FUGUE (Lucas Bohn)

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Elements of fugue
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  MUSC 529, Final Examination, Fall, 2015 By Lucas Nicoluci Bohn 1. Generally, a Fugue exposition has a Subject entry, an answer, a bridge, and another subject entry. The voice entrance order varies. While  Fugue 7, E-flat     Major   have the first entry on the upper voice, the answer on the middle voice, and another subject entrance on the lower voice,  Fugue 8, D# minor   have a middle voice first entry, an upper voice answer, and another entrance on the lower voice. On a fugue the answer can be either real or tonal. A real answer keeps the same intervals as the subject on the dominant key. Meanwhile, a tonal answer  presents a few interval changes and happens when the subject starts with the tonic note and ends up with the dominant note and vice-versa. The bridge normally is constructed over motives already stated. The last subject entry happens after the  bridge and normally brings up the countersubject again.  Fugue 7, E flat Major   exposition follows the traditional procedures that Bach used on this kind of composition most of the time. On the first couple of measures he’d present the subject; followed by a tonal answer on the dominant key which could have a countersubject accompanying; the bridge begins on measure 5 on the middle voice and is developed over the last motive of the subject (measure 2, beat 3) and the last 3 notes of the countersubject (upper voice, measure 4, last beat and a half); than the last voice would have its entrance, and the piece would have its 3 active voices.  Fugue 8, D-sharp Minor   exposition keeps the same process with a few differences. First we have the Subject entry on the middle voice, followed by its tonal answer beginning on the second half of measure 3. Secondly comes the bridge using a contrary motion motive. Than the lower voice comes in making the 3 voices active. 2. Episodic passages are characterized by the development of motives present on the subject. The episode of  Fugue 7, E-flat Major   is not different. The motives used can  be found on the second half of the second measure of this piece – part of this fugue subject. The way Bach construct this episode is ingenious. Using this motive (and its augmentation) as a pivot he makes his way through the episode going from the E flat key to the relative minor. One can find the motive on the last two beats of the subject developed all throughout the episode leading the piece forward. Measure 14 is the key of the transition to Cm – the B natural that will lead the piece to Cm via chromatic applications of the motive.    3.  The devices Bach used on this section of  Fugue in D sharp are mainly 2 –   Stretto and Subject augmentation and  Mirroring. Stretto is a device used normally later on the fugue and it normally brings up tension to the piece. It consists on the overlapping of subject entrances. Subject augmentation is the stretch of the subject in a rhythm manner – so what was a quarter note in the srcinal subject’s rhythm outline becomes a half note.  Mirroring is the inversion of the melodic movement of the srcinal subject layout. On this excerpt, the lower voice has the augmented version of the subject as its first entry, followed by another subject entry on the middle voice at measure 63 (not augmented). Right at measure 65 we can spot another subject entry on the upper voice, not augmented but mirrored. 4. Those two excerpts shown in question 4 differ on their final cadence. While the first excerpt achieve Cm via III V i, the second excerpt has a longer path to reach the ending. On the first measure, Cm is already reached via G7. Then, on measure 3, C7 is achieved through the E natural in order to achieve F7. What happens from that  point on is F7 calls up Bbm/Db and than Ab/C (bVI of Cm), finally achieving Bo (VIIo) and G7. To finish the progression, Bach uses the V of V (D7/F#) to reach G7 and finish the piece on C. 5. A double fugue has two subjects that have simultaneous entrances at least one time on the piece. It can happen in two ways. Either the second subject first appearance happens with the first subject or it has its own exposition and the overlapped entry happens further on the piece. 6.  A triple and quadruple keeps the same idea as the double fugue – it implies that the subjects have simultaneous entries. As the double fugue, this kind of piece can either have the 3 overlapping subjects on the beginning of the or further along the fugue. A famous example of this technique is St. Anne Fugue in E-flat major, BWV 552. The procedure for this specific piece is quite beautiful. It has well defined exposition of the three subjects. S1 and S2 happens together, as well as S1 and S3. 7. “Two volumes, 1722 & 1744, each containing a cycle of 24 preludes and fugues in all keys” Well Tempered Clavier ( Das Wohltemperierte Klavier  )    “Thirty variations on a theme from the Anna Magdelena Bach book, every third variations a canon” Goldberg Variations “A collection comprising several canons, two ricercares and a trio sonata” The musical Offering “This collection of 19 contrapuncti includes fugues and canons illustrating many contrapuntal techniques” The Art of Fugue
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