Resilience in Pakistan: Evaluation of enhancing food security and resilience of small-scale farmers | Food Security

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This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review series 2013/14, selected for review under the livelihoods thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in September 2013 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Enhancing Food Security and Resilience of Small Farmers in Pakistan’ project.  The project was carried out in three districts of southern Pakistan during 2010 and 2011. The project was delivered by Oxfam in partnership with the Sindh Agricultural and Forestry Workers Coordinating Organisation (SAFWCO) and Baluchistan Environmental
  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES ‘enhancing effectiveness through evidence-based learning’  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES 2013/14: ARMENIA BOLIVIA COLOMBIA DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGOENGLAND ETHIOPIA GEORGIA HAITI HONDURAS INDONESIA JORDAN LEBANON MALAWI MALI   NEPAL NIGER PAKISTAN RUSSIA RWANDA SCOTLAND VIETNAM ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE This project was carried out in three districts of southern Pakistan during 2010 and 2011, by Oxfam in partnership with the Sindh Agricultural and Forestry Workers Coordinating Organisation (SAFWCO) and Baluchistan Environmental & Educational Journey (BEEJ). The project’s aim was to mitigate the negative effects of food price volatility on vulnerable households, by supporting agricultural production and improving access to safety nets and by building local-level institutional capacity to support positive resilience. Activities included providing direct support to households in the form of agricultural inputs and technical support, as well as setting up seed fairs and establishing communal grain banks. The project also facilitated the creation of village-level Farmer Organisations and Producer Organisations, to provide a platform for producers to work together and to make joint investments. A further aim was to build linkages between these Farmer and Producer Organisations and government and private-sector actors, to improve members’ access to extension support, to social protection programmes, and to agricultural inputs and credit. Enhancing food security and resilience of small scale farmers Project date: January 2010 - December 2011Evaluation: September 2013Publication: February 2015 Resilience Pakistan2013/14 Map of Pakistan, with Sindh Province highlighted and Dadu and Sanghar districts shown in red.  Results Evaluation Method Full version of this report and more information can be found at Oxfam’s Policy and Practice website: For more information, contact Oxfam’s Programme Quality Team - apply to the general population (including members and non-members of the Farmer Organisations and Producer Organisations established under the project) in the 23 villages where the survey was carried out. Those 23 villages were selected at random from among all except the 15 largest villages where the project was implemented, across the two districts of Sanghar and Dadu. The sample gives proportionately more weight to respondents in smaller villages than in larger villages. The project’s activities in Musakheal District in Baluchistan Province are not covered by this review. The review sought to evaluate the project’s impact among the population of the communities where the project was implemented. Data from interviews with residents of the project communities and with residents of nearby non-project communities were analysed using propensity-score matching and multivariate regression. See the ‘How are effectiveness reviews carried out?’ document for more information on evaluation design. Details about the specic evaluation design used in this case are contained in the full report of the Effectiveness Review. Going forward Learning from this Effectiveness Review will be integrated into ongoing programme work in Pakistan. Building the capacity of community-based organisations is already an important aspect of Oxfam’s programme in the country; more priority now will be to facilitating linkages to government and to service providers. At the same time, more stress will be given to the importance of social cohesion in ensuring the sustainability of work such as this. A new area to be integrated into community-level programme work is to build awareness of climate change and its consequences. Finally, Oxfam will continue seeking to improve its relationship with government and with public-sector institutes, particularly in order to strengthen crisis-response capability. Photo credit: Caroline Gluck/Oxfam    Commentary  Adoption of improved agricultural practices   Project outcome Evidence of considerable increase in use of improved seeds and other practices encouraged under the project.Crop production and salesLittle evidence of any effect on agricultural production or sales. In Dadu District, crop sales were lower in the project villages than in comparison villages.   Livestock ownershipEvidence of an increase in number of animals owned, better availability of fodder, and an increase in milk production.YESNOYESBorrowing and indebtednessRespondents in project villages were more likely to say they had experienced a reduction in their household’s level of debt since 2009 than were those in comparison villages.Food security and dietary diversityStandard food security indicators are not conclusive. No apparent effect on dietary diversity in either district.Indicators of material wealth   Households in project communities increased in terms of indicators of material wealth (ownership of livestock and other assets, and housing conditions) since 2009 relative to households in comparison villages. YESNot clear YESResilience to future shocks and stressesEvidence that the project has led to improvements in various characteristics thought to be associated with resilience, especially in indicators of social and institutional capability. Losses due to shocks in 2010 and 2011Project villages in Dadu District appear to have experienced fewer crop losses in the crises of 2010 and 2011 than comparison villages. Some indication that this may also be true for losses of livestock in both districts.   Women’s participation in community organisations   Evidence that the project led to an increase in women’s participation in community organisations. Male respondents agreed that women have increased their involvement and inuence in the community, but women themselves did not. YESYESYESSanghar DistrictDadu DistrictYESNOYESYESNot clear YESYESNot clear YES Evidence of positive impact
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