From Food Crisis to Fair Trade: Livelihoods analysis, protection and support in emergencies | Food Security

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This manual aims to collate and analyse recent experiences of livelihoods programming in emergencies. The document provides guidance on livelihoods programming, includes practical examples from the field and summarises recent thinking. It provides an overview of what livelihoods programming is and examples of the range of interventions that are possible in emergencies. Different types of livelihoods programmes are then described in more detail with an analysis of when these programmes are appropriate. Information from existing guidelines as well as case studies provides guidance on how to carry out the different interventions. Although the focus of the supplement is emergency livelihoods programming, the supplement also draws upon developmental approaches to livelihoods work.
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  From food crisis to fair tradeFrom food crisis to fair trade By Susanne Jaspars With contributions from: Mary Atkinson, Pantaleo Creti, Sophia Dunn, Lewis Lawrence Musa, Annabel Southgate, David Bright, KarenTibbo (all Oxfam GB), Alexandros Yiannoulos, Claudio Freda, Marcela Gonzales, Marta Valdez (ACF Spain), Mamie Sackey (ACF-US),Siham Osman (Practical Action-Sudan), Catherine Allen (Concern Worldwide) Commissioned, edited and produced by the Emergency Nutrition Network Livelihoods analysis, protection and support inemergenciesLivelihoods analysis, protection and support inemergencies ENN Special Supplement Series No 3 March 2006  2 1 Introduction and Scope...............................42 What is livelihoods programming?..............6 2.1Livelihoods principles and the livelihoods framework .......................................................62.2Objectives of providing livelihood support .........82.3An overview of livelihoods interventions in emergencies.................................................10 3 Livelihoods analysis and identifying appropriate interventions..........................12 3.1Livelihoods assessment and analysis in emergencies....................................................123.2Criteria for identifying appropriate interventions....................................................143.3An in-depth livelihoods analysis in Darfur..........16 4 Does food aid support or undermine livelihoods?...............................................18 4.1 Introduction......................................................184.2 Food aid as livelihood support...........................194.3 Food aid, markets and production.....................214.4 Global food aid governance..............................22 5 Income and employment support ..............23 5.1Introduction......................................................23 5.2The rationale for cash interventions...................23 5.3Appropriateness of cash interventions...............255.4 Cash grants.......................................................26 5.5 Cash for work...................................................275.6Cash transfers as part of social welfare and social protection.........................................295.7Micro-finance...................................................305.8Case studies......................................................315.8.1Cash grants and cash for work in Sri Lanka........ .315.8.2Income generation in Guinea Conakry.............. .335.8.3Micro-finance as livelihood support in urban Argentina..........................................................34 6Access to markets and services...................36 6.1 Introduction.......................................................366.2 Analysing markets............................................366.3An overview of market interventions.................386.4Food vouchers in emergencies......................... .396.5Case studies......................................................416.5.1 A market analysis and subsequent interventions following floods in the south-east of Haiti (2004)..................................416.5.2Food vouchers in Zimbabwe..............................42 6.5.3 Campaigning with coffee farmers in Haiti ...........43 7 Support for primary production..................45 7.1 Introduction......................................................457.2 Assessing the need for seeds and tools...............457.3 Seed fairs..........................................................467.4Emergency livestock programmes.....................48 7.5Case studies......................................................517.5.1Seed vouchers and fairs in Zimbabwe - CRS.......517.5.2 Donkey feeding in IDP camps in Darfur...............52 7.5.3De-stocking in Kenya........................................52 8 Issues and challenges for livelihoods programming in emergencies....................54 8.1Introduction......................................................548.2Institutional constraints in moving away from food aid....................................................548.3Chronic livelihoods crises: Linking relief and development?...................................................55 8.4 Linking livelihoods programming with legal