Large Scale Environmental Clean up Campaigns

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 6
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Others

Published:

Views: 5 | Pages: 6

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
Earthquakes, Tsunamis, major hurricanes and large-scale flooding can create large quantities waste, of building debris, rubble, sediments, organic waste and possibly even toxic wastes. Such waste poses not only a threat to public health, but can also seriously hinder relief programmes and the subsequent reconstruction efforts. The uncontrolled dumping of such wastes impacts negatively on public health and can have a detrimental impact on the environment. Incorrect waste disposal can lead to chemicals and heavy metals leaching into the groundwater, increased vermin presence, negative odour and visual impact. Large quantities of visible waste have a negative psychological impact on affected communities. In spite of this, these wastes can provide a valuable resource to the reconstruction works through recycling and reuse to provide construction materials and income generating opportunities. The population can also play a positive role in planning and implementing environmental clean-up activities.
Transcript
  Large Scale Environmental Clean up Campaigns This Technical Brief looks at what to do with large quantities of bulk wastes generated by natural disasters and conflict situations. Background Earthquakes, Tsunamis, major hurricanes and large-scale flooding can create large quantities waste, of building debris, rubble, sediments, organic waste and possibly even toxic wastes. Such waste poses not only a threat to public health, but can also seriously hinder relief programmes and the subsequent reconstruction efforts. The uncontrolled dumping of such wastes impacts negatively on public health and can have a detrimental impact on the environment. Incorrect waste disposal can lead to chemicals and heavy metals leaching into the groundwater, increased vermin presence, negative odour and visual impact. Large quantities of visible waste have a negative psychological impact on affected communities. In spite of this, these wastes can provide a valuable resource to the reconstruction works through recycling and reuse to provide construction materials and income generating opportunities. The population can also play a positive role in planning and implementing environmental clean-up activities. Options for Waste Management The huge amount of debris generated by major events is likely to be a major problem early on into a relief effort. Large quantities of debris not only create access problems, but also pose a hazard both from a public health perspective and through increased risks of accidents. Planning a major waste management early on prevents waste streams becoming mixed, prevents double handling and is more cost-effective in the long-term. Initial Needs Assessment  As a first step, including a waste management professional in initial assessment/implementation team is a pre-requisite for analysing and putting in to place a waste management strategy from the on-set of the emergency. Major stakeholders, such as Ministry of Health (MoH), Ministry of Works (MoW) and Waste Management Utilities (WMU) should also be included in the initial assessment phase from day one.  An initial assessment will highlight the volume of waste fractions to be dealt with, options for possible storage, transport needs, pre-treatment requirements and final disposal options. Typically, waste management options will include: ã Removing broken trees from hilly areas (toimprove access and reduce risks) Photo: Debris following Hurricane Ivan, Grenada   Example: Hurricane Ivan, Grenada Hurricane Ivan, a Category 3 system with sustainedwinds of 115mph, demolished virtually allinfrastructures in Grenada in September 2004. Assessment reports estimated around 90 % of homeshave been destroyed or damaged. Infrastructures,such as electricity, water supply and access roadswere also been severely damaged or affected. he majority of Grenada’s population of approx.100,000 people were severely affected by thehurricane. Poor and impoverished sectors, includinglow-income earners, were relocated to an estimated85+ shelters across the island. Livelihoods weredestroyed, and a large number of farmers werewithout access to their lands due to fallen trees. Thegovernment was overwhelmed by the scale of thedisaster and unable to react quickly enough to theproblems. The high quantities of debris in farmingareas, in particular fallen trees, was also a factorpreventing access to agricultural lands, thus affectingthe ability of farming communities to re-establish theirlivelihoods. OXFAM Technical Brief – Large Scale Environmental Clean up Campaigns 1  ã Demolition and debris removal to the mainroads (clearing neighbourhoods) ã Removal and treatment of the metal waste (inparticular zinc sheets) ã Removal and storage of the bulky waste factions(non metal building debris ã Removing large quantities of mud andsediments from main roads and residentialareas. ã Identification and isolation of toxic wastesources. A clearly written Terms of Reference (ToR) and the availability of experienced professionals is a pre-requisite to a successful needs assessment phase. Disposal Options Following Major Events Typically, major landfills or dumpsites will be the main destination for large quantities of waste generated by a major natural disaster. However, in many developing countries, such sites are likely to be in a precarious condition prior to the disaster. Such