Humanitarian Brochure: A summary of Oxfam's expertise in emergencies | Sanitation

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Oxfam is one of the world’s leading providers of humanitarian aid in emergencies, with well-recognised expertise in several fields. These are clean water, sanitation, public health, food security, and the protection of civilians, with a strong reputation for scale, speed, and innovation. Oxfam responds directly wherever there is a widespread threat to life, health, and livelihoods which is beyond people’s capacity to cope. This brochure summarises what we do and how we collaborate with others to deliver successful emergency response programmes all over the world.
  INNOVATION. COLLABORATION. DELIVERY. Oxfam’s Humanitarian Work  If people are to survive disasters and recover from them, it is vital that they have access to sufficient food, and that they have the resources (income and other assets) to rebuild their livelihoods to ensure their future wellbeing .The importance of markets Markets are the lifeline of most of the world’s people, and responses must be based on a good understanding of key markets or they risk undermining livelihoods in the longer term. Market analysis is a critical part of Oxfam’s emergency response. Understanding the key constraints (environmental, legal or logistical) and opportunities in those markets allows us to determine which range of response options will strengthen market systems for the future. Oxfam has also played a key role in the wider sector through its work developing tools for market support in emergencies. Oxfam’s approach is fundamentally market-based, delivering immediate aid through market structures, while supporting and strengthening markets more generally, assisting the development of enterprise or financial services, or rehabilitating infrastructure. The options available range from cash transfers to in-kind responses such as food aid, and from agricultural support to social protection, depending on the context. Over the last few years, market based interventions have become one of Oxfam’s most widely-used response mechanisms, often in the form of cash transfers. Through these market-based programmes, Oxfam seeks to increase the resilience of vulnerable people and the markets they depend upon. Oxfam works closely with traders and other market actors in an aim to strengthen local economies and ensure responses are more sustainable. In addition to directly implementing programmes, Oxfam uses its experience and analysis to advocate for appropriate and timely responses which contribute to economic recovery, and to influence key humanitarian actors to ensure long-term solutions to food crises. Emergency Food Security and Livelihoods Food SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS ‘Food security’ exists when all people at all times have access to food of a sufficient quality and quantity for a healthy and active life. A ‘livelihood’ refers to the capabilities, assets and strategies that people use to make a living. Food aid and ‘doing no harm’ Food aid programmes can be of immediate benefit in preventing life-threatening malnutrition. However, food crises often happen not because there is insufficient food available but because the most vulnerable people cannot access it. If by giving food aid we undermine an existing local economy, we could do more harm than good. Other interventions – cash or voucher distributions, supporting agricultural production, or long-term payments to vulnerable people – may be more appropriate and effective. Through its emergency food security and livelihoods work, Oxfam aims to meet people’s immediate food and survival needs, contribute to the longer-term economic recovery of affected people and increase their resilience to future shocks. MR DAHLANI RECEIVED AN OXFAM GRANT FOR HIS SWEET SHOP, FOLLOWING THE TSUNAMI IN ACEH, INDONESIA. PHOTO: JIM HOLMES  Cash transfer and market-based programmes The vast majority of economies are now cash-based; people receive an income, buy their goods, and invest in their future. Giving cash gives greater choice to households, along with dignity, empowerment, flexibility and improved support to economic recovery. When markets are functioning, cash-based responses can help stimulate markets and improve people’s chances of recovering their livelihoods.Oxfam is one of the leading organisations in emergency cash and voucher transfer programming, and a founding member of the Cash and Learning Partnership (CaLP) which is building momentum among key actors across several humanitarian sectors that are beginning to recognise the benefits of market-based programmes, including cash transfer programming. Emergency Market Mapping Analysis The Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) toolkit, developed by Oxfam and the International Rescue Committee (IRC), has been designed to provide a rapid and realistic analysis in sudden-onset crises. The EMMA combines gap analysis (people’s outstanding needs) and market system analysis (e.g. supply chains, infrastructure, supporting services, and prevailing environment) to offer a comprehensive understanding of the constraints and capacity of existing market systems. An EMMA helps agencies take into account which areas of the market need support, leading to interventions that can strengthen the market systems in the longer term. Since 2010, EMMAs have helped to design responses in countries and crises as diverse as Haiti (earthquake), Pakistan (floods), Kyrgyzstan (civil unrest) and Liberia (influx of refugees). Based on their success, EMMAs are now being used to help design more effective water and shelter programmes as well. CASE STUDY: Kenya urban cash transfers The rise in global food prices in 2008 hugely increased the cost of staple food items in Kenya. Poor urban households were worst affected, dependent on purchased food to meet their needs. Oxfam’s assessments found that poor households in slums in Nairobi were adopting high-risk strategies to survive (e.g. sex work, crime, sending children to work). A two-year safety net programme was developed to provide relief from high prices and to persuade the government of the need for social protection for the urban poor. Initially, 5,000 households received cash monthly for eight months. The programme was designed by Oxfam in collaboration with the government, using the existing M-PESA mobile phone money transfer service (used to deliver pensions). This system, which relies on SIM cards and M-PESA agents, allowed for safe and convenient transfers in the insecure slum environment. In following phases, cash-for-work activities were introduced as well as skills training. At the end of the first phase, around 3,400 households were able to save enough from the transfers to invest in starting a new business or diversifying their existing business, and voluntarily agreed to move out of the programme. Following the success of this programme, the Kenyan government has developed a similar social protection programme in Mombasa, another urban area with vulnerable populations in informal settlements, using the same model. Oxfam is leading on a number of innovative programmes using new technology, such as mobile phones and smart cards, to transfer cash payments (Kenya, Somalia, Niger, Pakistan and Haiti).In some cases, the market analysis shows that other programme options are more appropriate than cash, or, as is most often the case, that a combination of cash and in-kind interventions would be most effective. Some of Oxfam’s other programme activities are: Food aid programmes. When food is unavailable and markets are not functioning, a general food aid distribution can save lives. Agricultural and livestock programmes. These include seeds, tools, or fodder distributions, de-stocking and re-stocking of livestock, provision of animal care, agricultural extension services, or business skills training. Social protection. In places affected by recurring crises, vulnerable populations can become poorer and poorer year after year as repeated disasters erode their assets and coping mechanisms. Social protection refers to initiatives that aim to protect people from the effects of chronic poverty or sudden shocks – these initiatives are primarily the responsibility of the state. But in countries where the government is fragile, organisations like Oxfam can step in with ‘safety nets’, providing regular transfers of cash, food or other resources. Other forms of social protection can include insurance (working with private sector partners) and advocacy for policy and legislation to ensure that social protection is seen as a right. MARKET IN BAYT AL-FAQIH, YEMEN. PHOTO: CAROLINE GLUCK  Oxfam’s protection work aims to improve the safety of civilians in the face of the threats that commonly occur in the chaos of war and disaster, such as targeted killings, rape and other sexual violence, torture, forced labour, forced recruitment into armed groups, illegal detentions, destruction of civilian homes and crops, and extortion or demands for ‘protection money’.In such situations it is the state that has the primary responsibility to protect people falling under its jurisdiction. Some governments strive to meet these protection obligations in good faith. However, others choose to offer protection selectively or not at all, or even become the primary perpetrators, deliberately sponsoring violence, coercing sections of the population, and depriving people of their basic rights. A number of international actors, such as the Red Cross and some UN agencies, have formal mandates in protection and their work is complemented by non-governmental organisations such as Oxfam. Oxfam’s protection approach draws on its vast experience in community-based work to develop very practical and tangible actions that reduce people’s vulnerability to violence and abuse, and helps them cope with its impact when it does occur. This is Protection: Improving the safety of civilians in conflict and disasters In conflict and disasters people have a wide range of urgent needs including basic necessities such as clean water, food and shelter, but also safety from the violence and abuse that can flourish in such situations. Case study: Evacuation Centre Management, Philippines Typhoon Ketsana, Sept 2009 Drawing on its experience in conflict sones, Oxfam set up 29 community-based Quick Response Teams to provide a forum for displaced people in the aftermath of Typhoon Ketsana. These teams facilitated dialogue between vulnerable people (women in particular) and local government officials, identifying issues and negotiating for their attention and resolution. In several villages these teams drafted ‘People’s Plans’ which identified options for the relocation of communities from high-risk areas.They were also able to influence local government units on a range of issues, including extending the stay of evacuees in temporary relocation sites, preventing the closure of evacuation sites, identification of alternative relocation sites, and distribution of shelter repair materials. PEOPLE WADE THROUGH FLOODWATERS CARRYING HYGIENE KITS DISTRIBUTED BY OXFAM IN ANGONO, PHILIPPINES. THE KITS INCLUDE ITEMS SUCH AS SLEEPING MATS, SOAP AND SANITARY TOWELS AS WELL AS JERRY CANS FOR COLLECTING AND STORING WATER. PHOTO: JERRY CARREON
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