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Pre-Reading Questions and Activities (cont.) 11. In the Anticipation Guide that follows, write T in the Before Reading column if the statement is true in your opinion. Write F if you feel the statement
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Pre-Reading Questions and Activities (cont.) 11. In the Anticipation Guide that follows, write T in the Before Reading column if the statement is true in your opinion. Write F if you feel the statement is false. After completing the book, mark your answers again in the After Reading column to see if your opinion has changed. Before After Statements Reading Reading 1. It is difficult to adjust to living in a new place. 2. When you see someone being mistreated, you should always try to help. 3. Sometimes it is better not to know if something horrible is going on around you. 4. It is difficult for children to see the faults of their parents. 5. A person can be kind to some people and cruel to others. 6. Betrayal of a friend is unforgivable. 7. People are more alike than they are different. 8. It is possible to judge someone even before you get to know that person as an individual. LEARNING LINKS INC. 5 CHAPTERS ONE, TWO Vocabulary: Synonyms are words with similar meanings. Draw a line from each word in column A to its synonym in column B. Then use the words in column A to fill in the blanks in the sentences below. A 1. chaos a. indifferently 2. frustration b. limitations 3. dismissively c. immediate 4. presumed d. annoyance 5. desolate e. preferences 6. restrictions f. disorder 7. foreseeable g. lifeless 8. priorities h. supposed B The man was to be innocent until proven guilty in a court of law. 2. Your are wrong if you choose to watch television instead of finishing your report. 3. Happy with the community and its schools, my family intends to live here for the future. 4. The severe hurricane left the town in a state of. 5. There are so many on the use of the playground that no one wants to come here anymore. 6. After trying in vain to solve the math problem, the student shook her head in. 7. The busy saleswoman waved the children off when they asked her lots of questions. 8. The astronaut took a walk on the rocky, surface of the moon. Read to find out why Bruno is upset about moving. LEARNING LINKS INC. 6 Chapters One, Two (cont.) Questions: 1. Why doesn t Bruno understand the nature of his father s job? 2. How does Bruno s mother feel about leaving the house in Berlin? 3. How does Bruno feel about his sister? 4. Why is Bruno reluctant to leave Berlin? 5. How does Bruno react to his new house? 6. How do Bruno and Maria react to the young soldier in the hall? Questions for Discussion: 1. Why do you think Bruno s mother fails to tell her son the exact nature of his father s job? 2. Do you think Bruno s mother could have done anything to make the move easier for her son? 3. In your opinion, could Bruno s mother have convinced her husband not to leave Berlin? 4. Why do you think that looking out the window makes Bruno feel very cold and unsafe? Literary Device: Point of view In literature, the point of view refers to the person telling the story. It can be narrated by a character in the book or by the author. Sometimes even though the book is narrated by the author, it focuses on the thoughts and feelings of only one character. From this point of view, we observe the actions through the eyes of only one of the characters in the story. Who is telling the story? On whose thoughts and feelings does the narration focus? Why do you think the author chose this point of view? LEARNING LINKS INC. 7 Chapters One, Two (cont.) Literary Element: Setting In literature, the setting is the time and place in which a story occurs. Setting is especially important in a historical novel such as this one. What is the setting of this novel? What details about the setting help make the characters times and lifestyles seem real? Social Studies Connection: Bruno talks about the Fury, which is a mispronunciation of Fuhrer, the title given to the dictator Adolph Hitler. The beautiful blonde woman Bruno refers to is Eva Braun. Do some research to find out more about her and her relationship with Hitler. Writing Activity: Bruno s mother tells him to make the best of a bad situation. Write about a time when you had to do this. LEARNING LINKS INC. 8 CHAPTERS THREE FIVE Vocabulary: Use the words in the Word Box and the clues below to complete the crossword puzzle. WORD BOX acknowledging customary exasperation insolent complementing decidedly inscription significance considerate distinctly insistent torture conviction Across 2. thoughtful 4. words engraved on a hard surface 10. completing 11. cause great pain 12. without question 13. strong belief Down 1. synonym for 12 Across 3. admitting to be true 5. importance 6. usual 7. extreme annoyance 8. boldly rude 9. continuing to make a firm demand LEARNING LINKS INC. 9 Chapters Three Five (cont.) Read to find out why Bruno is upset about moving. Questions: 1. How does Gretel feel about the new house? 