sites lack the capacity to be able to store, or to dispose of the waste created by a major disaster. Deploying a waste management professional early on enables the authorities to focus on the size and scale of the disaster, and to evaluate short-term solutions include setting up a number of temporary storage sites, where the various waste factions, sorted by type, can be stored on a temporary basis, pending further treatment or final disposal. Setting up Community Waste Schemes In terms of collecting bulky waste, setting-up a community-based scheme, where specific areas are cleared in a systematic way, is the most efficient solution. Individual households can be made responsible for moving bulky waste from household plots to the roadside. Rented trucks can then be used to collect this waste from the roadside. Waste should be picked up and transported in its relevant fraction. Cash-for-Work (CFW) is an effective way to pay staff for loading the debris onto the trucks, with CFW staff being selected from the area being cleared. CFW is an effective means of regenerating livelihoods activities in the wake of a major disaster. Rivers and streams, along with other key public areas should also be cleared of debris by CFW teams. Typically, the materials to be transported may include: ã Bulky construction waste (including asbestos) ã Corrugated iron roofing sheets ã Small trees/branches and other organic matter Example: Hurricane Ivan, Grenada In Grenada, several sites were identified at differentlocations on the island, including: PerseveranceEmergency Site (main landfill), Westerhill (StDavid’s), Telescope (St Andrews’s), Antoine RiverEstate (St Patrick’s), and Queen’s Park Stadium (StGeorge’s). As part of the emergency response,Oxfam assisted GRENSWMA to build suitable fencingaround both the Perseverance and the Telescopesites on their request. An operational manual, foroperating the temporary sites, was also written. Unfortunately, in spite of these operatingprocedures, the main landfill site at Perseverancestill caught fire. The slow burning fire was startedaccidentally in February 2005, due to after hoursdumping. GRENSWMA recognised their responsibilityin not ensuring adequate site supervision. Example: Hurricane Ivan, Grenada Hurricane Ivan generated a large amount of debris,needing to be dealt with; 13,760 ha of forest, 6,000ha of trees along roads and in residential areas, andsome 1.228.800 m³ of demolition waste thatneeded to be stored, disposed of or treated. Photo: A temporary storage site set up in a football stadium Photo: Roofing sheets awaiting collection in Grenada following Hurricane Ivan   OXFAM Technical Brief – Large Scale Environmental Clean up Campaigns 2  ã Mud and sediment loads (in event of flooding) ã Old furniture and damaged household items. ã Household rubbish mixed in with other wastes.These waste fractions can be accumulated in piles by the roadside, with sorting into various waste factions taking place by the side of the road. In some areas where access is difficult, debris can be collected by small trucks and then transferred to larger trucks by cranes at a central location prior to removal to a temporary storage/disposal site. Early on, it may not be possible to remove large trees, due to their bulk. In this case, more focussed WM activities will be required to tackle the tree problem. Community Mobilisation Communities can be mobilised by loudspeaker cars passing through the target areas, prior to the waste management teams going into the area. In the event of vulnerable groups being identified (elderly, disabled and women headed households), CFW teams can be instructed to assist such people by collecting the debris from directly from their properties. Permission to undertake such measures must be obtained from the beneficiaries prior to the physical removal happening. Community based activities are best coordinated by area coordinators, trained in the waste management process and with knowledge of the areas to be cleaned. CFW teams will in general be selected from the target communities, based on specific criteria. Typically, one supervisor may coordinate around 10 – 15 people. CFW teams should be rotated on a periodic basis to provide an opportunity for a number of different people to participate in the scheme. Typically, CFW teams may be employed for a maximum of two weeks in one area, before rotating to give others an opportunity. The trucks required to transport the waste can be hired from small companies and individual owners, rather than from truck rental or construction companies. Good truck drivers, and good individual workers (supervisors) can be kept on as a means of raising the quality of the operation. Strict gender criterion for the selection of CFW teams should be adhered to, with at least 50 % of the CFW team being women. Setting up a Monitoring Scheme Estimated volumes and weights of debris collected must be registered by team leaders on appropriate record sheets. These sheets should then be transmitted to the waste management engineer/coordinator. Figures can be compiled on a weekly basis and by team. Trucks discharging waste at official landfill/dumpsites should be weighed at a suitable official weighbridge, if possible. Weighbridges may be found at construction sites, government transport/customs facilities and at other bulk transport companies. This allows waste collection figures to be verified. Post Collection Treatment  Various options are available for re-using and recycling waste fractions collected from environmental clean-up campaigns. Re-use/recycling options