Gender and Disaster Risk Reduction: A training pack

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Understanding how gender relations shape women’s and men’s lives is critical to disaster risk reduction (DRR). This is because women’s and men’s different roles, responsibilities, and access to resources influence how each will be affected by different hazards, and how they will cope with and recover from disaster. Unequal power relations between women and men mean that, despite the incredible resilience and capacity for survival that women often exhibit in the face of disaster, they also experience a range of gender-specific vulnerabilities. Oxfam believes that all of its work should strive to strengthen gender equality and women’s rights by transforming the balance of power between women and men. It sees this as both a matter of justice and basic rights, and as a means of addressing poverty and suffering more effectively. This is particularly important in preparing for, and responding to, disasters and the impacts of climate change, as these tend to magnify existing inequalities between women and men. This training pack has been written for Oxfam programme staff, partner organisations and other agencies working in areas associated with DRR. Its purpose is to provide a ‘gender lens’ through which they can plan, implement, and evaluate their work. The focus here is on the operational aspects of projects and programmes, and to a lesser extent on influencing broader institutional policies and practices through policy and advocacy work. The pack aims to develop participants’ skills and competencies in addressing gender issues throughout the project cycle, from assessment, analysis, and planning through to implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
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  Gender and Disaster Risk Reduction  A training pack Maria Caterina Ciampi, Fiona Gell, Lou Lasap, and Edward Turvill Bima, Indonesia. Photo: Oxfam  2 Acknowledgements These resources were rst developed by Maria Caterina Ciampi, Lou Lasap, Dyvia Mukand, and Edward Turvill. They have been revised and further developed by Fiona Gell, supported by Oley Dibba-Wadda, Ines Smyth, and Edward Turvill. Sam Carpenter and Sophie Howsley provided invaluable support in researching resources and structuring this version, and Joanna Hoare edited the nal draft.Oxfam would also like to thank Ivan Scott, Charlotte Sterrett, Chris Anderson, Catherine Pettengell, Vivien Walden, Javeria Afzal, Isabelle Bremaud, Anthea Gordon, Anna Coryndon, Abigail Humphries Robertson, Tess Dico-Young, and Rachel Hastie for their input and support.First published by Oxfam GB July 2011 at http://www.oxfam.org.ukOxfam GB, Oxfam House, John Smith Drive, Cowley, Oxford, OX4 2JY, UK © Oxfam GB ISBN 978-1-84814-907-6 All rights reserved. This publication is copyright, but may be freely reproduced by any method for teaching and programme development, but not for resale. The copyright holder requests that all such use be registered with them for impact assessment purposes. For copying in any other circumstances, or for re-use in other publications, or for translation or adaptation, prior written permission must be obtained from the publisher, and a fee may be payable. Email publish@oxfam.org.ukThis e-publication, and information about similar Oxfam publications, is available to download at www.oxfam.org.uk/publicationsOxfam GB is a member of Oxfam International. Registered Charity No: 202918  3 Contents Introduction 4 Module 1: Key concepts and links: gender, disaster risk reduction (DRR) 16 Session 1: Basic concepts in disaster risk reduction 17Session 2: What is gender? 22Session 3: How does gender affect the way people experience disasters? 25 Module 2: Gender mainstreaming and gender analysis in DRR work 32 Session 1: Gender mainstreaming in DRR work 33Session 2: Capacity and vulnerability analysis (CVA) 37Session 3: What is gender analysis? 42Session 4: Gendered analysis of capacity and vulnerability 50Session 5: Other useful tools for assessing capacity and vulnerability 54 Module 3: Gender in programme planning and implementation:participation, empowerment, dignity, and accountability 58 Session 1: Programme planning and design 59Session 2: Programme quality: standards and benchmarks 66Session 3: Programme implementation 71 Module 4: Monitoring and evaluation: Wrap-up session 76 Session 1: Monitoring and evaluation 77Session 2: Workshop summary 81 Equipment needed:  ip chart, markers, pens, sticky notes (post-its), sticky tack (blue tack),   metacards (sheets of coloured paper, about half the size of regular A4 printer paper). Materials needed: Handouts and PowerPoint slides can be found at   www.oxfam.org.uk/genderdrrpack  4 Introduction Understanding how gender relations shape women’s and men’s lives is critical to disaster risk reduction (DRR). This is because women’s and men’s different roles, responsibilities, and access to resources inuence how each will be affected by different hazards, and how they will cope with and recover from disaster. Unequal power relations between women and men mean that, despite the incredible resilience and capacity for survival that women often exhibit in the face of disaster, they also experience a range of gender-specic vulnerabilities. Oxfam believes that all of its work should strive to strengthen gender equality and women’s rights by transforming the balance of power between women and men. It sees this as both a matter of  justice and basic rights, and as a means of addressing poverty and suffering more effectively. This is particularly important in preparing for, and responding to, disasters and the impacts of climate change, as these tend to magnify existing inequalities between women and men.This training pack has been written for Oxfam programme staff, partner organizations, and other agencies working in areas associated with DRR. Its purpose is to provide a ‘gender lens’ through which they can plan, implement, and evaluate their work. The focus here is on the operational aspects of projects and programmes, and to a lesser extent on inuencing broader institutional policies and practices through policy and advocacy work. The pack aims to develop participants’ skills and competencies in addressing gender issues throughout the project cycle, from assessment, analysis, and planning through to implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. This training pack does not provide specic guidance or materials on how to adapt to climate change. For guidance on gender and climate change adaptation and for specic resources such as the IUCN and UNDP’s ‘Training Manual on Gender and Climate Change Adaptation’ 1 , please contact the  Adaptation and Risk Reduction Team (arr@oxfam.org.uk). This introduction begins by explaining how people’s experiences of disaster are shaped by poverty and inequality, why addressing gender inequality is critical for effective programming, and how Oxfam approaches this work. It uses examples from Oxfam’s work to demonstrate how this approach is put into practice, and with what results. The second half of the introduction describes the structure and content of the training pack, and gives practical advice for trainers and facilitators on how to run the workshop. 1 Disasters, poverty, and inequality Hazards become disasters when they occur in vulnerable populations. Vulnerable communities and households do not have sufcient capacity to respond to and protect themselves from the impact of unexpected events. The risk of a disaster occurring following an extreme event, such as an earthquake, ood, or drought, is inextricably linked to the vulnerability that millions of poor women and men face on a daily basis. Deepening poverty, environmental degradation, unplanned urbanization, and the effects of climate change are making more women and men more vulnerable to disasters than ever before. And with climate change increasing the frequency, intensity, and unpredictability of extreme weather events, already vulnerable populations are experiencing more and more disasters, leading to increased loss of life, injury, mass population displacements, and economic crises.Poverty plays a critical role in determining a person’s resilience to disaster. Factors such as poor housing, farms and settlements in unsafe locations, fewer resources, less robust coping strategies, inadequate access to information, and limited participation in decision-making mean that poor women and men are hit hardest by the impacts of natural hazards, and recover much more slowly.
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