2. Why does Gretel hesitate before looking out of Bruno s window? 3. Why is Gretel surprised when she looks out the window? 4. How are the children on the other side of the fence treated by the soldiers? 5. How does Gretel react to the children on the other side of the fence? 6. How were the two trains headed eastward from the station in Berlin different? 7. How does Bruno s father react to his son s desire to go home? Questions for Discussion: 1. Do you think that Bruno and his sister Gretel have a normal relationship or one that is made more difficult by the times in which they live? 2. Why do you think it is so difficult for Bruno and Gretel to understand the true nature of Auschwitz? 3. How would you describe Bruno s relationship with his father? Do you think that the Commandant is a good father? 4. How do you know when to keep your mouth shut and when to follow orders? Is there ever a time when someone should not follow orders? 5. What do you think Bruno s father means when he says that the people on the other side of the fence are not people at all? Literary Devices: I. Simile A simile is a figure of speech in which two unlike objects are compared using the words like or as. For example: As they [the Nazi soldiers] left they stood in a row together like toy soldiers.... What is being compared? What does the comparison suggest about the Nazi soldiers? LEARNING LINKS INC. 10 Chapters Three Five (cont.) II. Flashback A flashback is a scene or series of scenes showing events that happened at an earlier time. Indicate where the flashback begins and ends in Chapter Five. What purpose does this flashback serve? Social Studies Connection: Bruno s father has taught him how to do the Hitler salute, adapted by the Nazi Party as a sign of loyalty to its leader, Adolph Hitler. The salute is accompanied by the exclamation of the words Heil Hitler! said in a firm and usually loud voice. Do some research to find out about the origin of this salute and how it was used in Hitler s Germany. Writing Activity: Describe a time when you had a disagreement with one of your parents. What was the disagreement about? How was it resolved? LEARNING LINKS INC. 11 CHAPTERS SIX, SEVEN Vocabulary: Draw a line from each word on the left to its definition on the right. Then use the numbered words to fill in the blanks in the sentences below. 1. enforced a. reckless adventure or prank 2. reverberated b. dislike 3. engaged c. caused to be carried out 4. incredulous d. amusement 5. escapade e. easily annoyed 6. diversion f. echoed 7. distaste g. took part 8. irritable h. showing a lack of belief Playing video games is my favorite. 2. Most people are when they hear stories about flying saucers. 3. After the rain spoiled her plans, my sister was for the entire day. 4. After reading the book, the students in a lively discussion about the characters. 5. The police officer the law against speeding by giving the driver a ticket. 6. My little brother s latest ended with a ball breaking a bedroom window. 7. The guide s call in the cave. 8. Many people have a(n) for snakes. Read to find out what Maria reveals about Bruno s father. Questions: 1. How does Maria react when Bruno calls his father stupid? 2. Why is Maria grateful to the Commandant? 3. What causes both Bruno and Gretel to feel uncomfortable with Lieutenant Kotler? 4. How does Pavel help Bruno after his accident? 5. Why is Bruno surprised to find out that Pavel is a doctor? LEARNING LINKS INC. 12 Chapters Six, Seven (cont.) Questions for Discussion: 1. How would you finish Maria s sentence, He has a lot of kindness in his soul, truly he does, which makes me wonder...? 2. Do you think that Bruno s father could be as kind a man as Maria describes and still be a Nazi officer? 3. Why is Maria so upset when Bruno keeps complaining that his father made a terrible mistake in coming to Out-With? 4. Do you agree with Maria that Bruno should keep his criticism to himself? 5. To what is Maria referring when she says that it is not up to her and Bruno to change things? Why do Bruno and Maria both feel like crying after she makes this statement? 6. What does Pavel mean when he tells Bruno that he thinks he has always been at Out-With? 7. Why does Bruno s mother take credit for cleaning Bruno up after his fall? What does this suggest about her? Literary Devices: I. Dramatic Irony Dramatic irony, a device used more often in plays than in fiction, refers to a time when one character is ignorant of something that the other characters and the reader understand. What examples of dramatic irony can you find in Bruno s encounter with Pavel? II. Metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a comparison between two unlike objects is suggested or implied. For example: If you ask me [Bruno], we re all in the same boat. And it s leaking. What is being compared? What does Bruno mean when he makes this comparison? LEARNING LINKS INC. 13 Chapters Six, Seven (cont.) III. Simile What is being compared in the following simile? The noise of a door slamming came from downstairs and