include: ã Baling corrugated iron-roofing sheets, for saleand export to an iron smelting plant. Baling mayrequire the procurement of specialised balingmachinery. ã Building rubble (concrete) can be crushed andused for building and road foundations. Steelrebar can be recycled. Specialised crushingmachines are required to crush concrete, andcare must to be exercised to ensure rubble doesnot contain asbestos waste. ã Building rubble (burnt bricks) can be recycledfor re-use in reconstruction programmes or forre-sale to communities. Damaged bricks can beagain used as hardcore. Photo: Waste Transfer   in Grenada following Hurricane Ivan   Photo: Waste being collected using CFW, Grenada OXFAM Technical Brief – Large Scale Environmental Clean up Campaigns 3  ã Timber from buildings can be recycled and re-used for reconstruction programmes or for re-sale. ã Small tress, branches and organic materials canbe shredded into mulch and used as a soilconditioner. Mulch may have a commercialvalue. Again, specialised shredding machineswill be required. ã Large trees can be cut into timber or reduced tosmaller logs. Timber can be cured and usedcommercially, while logs can be used intraditional brick burning industries, by charcoalmanufacturers or by other energy intensiveindustries such as sugar mills. ã Old tyres can be shredded and used to stabilisedirt tracks. Specialised tyre shredding machineswill be required. Coordination with Local  Authorities Coordination with the relevant local authority waste management operator is key to the success of any intervention. Operators must not only have to deal with their core business, household waste collection and disposal, as well as dealing with large quantities of waste created by the disaster. Developing a working relationship with waste operators helps focus minds on the scale of the problem, and in identifying phased solutions. This creates a dynamic for regular coordination meetings, which not only serve as information sharing sessions for government bodies, but also as a means of attracting other agencies and donors to work in a more co-ordinated way. Land Clearance Activities: Land clearance activities are an extension of an environmental clean-up campaign, except that the activity is geared towards: ã  Assisting small farmers to access theiragricultural land; ã Providing CFW opportunities in some of themore marginalized communities.The target is to provide farmers with access to their land by cutting up fallen trees on land and on access roads leading to farming land.  As a first step, chainsaws can be distributed to community groups to allow them to open up access roads to the area. After, groups can be established in a similar way to the environmental clean up campaigns, with small groups of 5 – 10 people from the affected area. Each group should have a “local” supervisor to ensure the affected community is fully integrated into activities. In general, CFW teams will be selected directly from the target areas, with the exception of the chain saw operators, who may move from one area to the next. In general, the   chainsaw operators will have received training in both the equipments use and it’s maintenance.  Again, the role of women in WM activities will be crucial to the success of the campaigns. Opportunities to commercialise any wood cut should be investigated. Burning should be avoided wherever possible. Chipping the wood using a mobile wood-chipping machine is a more appropriate option. This protects the soil and is more effective in increasing fertility. Equipment such as chainsaws needs to be transferred between areas. Training the operators in the correct and safe use of such equipment is a pre-requisite to the safety of the programme. Example: GRENWASA, Grenada Oneother major outcome of the intervention was thecreation of a coordination body around wastemanagement. OGB created a dynamic for regularcoordination meetings, serving not only as informationsharing sessions for relevant government bodies(GRENSWMA, MoH and Ministry of Works), but alsoattracted other agencies and donors to work in a more co-ordinated way. Meetings were regular, had agenda’s andwere correctly minuted. It is interesting to note thatGRENWSMA was able to obtain funding for equipment,recommended by the assessment, from one of thedonors. The equipment obtained includes a metal balingmachine, a wood chipper and a tyre shredder Example: GRENWASA, Grenada GRENWASA is in charge of both collection and landfill siteoperation. OGB support allowed them to focus on thescale of the waste problem and to quickly restart theirnormal activities, i.e. the collection and disposal of household domestic waste. The rapid reestablishment of this service was a key factor in preventing outbreaks of vector borne diseases related to waste. OGB’s support instarting debris waste collection, temporary storage sitesand improving operational practices was one of the majoroutcomes of the intervention. OGB’s assistance, inensuring such activities happened in a timely andorganised manner, was fundamental to the success of theoverall clean-up effort. At a community level, the benefitsof such activities were given as; a rapid reduction in thehazards caused by debris; improving access to rural andperi-urban areas; re-generating livelihoods (CFW); andcontribution to the physiological well being of communitiesaffected. Many of the CFW staff “found the activities fun” and GRENSWMA was complementary about OGB’sprofessionalism. OXFAM Technical Brief – Large Scale Environmental Clean up Campaigns 4
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks