Integrating and Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in Emergencies | Hiv/Aids | Hiv

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These guidelines are meant for all Oxfam staff who may be involved in implementing a humanitarian response or who may be collaborating with partner organisations in humanitarian situations. Knowledge of HIV and AIDS is important for Public Health Promoters, Water and Sanitation Engineers, Food and Nutrition specialists and Project Co-ordinators and Managers in order to facilitate decision-making and project formulation.
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     S  eI n t r  o d  u c t i   on    c t i   on1  Table of Contents INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................3   W HO ARE THESE GUIDELINES FOR  ?.............................................................................................. 4   W HAT M ANAGERS  N EED TO D O .................................................................................................. 5   T ERMS A  ND D EFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 6   HIV AND OXFAM GB................................................................................................7   O XFAM GB S TRATEGY ................................................................................................................ 8   I MPLICATIONS FOR PROGRAMMING .............................................................................................. 9   HIV/AIDS AND THE SCO S ........................................................................................................ 10   HIV AND THE HUMANITARIAN DEPARTMENT............................................11   HIV/AIDS: W HY GET INVOLVED ?............................................................................................. 13   O XFAM ’ S A PPROACH TO H UMANITARIAN E MERGENCIES .......................................................... 15   WHAT IS HIV/AIDS?...............................................................................................17   HIV: T HE V IRUS ........................................................................................................................ 18   HIV AS A HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCY.......................................................23   O VERVIEW ................................................................................................................................. 25   T HE REGIONAL PICTURE OF AIDS.............................................................................................. 26   D ISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC ..................................................................... 28   G LOBAL AND R  EGIONAL S TATISTICS ......................................................................................... 30   HIV IN HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES........................................................31   T HE TWO - WAY RELATIONSHIP ................................................................................................... 32   O  NGOING C HALLENGES ............................................................................................................. 34   I MPACT OF THE EPIDEMIC ........................................................................................................... 41   MAINSTREAMING HIV IN EMERGENCIES.....................................................43   T HE HIV L ENS  .......................................................................................................................... 44   G UIDING PRINCIPLES .................................................................................................................. 45   H OW TO MAINSTREAM ............................................................................................................... 46   W HAT DOES A M AINSTREAMED P ROGRAMME L OOK L IKE ?....................................................... 48   O RGANISATIONAL I MPACT AND S TAFF H EALTH : M AINSTREAMING I  NTERNALLY ..................... 50   THE PROJECT CYCLE...........................................................................................51      Page 2 Humanitarian Manual E MERGENCY P REPAREDNESS ..................................................................................................... 52   Section 1 Introduction Who are these guidelines for? A SSESSMENT AND A  NALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 55   P LANNING AND O BJECTIVE S ETTING ......................................................................................... 61   M ONITORING , I MPACT A SSESSMENT AND E VALUATION ............................................................ 63   SECTOR RESPONSES.............................................................................................67   O VERVIEW ................................................................................................................................. 68   P UBLIC H EALTH P ROMOTION & E  NGINEERING  ......................................................................... 69   F OOD , N UTRITION AND L IVELIHOODS ....................................................................................... 70   M ALARIA C ONTROL P ROGRAMMES ........................................................................................... 76   INTEGRATED AIDS WORK..................................................................................79   I  NTEGRATION : P REVENTION , C ARE AND M ITIGATION ............................................................... 80   I  NTEGRATING AIDS WORK WITH P UBLIC H EALTH P ROMOTION ................................................ 82   S TIGMA R  EDUCTION .................................................................................................................. 89   W HEN W ORKING WITH Y OUNG P EOPLE  .................................................................................... 93   W HEN W ORKING WITH W OMEN AND M EN ................................................................................ 94   W HEN W ORKING WITH C OMMERCIAL S EX W ORKERS ............................................................... 95   W HEN W ORKING WITH M EN WHO HAVE S EX WITH M EN ........................................................... 96   W HEN W ORKING WITH P EOPLE WHO I  NJECT D RUGS ................................................................. 97   H OME B ASED CARE  ................................................................................................................... 98   M ONITORING AND E VALUATION OF I  NTEGRATED OR F OCUSED AIDS WORK  ............................ 99   HIV AS A SECURITY ISSUE ....................................................................................................... 102   F IRST P HASE OF E MERGENCIES ................................................................................................ 103   P REVENTION OF PTCT............................................................................................................. 104   A  NTIRETROVIRAL D RUGS ........................................................................................................ 105   B LOOD SAFETY ........................................................................................................................ 106   U  NIVERSAL P RECAUTIONS ....................................................................................................... 107   PARTNER ORGANISATIONS.............................................................................109   O VERVIEW ............................................................................................................................... 110   L ESSONS L EARNED .................................................................................................................. 112   I SSUES  ..................................................................................................................................... 113   W HO CAN WE P ARTNER  ?......................................................................................................... 116   RESOURCES AND ANNEXES.............................................................................119   G LOSSARY ............................................................................................................................... 120   B IBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................ 122   A  NNEXE 1: C ONDOM P ROCUREMENT ...................................................................................... 124   A  NNEXE 2 C HOOSING P ARTNER O RGANISATIONS ................................................................... 128       S  e c t i   on1 I n t r  o d  u c t i   on Section 1 Introduction    Page 4 Humanitarian Manual Who are these guidelines for? Section 1 Introduction Who are these guidelines for? These guidelines are meant for all Oxfam staff who may be involved in implementing a humanitarian response or who may be collaborating with partner organisations in humanitarian situations. Knowledge of HIV and AIDS is important for Public Health Promoters, Water and Sanitation Engineers, Food and Nutrition specialists and Project Co-ordinators and Managers in order to facilitate decision-making and project formulation. Programme managers can use these guidelines to help them in deciding on how best to mainstream HIV. It is assumed that the complementary Oxfam resources for project design and public health promotion (i.e. the Emergency Response Manual, the Public Health Promotion Guidelines etc) will be used in conjunction with this guideline therefore only additional information required for mainstreaming HIV/AIDS has been included. As the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS is new for Oxfam in humanitarian responses this guideline should be seen as a working document   and feedback is encouraged. No HIV/AIDS mainstreaming efforts are too small or too informal to document and share. Personal perspective can increase the value of lessons learned and make them much more useful and memorable. Oxfam is not in a position to address all aspects of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS programme but should endeavour to establish networks and partnerships with agencies to complement their own work and ensure that the wider context is being addressed. Many interventions will not be appropriate or possible during the acute stage of any crisis when chaos leads to the breakdown of the political, social and/or physical infrastructure. Where a certain degree of stability exists and/or the rehabilitation phase has commenced it will be possible to mainstream many issues throughout the project cycle.  
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