reverberated through the house loudly like a gunshot that Bruno jumped and Maria let out a small scream. Why is this an apt comparison? Literary Element: Characterization Characters in literature are revealed by what they say and do and by what others say about them. In the chart below, list important information you have learned about some of the characters in the book. Continue to fill in the chart as you read. You may also add characters to the chart. Character Physical Appearance Personality Traits Bruno Gretel Bruno s mother Bruno s father Lieutenant Kotler Writing Activity: Retell the events in one of these chapters focusing on a character s thoughts and feelings other than Bruno s. LEARNING LINKS INC. 14 CHAPTERS EIGHT TEN Vocabulary: Use the context to help you determine the meaning of the underlined word in each of the following sentences. Then check your definition with a dictionary. 1. Our class president dominated every meeting, not letting anyone else express an opinion. Your definition Dictionary definition 2. Since our birthdays coincide, we can have one party for both of us. Your definition Dictionary definition 3. I want to devise a way to make money this summer. Your definition Dictionary definition 4. Having come from a country where we could not worship, we are now tolerant of all religious practices. Your definition Dictionary definition 5. My mother was happy when she retrieved her lost purse. Your definition Dictionary definition 6. The sinister storm clouds made the picnickers run for cover. Your definition Dictionary definition 7. He rummaged through three drawers before he found his keys. Your definition Dictionary definition 8. The mayor confirmed that he would indeed run for a second term in office. Your definition Dictionary definition LEARNING LINKS INC. 15 Chapters Eight Ten (cont.) 9. There is nothing sadder than the sight of a forlorn, lost child. Your definition Dictionary definition 10. After receiving a poor grade, the student made a resolution to work harder. Your definition Dictionary definition Read to learn what Bruno discovers when he goes exploring. Questions: 1. Why did the last play Bruno and Gretel performed with Grandmother end in disaster? 2. Why was Grandmother unimpressed with her son s new uniform? 3. Why does Herr Liszt dislike storybooks? 4. Why does Bruno decide to explore to find out more about the people in the striped pajamas? 5. Why does Bruno think that Shmuel s face is strange? 6. When Bruno states that he and Shmuel are like twins, why does Shmuel reply, A little bit? Questions for Discussion: 1. What do you think was the cause of the argument between Bruno s father and Grandmother? 2. How do you think Bruno s father would define the word patriot? How might Grandmother s definition of the word be different? 3. Do you think that Shmuel is as naive as Bruno? 4. If you were Shmuel, how would you answer Bruno s last question? Literary Devices: I. Flashback What is the purpose of the flashback in Chapter Eight? LEARNING LINKS INC. 16 Chapters Eight Ten (cont.) II. Metaphor What is being compared in the following metaphor? I [Grandmother] was merely the blank wall to whom you [Grandfather] addressed your words. What does this reveal about the relationship between Bruno s grandparents? III. Dramatic Irony What is ironic about Bruno thinking it is unfair that Shmuel has many friends while he has none? Literary Element: Conflict A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces. An external conflict is a character s struggle against an outside force, such as nature, society, or another person. An internal conflict is a personal struggle that takes place within a character s mind. In the chart below, list the conflicts that have occurred in the story so far. Indicate how some of these problems have been resolved. As you continue the story, add to the chart. External Conflicts Resolutions Internal Conflicts Resolutions LEARNING LINKS INC. 17 Chapters Eight Ten (cont.) Music Connection: Bruno s grandmother likes to sing La Vie en Rose. Find a recording of this song to play for the class. How does your reaction to the song compare to that of Bruno? Social Studies Connection: Find photos of the different Nazi uniforms worn during World War II. Which one resembles the one worn by Bruno s father? Writing Activity: Bruno writes a letter to his grandmother. Imagine that you are Grandmother and reply to this letter. LEARNING LINKS INC. 18 CHAPTERS ELEVEN THIRTEEN Vocabulary: Use a word from the Word Box to replace each underlined word or phrase in the following sentences. Write the word on the line below the sentence. WORD BOX administered contradict disdain extravagant catastrophe deliberately enunciating vital 1. That was too much praise for such a small deed. 2. Actors on stage should project their voices, clearly pronouncing each word. 3. She responded with scorn to his offer of a bribe. 4. The witness will deny the story told by the suspect. 5. The earthquake was a terrible disaster for the city. 6. Her help is very important to the success of our plan. 7. The pitcher purposely took his time on the mound in order to throw the right pitch. 