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As the international community mobilizes in response to global climatic changes, climate funds must ensure the equitable and effective allocation of funds for the world’s most vulnerable populations. Women and girls, who bear a disproportionate burden of negative climatic change impacts in developing countries, have largely been excluded from climate change finance policies and programmes. Women and girls must not only be included in adaptive and mitigative activities, but also recognized as agents of change who are essential to the success of climate change interventions. This report draws on research findings that climate financing funds have systematically neglected gender issues and failed to incorporate a gender perspective into programs and projects. It was prepared by Gender Action at the request of the Women’s Environment and Development Organization and Oxfam to look at practices that could work for women in climate change financing. The report contains case studies of two non-climate funds, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance). These offer valuable lessons for gender integration in global finance mechanisms. Case studies of the two climate funds, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Adaptation Fund (AF), provide insight into specific challenges and opportunities related to gender integration in climate change finance.
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  Research Report GOVERNING CLIMATE FUNDS WHAT WILL WORK FOR WOMEN? Elizabeth Arend and Sonia Lowman Gender Action September 2011  As the international community mobilizes in response to global climatic changes, climate funds must ensure the equitable and effective allocation of funds for the world’s most vulnerable populations. Women and girls, disproportionately vulnerable to negative climate change impacts in developing countries, have largely been excluded from climate change finance policies and programmes. This report examines four funds –climate funds and non-climate funds, to draw out the lessons for gender integration in global finance mechanisms. Women and girls must not only be included in adaptive and mitigative activities, but also recognized as agents of change who are essential to the success of climate change interventions. w    Governing Climate Funds: What will work for women? Gender Action, WEDO, Oxfam, September 2011 2 CONTENTS Introduction  3   The case for gender inclusion in climate finance  3   Gender integration in global non-climate finance mechanisms  5   Gender integration in global climate finance mechanisms  10   Lessons learned  18   Recommendations  22   References  24    Annex 1: Major climate finance mechanisms  Annex II: the Global Fund’s strategy for ensuring gender equality in the response to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria  28    Annex III: the GAVI Alliance gender policy towards gender equality in immunization and related health services  36    Annex IV:GEF policy on gender mainstreaming  40   Notes  43    Acknowledgements  43      Governing Climate Funds: What will work for women? Gender Action, WEDO, Oxfam, September 2011 3 INTRODUCTION  As the international community mobilizes in response to global climatic changes, climate funds must ensure the equitable and effective allocation of funds for the world’s most vulnerable populations. Women and girls, who bear a disproportionate burden of negative climatic changes in developing countries, have largely been excluded from climate change finance policies and programs. An empirical gender perspective must be applied to climate change financing in order to ensure that women and girls are not only included in adaptive and mitigative activities, but are also recognized as agents of change who are essential to the success of climate change interventions. Gender Action (GA) prepared this report at the request of the Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) and Oxfam in order to ascertain practices that could ‘work for women’ in climate change financing. GA conducted interviews and desk research to examine the extent to which two non-climate funds and two climate funds integrate gender issues into their policies and investments. 1 THE CASE FOR GENDER INCLUSION IN CLIMATE FINANCE Case studies of the two non-climate funds, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (Global Fund) and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance), offer valuable lessons for gender integration in global finance mechanisms. Case studies of the two climate funds, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Adaptation Fund (AF), provide insight into specific challenges and opportunities related to gender integration in climate change finance. While the latter present promising examples of gender integration in GEF and AF funded projects, Annex I demonstrates that climate finance funds on the whole still have a long way to go in order to achieve meaningful gender integration in their policies and programs. The best practices and lessons learned provide a valuable blueprint for other climate funds. The disproportionately negative impacts of climate change on women and women’s critical role in mitigating and adapting to climate change have been well documented (WEDO, 2007; Somera, 2009; UN, 2009; Sasvari, 2010; UNDP, 2011). Climate change adaptation and mitigation are not gender neutral (WEDO, 2008a). Rather, gender inequalities ‘impact how people experience climate change, their abilities to cope with its impacts and their potential to influence decision making’ (Sasvari, 2010). These inequalities, combined with social, economic and political factors, make women more vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change. The consequences are severe: UNIFEM reports, for example, that ‘the proportion of women affected by climate-related crop changes [in Africa] could range from 73 percent in the Congo to 48 percent in Burkina Faso’ (UN Women, 2011).  Although several multilateral declarations have underscored the importance of gender integration in climate financing, 2   climate financing funds have systematically neglected gender issues and failed to incorporate a gender perspective into programs and projects (Schalatek, 2009a). Existing global climate funds assume that  climate change interventions will (a) succeed without specific efforts to include women and (b) automatically benefit women. This approach undervalues gender mainstreaming, rather than recognizing it as something essential for adequately addressing climate change. It also neglects the importance of collecting baseline sex-disaggregated data that would permit project design to incorporate the differential climate change activity needs and priorities of women and men. The climate sector tends to view women as passive victims of climate change, rather than effective agents of change (UN, 2009), ignoring women’s extensive knowledge and expertise with regard to climate change mitigation and    Governing Climate Funds: What will work for women? Gender Action, WEDO, Oxfam, September 2011 4 adaptation strategies (UN, 2009; UNDP, 2011). If climate funds acknowledge gender at all, they tend to link gender to ‘vulnerability’ and community-based adaptation activities, instead of addressing gender as critical dimensions of both mitigation and adaptation. Women’s marginalization in climate finance reflects a ‘systemic problem’ within governments and societies  that routinely ignore issues of gender justice (WEDO, 2007).  As a result, women have insufficient access to funds to cover weather-related losses and support technologies for climate adaptation and mitigation (UN, 2009).   For example, WEDO’s examination of climate change impacts on Bangladeshi women found that their vulnerability arose from multiple factors, including limited access to early warning information, critical services, and facilities (i.e. shelters with adequate spaces for women and proper sanitation). Women also lacked access to financial security, decision-making platforms, and relief goods. Social expectations of women’s ‘appropriateness’ and physical constraints on women’s mobility further exacerbated their vulnerability to the negative impacts of climate change (WEDO, 2008b). GA’s 2009 report, ‘Doubling the Damage’ further demonstrates the consequences of ignoring gender justice in climate finance. The report reveals how the World Bank’s Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) framework fails to address critical gender issues and actually reinforces gender insensitive policies and practices (GA, 2009). This undermines the World Bank’s own commitment to promoting environmentally sound investments and upholding gender equality in climate finance. In its 2010 Strategic Environmental, Social and Gender Assessment, CIF finally acknowledged the potential to address ‘gender co-benefits’ in the planning of its investments (CIF, 2011), yet it has not taken concrete steps to realize this potential. For example, the CIF claims that households’ shift from biomass fuel use to cleaner energy ‘has a direct impact on women and children’s health, as well as women’s time [and] productivity’ (CIF, 2010). However, a WEDO case-study in Senegal demonstrates how women lack access to cleaner technologies, despite   government programs that introduced butane as an alternative to traditional biomass fuels such as wood and charcoal. WEDO found that rural women are still dependent on traditional fuels, and due to increasing deforestation, they are also forced to rely on non-conventional fuels (cow dung, plastics, crop residue) that present significant health hazards. Had women been involved in the design and implementation of the government’s plan to introduce butane, the issue of women’s access to fuel could have been addressed (WEDO, 2008b).  As women and men have ‘different adaptive and mitigative capabilities,’ climate finance ‘needs to take these gender differentiated impacts into account’ (Schalatek, 2009b). Climate change finance can only be ‘fair, equitable and comprehensive when it incorporates gender awareness and strives toward gender equitable climate financing solutions’ (Schalatek 2009a). If climate funds are to respond equitably and effectively to the differential needs of men, women, boys and girls, they must incorporate gender throughout project planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (WEDO, 2010). Climate finance funds must also recognize that women are ‘well positioned to be agents of change through mitigation, management and adaptive activities in their households, workplaces, communities and countries’ and ‘can be effective leaders within their community when it comes to addressing the harmful effects of climate change’ (IUCN, 2007).
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