Hr Ch 1 and 2 Suggested Readings

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human rights law cases
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  SIMON, JR. vs COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS G.R. No. 100150, January 5, 1994 FACTS: On July 23, 1990, the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) issued and order, directing the petitioners   todesist   !rom demolishing the stalls and shanties at orth #$%& pending the resolution o! the 'endorssuatters complaint *e!ore the Commission and ordering said petitioners to appear *e!ore the CHR+On %eptem*er 10, 1990, petitioner !iled a motion to dismiss uestioning CHRs -urisdiction and supplemental motion to dismiss .as !iled on %eptem*er 1/, 1990 stating that Commissioners authority should *e understood as *eing con!ined only to the investigation  o! 'iolations o! ci'il and political rights, and that the rights allegedly 'iolated in this case .ere not ci'il and political rights, *ut their pri'ilege to engage in *usiness+On arch 1, 1991, the CHR issued and Order denying petitioners motion and supplemental motion to dismiss+ &nd petitioners motion !or reconsideration .as denied also in an Order, dated &pril 2, 1991+he etitioner !iled a a petition !or prohi*ition, praying !or a restraining order and preliminary in-unction+ etitioner also prayed to prohi*it CHR !rom !urther hearing and in'estigating CHR Case o+ 9041/0, entitled 5erno, et+al 's+ 6uimpo, et+al+ ISSUE: 7s the issuance o! an order to desist    .ithin the e8tent o! the authority and po.er o! the CRH HELD: o, the issuance o! an order to desist is not .ithin the e8tent o! authority and po.er o! the CHR+ &rticle  :777, %ection 1/(1), pro'ides the po.er and !unctions o! the CHR to   investigate , on its o.n or on complaint *y any part, all !orms o! human rights 'iolation, in'ol'ing ci'il and political rights+he order to desist ho.e'er is not in'estigatory in character *ut an ad-udicati'e po.er that the it does not possess+ he Constitutional pro'ision directing the CHR to pro'ide !or pre'enti'e measures and legal aid ser'ices to the underpri'ileged .hose human rights ha'e *een 'iolated or need protection may not *econstrued to con!er -urisdiction on the Commission to issue an restraining order or .rit o! in-unction, !or it .ere the intention, the Constitution .ould ha'e e8pressly said so+ ot *eing a court o! -ustice, the CHR itsel! has no -urisdiction to issue the .rit, !or a .rit o! preliminary in-unction may only *e issued *y the Judge in any court in .hich the action is pending or *y a Justice o! the C& or o! the %C+he .rit prayed !or the petition is granted+ he CHR is here*y prohi*ited !rom !urther proceeding .ith CHR Case o+ 9041/0+  DOMINADOR C. BALDOZA, complainant,vs.HON. JUDGE RODOLFO B. DIMAANO, !spon !nt.J. Antonio FACTS M#nicipal $!c!ta% o& 'aal, Batan(as, c)a(!s M#nicipal J# (! Ro ol&o B. Dimaano, o& t)! sam! m#nicipalit%,*it) a+#s! o& a#t)oit% in !&#sin( to allo* !mplo%!!s o& t)! M#nicipal Ma%o to !amin! t)! ciminal oc-!t!co s o& t)! M#nicipal Co#t to s!c#! ata in conn!ction *it) t)!i cont!mplat! !pot on t)! p!ac! an o ! con itions o& t)! sai m#nicipalit%. R!spon !nt stat! t)at/t)!! )as n!v! +!!n an int!ntion to !&#s! acc!ss to o&&icial co#t !co s0 1alt)o#() co#t !co s a! amon( p#+lic oc#m!nts op!n to insp!ction not onl% +% t)! pati!s i!ctl%involv! +#t also +% ot)! p!sons *)o )av! l!(itimat! int!!st to s#c) insp!ction, %!t t)! sam! is al*a%ss#+2!ct to !asona+l! !(#lation as to *)o, *)!n, *)!! an )o* t)!% ma% +! insp!ct! . 3a co#t )as #n4#!stiona+l% t)! po*! to p!v!nt an impop! #s! o insp!ction o& its !co s an t)!&#nis)in( o& copi!s t)!!