8. We gave out first aid to the injured persons. Read to find out what happened when the Fury came to dinner. Questions: 1. Why did Bruno think the Fury was the rudest guest he had ever witnessed? 2. How did the blonde woman show consideration for the children? LEARNING LINKS INC. 19 Chapters Eleven Thirteen (cont.) 3. How does Bruno reveal that he has no understanding of Shmuel s situation? 4. Why doesn t Bruno tell his parents about Shmuel? 5. How do Bruno and Shmuel disagree about soldiers? 6. Why does Bruno foresee that catastrophe is going to strike on the night Lieutenant Kotler comes to dinner? 7. Why is Lieutenant Kotler reluctant to talk about his father? How does this arouse the Commandant s suspicions? 8. How does Bruno come to the realization that he had better not disagree with anyone about anything at Out-With? Questions for Discussion: 1. Why do you think Bruno s father established extra ground rules for the children before the Fury s visit? 2. What do the fragments of conversation between Bruno s parents the night of the Fury s visit reveal about the move to Out-With? 3. Why is it impossible for Bruno to understand what is going on around him, even when Shmuel tries to explain it to him? Do you think this is believable? 4. What do you think that Maria told Bruno about Pavel? 5. Why do you think that Bruno s father is concerned about Lieutenant Kotler s family history? 6. Why does the author leave Pavel s punishment up to the reader s imagination rather than describing in detail what Lieutenant Kotler does to him? Literary Devices: I. Flashback Why does the author use a flashback in Chapter Eleven to show what happened when the Fury came to dinner? How would the effect have been different if this incident came at the very beginning of the book? II. Symbolism A symbol is an object, person, or event that represents an idea or a set of ideas. What might the fence symbolize? What other objects in the book serve as symbols? Continue to record these symbols as you read further. LEARNING LINKS INC. 20 Chapters Eleven Thirteen (cont.) Literary Elements: Characterization Although Bruno feels that Shmuel is like his twin, the boys are different in many ways. Use a Venn diagram, such as the one below, to compare the two characters. Bruno Shmuel Writing Activities: 1. Use information from the Venn diagram to explain why Bruno and Shmuel have become friends. Indicate whether or not you think they would have been friends if they had met away from Out-With. 2. Write about a time when you or someone you know was faced with unfair treatment. Describe the incident and tell how you reacted. LEARNING LINKS INC. 21 CHAPTERS FOURTEEN, FIFTEEN Vocabulary: Choose a word from the Word Box to fill in the blank spaces next to each definition. The letters in the boxes going down will spell a word that describes Bruno. WORD BOX crucial grimace sarcasm sophistication dilemma medicinal seething undeniable 1. difficult choice 2. twisted face 3. without a doubt 4. quality of being worldly 5. sneering or cutting remark 6. critical 7. healing 8. being disturbed Answer Bruno is of all that is happening on the other side of the fence. Read to find out why Bruno lies to Gretel. Questions: 1. Why does Bruno pretend that he has an imaginary friend? 2. How does talking about Shmuel to Gretel help Bruno understand his friend? 3. What signs reveal that Lieutenant Kotler is getting very close to Bruno s mother? 4. Why is Shmuel at Bruno s house? 5. How does Bruno inadvertently get Shmuel into trouble? 6. Why does Bruno fail to tell Lieutenant Kotler that he gave Shmuel the chicken? LEARNING LINKS INC. 22 Chapters Fourteen, Fifteen (cont.) Questions for Discussion: 1. If you were Shmuel, would you be as patient with Bruno when he fails to understand just how bad conditions are in the camp? Why do you think that Shmuel does not try harder to correct his friend s outrageous statements? 2. Do you think there is any justification for Bruno denying his friendship with Shmuel? 3. Of all the reasons why Bruno does not like Lieutenant Kotler, which one do you find most disturbing? Why do you think that Bruno s mother and sister ignore Kotler s bad qualities? 4. Why do you think that Shmuel forgives Bruno so easily for betraying him? What does this suggest about Shmuel? 5. Why is it significant that the boys touch for the first time? Literary Element: Mood Mood is the overall atmosphere or feeling of a literary work. Happiness or sadness, terror or tranquility mood can be any strong feeling or emotion the author creates. Read the following passage: You will finish polishing all the glasses, said Lieutenant Kotler in a very quiet voice now, so quiet that Bruno almost couldn t hear him. It was as if all his anger had just changed into something else. Not quite the opposite, but something unexpected and dreadful. And then I will come to collect you and bring you back to the camp, where we will have a
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