Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion | Sanitation | Hygiene

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The emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH) gap analysis project was funded by The Humanitarian
   Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion  Andy Bastable and Lucy Russell, Oxfam GB July 2013The HIF is supported byThe HIF is managed by   Contents iii1 2 3 5 12  Acronyms Executive Summary Background Methodology Literature Review Consultation Findings Focus Group Discussions with Beneficiaries 5Workshops and Discussions at Country or Sub-Country Level 6Online Practitioner Survey 8Global WASH Cluster 9Donor responses to the Questionnaire 10 Consultation findings and discussion of priority gaps  Annex 1: Terms of Reference 15 Annex 2: Timeline 16 Annex 3: List of issues raised by each stakeholder group in order of priority 17 Annex 4: Detailed Results from the Literature Review 19 Annex 5: Literature Review References 20 Annex 6: Profile of Online Practitioner Survey Respondents 21 Annex 7: Online Gap Analysis Survey for WASH Practitioners 22 Annex 8: Summary of ‘Other’ Issues raised 25 Annex 9: Detailed Results from Donor Questionnaire 28  Humanitarian Innovation Fund – Report 2013 i Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion  ACF Action Contre la Faim ALNAP Active Learning Network for Accountability and PerformanceCARE Cooperative for Assistance and Relief EverywhereCHAST Children’s Hygiene and Sanitation TrainingCLTS Community Led Total SanitationCRS Catholic Relief ServicesDRR Disaster Risk ReductionDFID Department for International Development (UK)DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DWS Drinking Water SupplyECHO Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department of the European CommissionELRHA Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian AssistanceER Early RecoveryFGD Focus Group DiscussionGWC Global WASH ClusterHHWT Household Water TreatmentHIF Humanitarian Innovation FundHP Hygiene PromotionIFRC International Federation of the Red Cross and Red CrescentIRC International Rescue CommitteeKAP Knowledge Attitudes PracticeLRRD Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and DevelopmentMSF Medecins sans FrontieresNFI Non Food Items NGO Non-Governmental OrganisationOFDA Office for US Disaster AssistancePHAST Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation TransformationPOU Point of UseRECA Regional Emergency Cluster AdvisorSCF Save the Children FundTF Tear FundUDDT Urine Diverting Dry toiletUN United NationsUNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesUNICEF United Nations Children’s FundWASH Water Sanitation and Hygiene PromotionWC WASH ClusterWEDC Water, Engineering and Development CentreWRM Water Resource Management Acronyms  Humanitarian Innovation Fund – Report 2013 ii Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion The emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH) gap analysis project was funded by The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF), a program managed by Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian  Assistance (ELRHA) in partnership with the  Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), and is a component of a larger initiative to identify and support innovations in emergency WASH.The project was commissioned to identify the major challenges that require innovative solutions in humanitarian WASH. It is a targeted effort to identify different stakeholder perspectives of the gaps and spaces for innovation in emergency WASH, rather than a systematic review of the evidence around WASH programming. A total of 909 people were consulted across around 40 countries, involving individual practitioners and approximately 45 different organizations, spanning donors, the UN system and international and national NGOsData was collected during a six month consultation period and draws on six complementary research components:ã A review of relevant literature producedover the last five yearsãStructured focus group discussions witheight beneficiary groups in six countriesãFacilitated workshop discussion withWASH practitioners working at the countryand sub-national level in 12 countriesã An on-line survey of humanitarian WASHpractitionersãTwo facilitated sessions with Global WASHCluster (GWC) meetingsãConsultation with five major donororganisations supporting humanitarianWASH programming and policy Across all six components of the analysis, sanitation issues were identified as the major area with gaps and potential for innovation. The second major gap identified by four groups was hygiene issues; the country and sub country WASH sector groups and the beneficiary groups selected water as the second   priority and hygiene third. The specific issues raised have been consolidated into 57 different categories. These were then ranked according to the number of times they were mentioned in the feedback and the priority they were given in the workshops.The most significant gaps identified in emergency WASH were:1.Latrines in locations where no pits arepossible (urban, high watertable/flooding)2.Community participation andempowerment of vulnerable groups,including monitoring and evaluation fromthe outset3.Latrine emptying and desludging4.Hygiene promotion and the importance ofunderstanding context, including socio-anthropology issues5.Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)and sanitation marketing6.Urban alternatives for excreta disposal7.Exit strategies and sustainability issuesfrom the outset8.Final sewage disposal options afterdesludging and treatment9.Further development of non-toilet options/ early response/mobile10.Hand washing hardware and promotionand sustainability (including soap) andnon-soap options11.Water Treatment, particularly bulk andpoint of use household filters, includingcost and sustainability issues12.The need for low-tech WASH solutionsacceptable and sustainable by locals Executive Summary
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