&om ma% +! !&#s! *)!! t)! p!son !4#!stin( is not motivat! +% a s!io#san l!(itimat! int!!st +#t acts o#t o& *)im o &anc% o m!! c#iosit% o to (ati&% pivat! spit! o to pomot! p#+lic scan al.R!stictions a! impos! +% t)! Co#t &o &!a o& an a+#s! in t)! !!cis! o& t)! i()t. Fo &!a t)at t)! it% )an s o&  patisan politics mi()t a(ain +! at pla%, $om! o& t)! cas!s &il! an !ci ! +% t)! Co#t a&t! t)! !claation o& Matial La* an %!as a&t! t)! !l!ction still +o! t)! sti(ma o& patisan politics as s)o*n in t)! a&&i avits an t!stimoni!s o& *itn!ss!s.5it)o#t castin( asp!sion on an% patic#la in ivi #al, it is *ot) m!ntionin(, t)at t)! pa loc-s o& t)! oo o& t)!Co#t )as !c!ntl% +!!n tamp!! +% ins!tin( pap!s an matc)stic-s.Un ! t)! cic#mstanc!s, to allo* an in isciminat! an #nlimit! !!cis! o& t)! i()t to &!! acc!ss, mi()t omo! )am t)an (oo to t)! citi6!n% o& 'aal. Diso ! an c)aos mi()t !s#lt !&!atin( t)! v!% !ss!nc! o& t)!i !4#!st. ')! #n !si(n! is 2#st as int!!st! as M. Bal o6a in t)! *!l&a! o& t)! comm#nit% an t)! p!s!vation o& o# !mocatic pincipl!s.B! t)at as it ma%, a !4#!st o& t)is ma(nit# ! cannot +! imm! iat!l% (ant! *it)o#t a !4#at! !li+!ation an #pona vis!m!nt, !sp!ciall% so in t)is cas! *)!! t)! #n !si(n! o#+ts t)! popi!t% o& s#c) !4#!st.')! cas! *as t)!!#pon !&!! to J# (! Fancisco Mat. Rio i4#! &o inv!sti(ation an !pot. At t)! p!limina% )!ain( 'aal Ma%o Coa6on A. Cani6a &il! a motion to ismiss t)! complaint to p!s!v! )amon% an 7coop!ation amon( o&&ic!s in t)! sam! m#nicipalit%. ')is motion *as !ni! +% t)! Inv!sti(atin( J# (!, +#t a&t! &omal inv!sti(ation, )! !comm!n ! t)! !on!ation o& !spon !nt.8!tin!nt potion o& )is !pot !a s as &ollo*s  9 9 9 5)!n t)is cas! *as )!a , complainant Domina o Bal o6a in&om! t)! Co#t t)at )! is a*a! o& t)! motionto ismiss &il! +% Ma%o Coa6on A. Cani6a an t)at )! is in con&omit% *it) t)! ismissal o& t)! a ministativ!c)a(! a(ainst J# (! Ro ol&o Dimaano. ')! Co#t as-! )im i& )! co#l pov! )is cas! an )! sai )! can. $o, t)!Co#t !ni! )is oal motion to ismiss an !4#i! )im to p!s!nt )is !vi !nc!. Complainant onl% mani&!st! tot)! Co#t t)at )! )as no oal !vi !nc!. ')! onl% !vi !nc! )! )as a! t)! !c)an(! comm#nication *)ic) *!! allin *itin( an attac)! to t)! !co +!t*!!n )im an t)! !spon !nt. ')! Co#t as-! t)! !spon !nt *)at )! )asto sa% on t)! oc#m!nta% !vi !nc! o& t)! complainant. H! mani&!st! t)at all )is ans*!s to t)! complaint a! all!m+o i! in )is ans*!s &il! *it) t)! Co#t.A ca!&#l p!#sal, sc#tin%, an st# % o& t)! comm#nications +!t*!!n t)! complainant an t)! !spon !nt, to(!t)! *it) t)! ans*!s &il! +% t)! latt!, !v!al t)at t)!! is no s)o*in( o& a+#s! o& a#t)oit% on t)! pat o& t)!!spon !nt. ')! !spon !nt allo*! t)! complainant to op!n an vi!* t)! oc-!t +oo-s o& t)! !spon !nt #n ! c!tain con itions an #n ! )is contol an s#p!vision. Complainant a mitt! t)at )! *as a*a! o& t)! #l!s an con itions impos! +% t)! !spon !nt *)!n )! *!nt to )is o&&ic! to vi!* )is oc-!t +oo-s &o t)! p#pos!m!ntion! in )is comm#nication. H! also a(!! t)at )! is am!na+l! to s#c) #l!s an con itions *)ic) t)!!spon !nt ma% impos!. Un ! t)!s! con itions, t)!!&o!, t)! Co#t &in s t)at t)! !spon !nt )as not committ! an% a+#s! o& a#t)oit%.I$$UE 5ON !spon !nt act! a+itail% in t)! p!mis!sHELD Case dismissed. 5! &in t)at t)! !spon !nt i not act a+itail% in t)! p!mis!s. As &o#n +% t)! Inv!sti(atin( J# (!, t)! !spon !nt allo*! t)! complainant to op!n an vi!* t)! oc-!t +oo-s o& !spon !nt c!tain con itions an #n ! )is contol an s#p!vision. it )as not +!!n s)o*n t)at t)! #l!s an con itions impos! +% t)! !spon !nt *!! #n!asona+l!. Un o#+t! l% in a !mocac%, t)! p#+lic )as a l!