Implementation of Green Productivity Management in Airline Industry | Waste

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   N. Moharamnejad, S. Azarkamand  Implementation of green productivity management in airline industry *  N. Moharamnejad, S. Azarkamand     Department of Environmental Management, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran, Iran INTRODUCTION Access to the goals of sustainable developmentwould emphasize the necessity of carefulness inconsumption of natural resources. Thus, it is necessaryto provide and compile of bases and principles of green business, green productivity and green government inorder to economize in limited resources rationally and toretain natural resources for next generations (Pineda,2004). Therefore, this has been examined in article 66 of 4 th  5 year development plan. In association to thementioned matter, enforcing green management programin organizations for decreasing current costs and establishment of environmental management system inorganizations as green management are leading proposals that have been mentioned in Article 66 of 4 th  5year development plan but acquiring sustainabledevelopment goals requires more serious attempt. It has been noted in article 66 of 4 th  5 year development planthat all of the executive organizations and institutes and non-governmental organizations have to perform their operation in parallel to decrease public cost credits, usingoptimal consumption policies of primary resources and environmental, for enforcing green management programincluding energy consumption management, water,   Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4 (1): 151-158, 2007ISSN: 1735-1472© Winter 2007, IRSEN, CEERS, IAU Received 18 September 2006; revised 8 November 2006; accepted 25 November 2006; available online 1 January 2007 *Corresponding author, Email:  Tel/Fax: +9821 44804160 ABSTRACT: Compilation and implementation of green productivity mechanism in each governmental and non-governmental organization has several environmental, social and economic achievements.In this paper for managementof green productivity in Iran Aseman Airline Company current situation are analyzed such as the consumption of energy, water, airplanes fuel and evaluating environmental pollutants. At the end of this study some applicabletechniques for increasing the productivity and consideration of environmental aspects in this company are recommended.Maximum water consumption had been 7500 m 3 in the year 2005 during August until September, the maximum of electricity consumption was 759300 kWh in the year 2004 during July until August, the maximum of natural gasconsumption had been 83647 m 3  in the year 2004 during Feb until March , Also averages of 661500 L of fuel wereconsumed in this company’s vehicles yearly and in the last nine month of the year 2005, amount of 60263155 liters of airplane fuel has been consumed. Key words:   Green productivity, energy, aviation industry, Aseman Airline  primary materials and equipment (including paper),reducing solid waste and recycling them (in buildingsand vehicles) according to the regulations that will be provided by Department of the Environment and therelated organizations and will be approved by ministerial board. Furthermore, green government system hasemphasized an optimal economy of resources and itsdesire is toward decreasing consumptions and excessivecosts and losses in the areas related to energy conveyersconsumptions, water, paper and other materials and energy items which must be performed by organizationsand companies with regard to increasing needs of thesociety (Iran Expertise Group,2003). Along with the above mentioned matters, aviationindustry and airplane companies are one of the mostimportant consuming parts of resources and energy ineach country. Aviation is consumer of non-renewableresources and it causes local and world wide climatechanges and creates Noise pollution but has animportant and valuable share in the execution of sustainable development in all over the world (Meredith,2005), Aseman Airplane Company is also one of themost active Iranian airlines company in which, attentionto environmental subjects has been regarded alongwith other aims of company. Therefore, it is hoped that   N. Moharamnejad, S. Azarkamand  0100020003000400050006000Apr-MayJun-JulAug-SepOct- NovDec-JanFeb-Mar Month    W  a   t  e  r  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,  c  u   b   i  c  m  e   t  e  r  s 152 rendering this research would be an area of establishment of environmental management andincrement of green productivity in Aseman AirlineCompany.This paper have done in Tehran in IranAseman Airline Company from November -June, 2005. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this research, library studies, internet searchesand field study have been used for collectinginformation and collecting devices are check list andquestionnaire. In current research, firstly definitionsand generalities have been collected by means of librarian studies and internet searches and then,statistical information related to current situation of Aseman Airline company regarding to the amountof water, energy, paper and energy itemsconsumption, airplane and vehicle fuel by using of field study and performed interviews and informationrelated to environmental pollutants has beencollected by means of field visits and completingquestionnaire and information analysis has been performed by means of grouping information,checklists analysis, statistic information analysis andoutline of figures with excel software. RESULTS Water consumption Aviation industry has been one of the growingindustries during recent decades. Although, thisindustry has minimum share in water consumption, but it is necessary to inspect water consumptiontrend in this company in order to reach to the green productivity and its compilation. (Kim and Hur, 2004).In general, water is consumed for drinking, greenspace irrigation and cooling appliances in AsemanAirplane Company .Water consumption has been inascending trend from the June of 2003 and maximumwater consumption has occurred during August untilSeptember. Water consumption increase has beenin virtue of warm weather, such as drinkable water,irrigation of green space and usage of cooler andother cooling appliances. (Fig. 1) Water consumptionhas been in ascending trend from March 2004 untillast days of July and its maximum has been duringJuly. The reason for increasing consumption has been mentioned previously and the reason for intense fall of water consumption in comparison tothe year before has been import of water share fromneighborhood industries and therefore, water consumption of the company has been representedless than before (Fig. 2). the amount of water consumption has been in ascending trend duringMay of 2005 until September 2005 and after this period, has been in descending trend .Maximumconsumption has been in amount of 7500 cubicmeters during August until September and its reasonhas been increment of Air temperature (Fig. 3).Examining the checklist of water consumption inAseman Airlines shows that company has goodcondition in water consumption. Fig. 1: Amount of water consumption according to cubicmeter in Aseman Airline during 2003-2004Fig. 2: Amount of water consumption according to cubicmeter in Aseman Airline in 2004-2005 0500100015002000250030003500Apr-MayJun-JulAug-SepOct- NovDec-JanMonth    W  a   t  e  r  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,  c  u   b   i  c  m  e   t  e   N. Moharamnejad, S. Azarkamand  0100000200000300000400000500000600000700000 Mar-MayJun-JulySep-OctDec-JanFeb-Mar  Month    E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c   i   t  y  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,   K   W   h 0100020003000400050006000700080009000 May-JulJul-AugAug-SepSep-OctOct- Nov Nov-Jan Month    W  a   t  e  r  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n  m    3 153Fig. 3: Amount of water consumption according to cubicmeter in Aseman Airline in 2005-2006  Electricity consumption Central heating system is used in the most parts of this county in order to provide heating condition andsome buildings also have fan coil. Many buildings of this company are equipped with water cooler in order to provide cooling condition and fan coil in used insome buildings. Fig. 4 shows electricity consumptiontrend in Aseman Airline. This figure has two peaks.First peak shows the maximum electricity consumptionin 2003 which is related to the months from July untilSeptember and amount of electricity consumption has been 619600 kWh during this period. Main reason of this consumption has increase of electricityconsumption during warm weather and usage of cooling appliances such as chiller and cooler. Second peak has been on January in 2004. Amount of electricityconsumption has been 5536000 kWh in this month.Main reason is the usage of heating electricityconsumption has increased about 580000 kWh in 2004 but figure of consumption shows a Procedure like theyear 2003 and peak of consumption has been 759300kWh during July until August (Fig. 5). Regarding Fig.6, the maximum electricity consumption has been 622400kWh during July until August of 2005 that is result of using cooling appliances. Second peak in this year has been 330400 kWh during December of the year 2005until January of the year 2006 that is because of usingcooling appliances. But, altogether, the amount of consumption has decreased in comparison with years before. Inspecting checklists also shows that amongsum of 23 questions” 15 questions have been about Fig. 4: Amount of electricity consumption according tokWh in Aseman Airline in 2003-2004Fig. 5: Amount of electricity consumption according tokWh in Aseman Airline in 2004-2005 0100000200000300000400000500000600000700000800000 Mar-Apr May-JunJul-AugSep-Oct Nov-DecJan-Feb Month    E   l  e  c  r   i  c   i   t  y  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,   K   W   h Fig. 6: Amount of electricity consumption according tokWh in Aseman Airline in 2005-2006 0100000200000300000400000500000600000700000 Apr-MayJun-JulAug-SepOct- NovDec-JanFeb-Mar  Month    E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c   i   t  y  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,   K   W   h    Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4 (1): 151-158, 2007  1 * 10 3 2 * 10 3 3 * 10 3 4 * 10 3 5 * 10 3 6 * 10 3 7 * 10 3 8 * 10 3 9 * 10 3 1 * 10 5 2 * 10 5 3 * 10 5 4 * 10 5 5 * 10 5 6 * 10 5 7 * 10 5 8 * 10 5 1 * 10 5 2 * 10 5 3 * 10 5 4 * 10 5 5 * 10 5 6 * 10 5 7 * 10 5 1 * 10 5 2 * 10 5 3 * 10 5 4 * 10 5 5 * 10 5 6 * 10 5 7 * 10 5    E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c   i   t  y  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,   K   W   h   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c   i   t  y  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,   K   W   h   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c   i   t  y  c  o  n  s  u  m  p   t   i  o  n ,   K   W   h May-JulJul-AugSep-Oct   N. Moharamnejad, S. Azarkamand  correct way of electricity consumption and therefore,65 percentage results of measurement shows that thiscompany has suitable situation in terms of energyconsumption, But, according to negative responsesand rendering necessary arrangements, companycondition may be promoted to the best level of  productivity, and hope to shift reducing electricalenergy consumption.  Natural gas consumption According to Fig. 7, it is observed that natural gasconsumption has been in descending trend duringSeptember until February so that peak of consumptionhas occurred during December until January andamount of this consumption is 63490 cubic metersduring this period. The reason for ascending of naturalgas consumption in September may be using Just for cooking in and some subsidiary works during Apriluntil October but since October, heating devices alsouse gas and therefore, natural gas consumption would be in ascending trend in comparison with months before. Fig. 8 Shows natural gas consumption trend of Aseman Airline in the year 2004.This Fig. has descending trend from beginning of the year until the last days of September and then,from September until the end of the year has been inascending trend and peak of consumption has occurredfrom February until March and this peak point has been83647 cubic meters which shows increment of 72902cubic meters in comparison with the year 2003. Fig. 9shows natural gas consumption trend of AsemanAirline in the year 2005 and according to this figure,amount of consumption has been 75884 cubic metersduring months of December until January. Paper consumption and other materials and energyitems Paper is the most important materials, because primary materials of paper namely trees are of theimportant resources of Ecological element in the earth.We should consider that reusing of discarded papersmay be one of the most important and common issuesof recycling aspects. In other words, it may beemphasized that by reusing of paper and its restoration,114 trees may be retained in lieu of each metric ton of  paper. (Iran expertise group, 2003), 70 packages of handtissue and toilet tissue are consumed daily in AsemanAirline that price of each package of hand tissue 0.27dollar and price of each package of toilet hand tissue is0.43 dollar. In general, the cost of buying hand tissuein each month is 15000 dollar in this company. Toconsider every mount the consumption of A4 printing paper is 2000 packages, each package including 500sheets in the size of A4, the price of each package is 4.3dollar which means 8800 dollar monthly. According toabove mentioned calculations, it is observed that highcosts are allocated to buying paper and paper tissue.Deployment of simple procedures can reduce thisamount and increase Company’s productivity.E-Solid wastes:Different kinds of waste have been always a problemin different societies and still, this problem exists inmany areas (Omrani , 1995).According to increasing growth of aviation industry,management of solid waste is an important element inenvironmental management of airlines. Significant partof solid waste of aviation industry is the producedsolid waste in each flight that its amount has beenestimated 500 kilogram for each flight. Large quantityof these materials is related to paper which is newspaper and food menu significantly and is amounted to 32 percent till 71 percent of total solid wastes in thiscompany (Li, et al. , 2003).The srcin of waste generation is divided into two parts:1)General solid waste produced in different parts of the company.2)Returned solid excessive materials from airplane.Aseman Airline has a contract with municipality andon the basis of this contract, Aseman Airline collectsnon recyclable waste such as food waste andaccumulates them in a designate place and then,municipality collects garbage from this place.Recyclable garbage has been collected by a companywhich operates in supervision of Aseman Airline. Fuel consumption for transportation About three forth of Tehran city’s air pollution is because of transportation and according to statisticsin the year 2003, transportation has consumed morethan 56; million liter of gasoline. In spite of thisconsumption, maximum produced power at internalrefineries is less than 40 million liter daily, in other word because of irrational consumption of fuel in country,more than 16 million liters of gasoline is imported dailyand its costs srcinate from national incomes. (GreenGovernment Informative Magazine, 2005), It has beenconsumed an average of 661500 L of fuel during theAmount of fuel consumption has been increased    Implementation of green productivity management in ... 154
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