reflector and a slide mounted feed allow switching between the frequency bands. The rather wide 4.3 - 8.5 GHz frequency slot of Antenna 1 does not allow for monopulse tracking. However, it disposes of accurate computer controlled position tracking capability in all frequency bands. 1.3.2 Antenna 2  Antenna 2 is a Cassegrain-Antenna with a narrow band feed in the frequency range 3.2 – 4.2 GHz with a diameter of 8.5 m. This antenna has a limited operational availability at the moment. 1.3.3 Antenna 3  Antenna 3, consisting of a square of 2.4 m * 2.4 m, is composed of 3 sectors of dipole arrays of different size covering in total the frequency band from 130 - 1000 MHz.  Antenna 3   130 MHz - 1 GHz  Antenna 1   1.5 - 2.3 GHz4.3 - 8.5 GHz10.7 - 12.75 GHz  Antenna 2 3.2 - 4.2GHz  Antenna 4   1 - 26.5 GHz
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