(itimat! int!!st in matt!s o& social an political si(ni&icanc!. In an !ali! cas!, /  t)is Co#t )!l t)at man am#s *o#l li! to comp!l t)! $!c!ta% o& J#stic! an t)! R!(ist! o& D!! s to !amin! t)! !co s o& t)! latt! o&&ic!. 8! icatin( t)! i()t to !amin! t)! !co s on stat#to% povisions, an to a c!tain !(!! +% (!n!al pincipl!s o& !mocatic instit#tions, t)is Co#t stat! t)at *)il! t)! R!(ist! o& D!! s )as isc!tion to !!cis! as to t)! mann! in *)ic) p!sons !siin( to insp!ct, !amin!o cop% t)! !co s in )is o&&ic! ma% !!cis! t)!i i()ts, s#c) po*! o!s not ca% *it) it a#t)oit% to po)i+it.Citin( *it) appoval 8!opl! ! !l. 'itl! G#aant!! : '. Co. vs. Raill%, 1  t)is Co#t sai ')! s#+2!ct is n!c!ssail% committ! , to a (!at !(!!, ;to )is 7!(ist! o& !! s;< isc!tion as to )o* m#c) o& t)!conv!ni!nc!s o& t)! o&&ic! a! !4#i! to +! p!s!v! &o t)! accomo ation o& t)!s! p!sons. It is not )is #t% to p!mit t)! o&&ic! to +! t)on(! n!! l!ssl% *it) p!sons !aminin( its +oo-s o& pap!s, +#t it is )is #t% to !(#lat!,(ov!n, an contol )is o&&ic! in s#c) a mann! as to p!mit t)! stat#to% a vanta(!s to +! !n2o%! +% ot)! p!sonsnot !mplo%! +% )im as la(!l% an !t!nsi+l% as t)at consist!ntl% can +! on! 9 9 9. 5)at t)! la* !p!cts an !4#i!s &om )im is t)! !!cis! o& an #n+ias! an impatial 2# (m!nt, +% *)ic) all p!sons !sotin( to t)! o&&ic!,#n ! l!(al a#t)oit%, an con #ctin( t)!ms!lv!s in an o !l% mann!, s)all +! s!c#! t)!i la*&#l i()ts an  pivil!(!s, an t)at a copoation &om! in t)! mann! in *)ic) t)! !lato )as +!!n, s)all +! p!mitt! to o+tain allt)! in&omation !it)! +% s!ac)!s, a+stacts, o copi!s, t)at t)! la* )as !ntitl! it to o+tain.Ec!pt, p!)aps, *)!n it is cl!a t)at t)! p#pos! o& t)! !amination is #nla*&#l, o s)!!, I l! c#iosit%, *! o not +!li!v! it is t)! #t% #n ! t)! la* o& !(istation o&&ic!s to conc!n t)!ms!lv!s *it) t)! motiv!s, !asons, an o+2!cts o& t)! p!son s!!-in( acc!ss to t)! !co s. It is not t)!i p!o(ativ! to s!! t)at t)! in&omation *)ic) t)!!co s contain is not &la#nt! +!&o! p#+lic (a6!, o t)at scan al is not ma ! o& it. I& it +! *on( to p#+lis) t)!cont!nts o& t)! !co s, it is t)! l!(islat#! an not t)! o&&icials )avin( c#sto % t)!!o& *)ic) is call! #pon to !vis! a !m! %. As to t)! moal o mat!ial in2#% *)ic) t)! p#+lication mi()t in&lict on ot)! pati!s, t)at is t)! p#+lis)!;s !sponsi+ilit% an loo-o#t. ')! p#+lication is ma ! s#+2!ct to t)! cons!4#!nc!s o& t)! la*.  ')! conc#in( opinion o& J#stic! Bion!s p! icat! s#c) i()t not on stat#to% (o#n s m!!l% +#t on t)! constit#tional i()t o& t)! p!ss to )av! acc!ss to in&omation as t)! !ss!nc! o& p!ss &!! om.')! N!* Constit#tion no* !p!ssl% !co(ni6!s t)at t)! p!opl! a! !ntitl! to in&omation on matt!s o& p#+lic conc!n an t)#s a! !p!ssl% (ant! acc!ss to o&&icial !co s, as *!ll as oc#m!nts o& o&&icial acts, o tansactions, o !cisions, s#+2!ct to s#c) limitations impos! +% la*. =  ')! incopoation o& t)is i()t in t)! Constit#tion is a !co(nition o& t)! &#n am!ntal ol! o& &!! !c)an(! o& in&omation in a !mocac%. ')!! can +! no !alistic p!c!ption +% t)! p#+lic o& t)! nation;s po+l!ms, no a m!anin(&#l !mocatic !cision ma-in( i& t)!% a! !ni! acc!ss to in&omation o& (!n!al int!!st. In&omation is n!! ! to !na+l! t)! m!m+!s o& soci!t% to cop! *it) t)! !i(!nci!s o& t)! tim!s. As )as +!!n aptl% o+s!v!  >Maintainin( t)! &lo* o& s#c) in&omation !p!n s on  pot!ction &o +ot) its ac4#isition an its iss!mination sinc!, i& !it)! poc!ss is int!#pt! , t)! &lo* in!vita+l% c!as!s. > ?  Ho*!v!, !stictions on acc!ss to c!tain !co s ma% +! impos! +% la*. ')#s, acc!ss !stictions impos! to contol civil ins#!ction )av! +!!n p!mitt! #pon a s)o*in( o& imm! iat! an imp!n in( an(! t)at !n !s o ina% m!ans o& contol ina !4#at! to maintain o !.
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