Prose fiction | Narration | Irony

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Uvod u englesku i američku književnost
  Uvod u američku i englesku književnost PROSE FICTION LITERATURE  – fction consisting o careully aranged words designed to stir the imagination consists o di!erent genre a# $rose %# $oetry c# drama &alue nourishes our emotional lies e'$ands our $ers$ecti&e o the (orld learning more a%out lie FICTION  – any literary narrati&e which is in&ented instead o %eing an account o e&ents that really ha$$ened  narrati&es that are written in $rose a synonym or the no&el FORMULA !UL! !O!ULAR FICTION  ormula – ha&e some ormula) how things must go $ul$ – series o no&els) hero on the co&er) chea$ $a$er FORMULA FICTION a# the ad&enture%# westernc# crime fctiond# horrore# science fction# antasyg# romanceh# historical $o$ular no&els usually characteri*ed as esca$e literature  a ha$$y ending des$ite the o%stacles) com$lications or near deeats) the &alues and attitudes the reader %rings to the story are rea+rmed written to %e sold emotionally satisying   momentary relie rom our e&eryday $ro%lems ROMANCE FORMULA P,OT – the growing lo&e relationshi$ %etween the heroine and hero who ace a num%er o com$lications which -e$t them a$art till the moment o marriage.EROINE – a woman in her twenties who is %eautiul) attracti&e) selreliant) com$etent yet sensiti&e) &ulnera%le and not entirely certain o her own /ualities .ERO – an older man who is masculine) handsome) $roessionally and fnancially successul) so$histicated and e'$eriencedSECON01R2 C.1R1CTERS – used to ad&ance the action 3 the other woman) the other man) other character the hero4s sno%%ish aunt) the heroine4s trou%led younger si%lings) the loyal riend5#SETTIN6 – contem$orary and) i $ossi%le) romantic e'otic) e'citing,O7E SCENES – descri$tions should a$$eal to the senses yet gra$hicdetails are unacce$ta%leT.E8E – the central idea or meaning o a story) di!erent rom a story4s su%9ect8OTIF – a ty$e o incident) ormula) de&ice o reerence which occursre/uently in wor-s o literature: recurrent $oetic conce$ts o ormula 3I; e; the car$e diem moti# !LOT  – the author4s arrangement o incidents in a story<;Chronological=;8o&ing %ac- and orth %etween the $ast and $resent>;?eginning at the end@;In medias resA;Flash%ac-s – inorms us a%out the e&ents that ha$$ened %eore the o$ening scene o a wor-: di!erent rom the story) a %are syno$sis o the tem$oral order o what ha$$ensElements o a 3con&entional# $lot  a# sus$ense – a lac- o certainty a%out what is going to ha$$en%# sur$rise – in what in act ha$$ens &iolates any e'$ectations we ha&e ormedc# unity o action – a com$lete and order structure o actionsd# oreshadowing – a suggestion o what is yet to come0ou%le $lots – main B su%$lot) su%$lots – second story B com$lete1 standard con&entional $lot se/uence   <;E'$osition – introduction 3%ac-ground ino#=;The rising action>;ConDict – struggle 3e'ternal and internal) $rotagonist and antagonist#@;Clima' – the greatest emotional $oint in de&elo$ment o resolution o something#A;Resolution E. R. Burroughs – at 35 decided to try writing pulp fction- ‘’Under the Moons o Mars’’ – the frst story - in ! !#. $u%lished his frst no&el 'ar(an o the )pes *pu%lished +# 'ar(an %oo,s- 'ar(an o the )pes – a story a%out a %oy who was orphaned in the )rican ungle as a %a%y and raised %y apes * a sense o /yth – 'ar(an’s rising in the apehierarchy0 ashioning its own sense o hu/anity1aren &an der 2ee – an author o o&er 33 ro/ance no&els written ro/ !  . to today  C ARACTER  – an imagined $erson in a story$erson in a dramatic or narrati&e wor- who are inter$reted %y the readers as ha&ing certain moral) intellectual and emotional /ualities that are %rought into %eing %y dialogue and the actionmoti&ation the ground) moti&ations) reasons in characters reasons) mature) desire in what they say and do Ty$es o characters <; T#e old terminolog$ a#sta%le or unchanged – character unchanged) no great change:  Tem$est 3Sha-es$eare# you e'$ect them to %e consistent) not to %eha&e not in a way that is not e'$ected o them%#undergoing or radical change – the result o = things gradual $rocess o de&elo$ment and the one who e'$eriences some -ind o crises# %&E&M& Foster a#Flat  can %e descri%ed in a sentence or = connected with one idea%#Round – creati&e) resem%les to the $eo$le in e&eryday lie   ca$a%le o sur$rising us: stereoty$es – mean ste$ ather or mother) dum%%londe5 ANTI ERO  – the character that has little or no control on e&ents C ARACTERI'ATION esta%lishing the distincti&e characters o a $ersons in a narrati&ethe methods %y which a writer creates $eo$le in the story so that they seem actually to e'istthe methods a# (#o)ing  3the dramatic method# – the writer descri%es characterin s$ea-ing and action %ut lea&es readers to 9udge them: stream o consciousness – Faul-ner) higher le&el o showing%# Telling  – a writer descri%es characters what they say or do and uses his authority o e&aluation) 9udgment) etc;: &iolation o artistry (ETTIN* <;O&erall – the general location) historical time and social circumstances in which literary wor- is set=;O a single e$isode or scene – the $articular $hysical location>;O a theatrical $roduction – the scenery and the $ro$erties 3mo&a%le$ieces o urniture# on the stage 4illia/ aul,ner – ascinated %y the south0 6o,napatawpha 7ountry   !8 %oo,s o no&els and short stories pu%lished %etween ! + . and ! 9+. (OUT ERN *OT IC  – a literary genre set in the South using gothic tro$es such as a#the setting in an ancestral house reerring not only to a %uilding %ut also to a amily and its genealogy%#real or imagined occult) su$ernatural or unusual e&entsc#a su!ering woman who disco&ers a serious secretre&eals the inhumanity o Southern society which o$$resses or ostraci*es marginali*ed grou$s 31rican 1merican) Nati&e 1merican) women) homose'uals5 # (OUT ERN RENAI((ANCE  – a literary moment in the region and tradition in a $erson4s lie %y ocusing on the themes such as the %urden o history) the $atriarchal and conser&ati&e culture and racial issues
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