protection and advocacy...................................568.5 Operational challenges.....................................588.6 Case studies......................................................598.6.1Linking relief and development programming in Wajir, Kenya............................598.6.2Ethiopia: Challenge and Change.........................608.6.3Food security – protection links in Liberia............62 8.6.4Challenges to Livelihood Support Programming in South Sudan ............................63 9 Conclusions...............................................64References..........................................................66 Box 1: Supporting livelihoods while saving lives in Aceh..........10 Box 2: Minimum standards for food security in emergencies.....10 Box 3: Common elements and key differences between household economy assessments and livelihoods approaches to food security assessments....................12 Box 4: Examples of the use of the livelihoods framework in household economy or food security assessments..........13 Box 5: Use of the Household Economy Approach to identifylivelihoods interventions........................................14 Box 6: Types of food aid.................................................18 Box 7: Food aid as an economic transfer in Haiti...................19 Box 8: Lessons learnt from Food for Recovery in Red SeaState, Sudan.......................................................20 Box 9: Advantages of cash transfers...................................24 Box 10: Examples of beneficiaries’ use of cash.......................24 Box 11: Cash grants in Somaliland.......................................26 Box 12: Challenges faced by Oxfam, Norwegian People’s Aid and Horne relief in the Somaliland CFW programme in 2004....28 Contents Boxes Box 13: Challenges in establishing social safety nets in Kenya.....30 Box 14: Best practice principles for micro-finance in protracted refugee contexts...................................31 Box 15: Market questions to determine the viability of local purchase...........................................................38 Box 16: An actor oriented analysis of the persistence of seeds and tools as an emergency response..................46 Box 17: Livestock fairs in Zimbabwe....................................50 Box 18: Components of an effective drought cycle management system.............................................55 Box 19: Influencing the national policy environment in Kenya.....56 Box 20: References to food aid and denial of food in International Humanitarian Law................................57 Box 21: Example of use of food security assessment and programmes for Chechen IDPs to address protection risks...................................................57 Box 22: Fuel efficient stoves reduce risk of violence in Darfur.....58  3 Figure 1: The sustainable livelihoods framework....................6 Figure 2: Adapted livelihoods framework for humanitarian crises...........................................7 Figure 3: Key programme objectives for protecting/ promoting livelihoods.........................................9 Figure 4: The Market Model.............................................37 Figure 5: Local Market Supply Chain...................................41 Figure 6: Modified ICRC Crisis Scheme including livestock issues and interventions..........................49 Table 1: Objectives of livelihoods programming....................9 Table 2: Description and objectives of different livelihood support interventions.........................................11 Table 3: Criteria for decision-making on interventions to address food crises............................................15 Table 4: Key elements of an assessment of the appropriateness of cash intervention......................25 Table 5: Advantages and disadvantages of different types of cash intervention...........................................26 Table 6: Different types of cash grants...............................27 Table 7: Principles of CFW programming.............................27 Table 8: Example of IGAs, activities and grant size................33 Table 9: Type of IGA supported in micro-credit scheme...........35 Table 10: The impact of seed vouchers and fairs on livelihood assets...............................................47  Acronyms AAH Action Against Hunger ACF Action Contre la Faim ACF-E ACF-Spain ALDEF Arid Lands Development Focus AREN Association pour la Revitalisation de l'Elevage au Niger AREX Agriculture Research and Extension, of the Zimbabwean Government's Ministry of Agriculture BPRM Bureau of Populations, Refugees and Migration CAHW Community Animal Health Worker CFW Cash for work Concern WW Concern Worldwide CRS Catholic Relief Services CTDT Community Technology Development Trust DfID Department for International Development DRC Democratic Republic of Congo DWLP Damot Weyde Livelihoods Programme ENN Emergency Nutrition Network EU European Union FAC Food Aid Convention FAO Food and Agricultural Organisation FEWS Famine Early Warning System FFR  Food for recovery FFW Food For work GFAC Global Food Aid Compact GoK  Government of Kenya GoS Government of Sudan GTZ Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (German society for technical cooperation) HAI Help Age International HBC Home based care HEA Household Economy Approach HH Household HIV/AIDS Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome HPG Humanitarian Practice Group ICRC International Commission of the Red Cross ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics IDEB Instituto de Desarrollo Empresarial Bonaerense IDPs Internally displaced people IDS Institute of Development Studies IFRC International Federation of the RedCross IGAs Income generating activities IHL International Humanitarian Law ILO International Labour Organisation IRC International Relief Committee ITDG Intermediate Technology Development Group JEM Justice and Equality Movement KFSSG Kenya Food Security Steering Group LDC Least-developed countries LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam MCH Mother and Child Health MFI Microfinance Institution MOH Ministry of Health MT Metric tonne NEEP National Emergency Employment Programme NFI Non food item NGO Non-governmental organisation NPA Norwegian People’s Aid ODI Overseas Development Institute OECD/DAC Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/ Development Assistance Committee Oxfam GB Oxfam Great Britain PDM Post distribution monitoring PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal PSC Pastoral Steering Committee PSNP Productive Safety Net Programme RC Red Cross RRA Rapid Rural Appraisal RSS Red Sea State SCUK  Save the Children-UK SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SLA/M Sudan Liberation Movement SPANA Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNHCR  United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency US United States USAID US Agency for International Development VAC Vulnerability Assessment Committee VRC Village Relief Committee VRRC Village Relief and Rehabilitation Committee WFP World Food Programme WHO World Health Organisation WPPD Wajir Pastoral Development programme WTO World Trade Organisation WVI World Vision International  Acknowledgements Without the help and support of a number of individuals, it wouldnot have been possible to write this supplement. In Oxfam, Iwould like to thank, in particular, Chris Leather, Lili Mohiddin andAnn Witteveen who always provided timely and useful comments.Thanks also to Nick Roseveare for allowing me to write this as aconsultant, when this had been in my work plan for at least twoyears as an Oxfam staff member. Many thanks also to the threereviewers, Helen Young, Paul Harvey and Hannah Mattinen, whosesuggested changes and additions considerably strengthened thedocument. Thanks to all who contributed pictures to thesupplement. Finally, thanks to Jeremy Shoham and Marie McGrathfrom the ENN for their editing. TablesFigures Post tsunami CFW beneficiaries in Matara, Sri Lanka  S  o ph i   aD unn /  Oxf   am , S r i  L  ank  a ,2  0  0  5   4 Introduction and Scope 1 T his supplement aims to collate and analyse recentexperiences of livelihoods programming inemergencies. The document provides guidance onlivelihoods programming, includes practicalexamples from the field and summarises recent thinking. Itprovides an overview of what livelihoods programming is andexamples of the range of interventions that are possible inemergencies. Different types of livelihoods programmes arethen described in more detail with an analysis of when theseprogrammes are appropriate. Information from existingguidelines as well as case studies provides guidance on how tocarry out the different interventions. Although the focus of the supplement is emergencylivelihoods programming, the supplement also draws upondevelopmental approaches to livelihoods work. Livelihoods can be defined as follows: “Alivelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. Alivelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from shocks, maintain itself over time, and provide the same or better opportunities for all, now and in the future” (Oxfam GB). In emergencies, livelihoods programmes are generallyaimed at livelihood protection, for example, assisting peoplein maintaining or recovering their assets and supporting theirlivelihoods strategies. Many emergency interventions can bothsave lives and support livelihoods at the same time, forexample, emergency cash transfers provides support both tomeet immediate needs (save lives) and help people maintainor recover their assets (support livelihoods).The main focus of livelihood support programming inemergencies has been food security. Food security is oneoutcome of sustainable livelihoods. The interventionsdescribed in this supplement have been grouped around theSphere minimum standards for disaster response in foodsecurity - income and employment support, market access,and production support. Food aid is covered in a separatechapter. Specific Sphere standards and indicators are referredto in the relevant sections. In writing this supplement, it has not always been easy tomaintain the distinctions between income, market andproduction support. All commodity distributions are,essentially, a form of income support, as they release incomethat would otherwise be spent on the distributedcommodities. Income support, or cash transfers, can be used topurchase seeds or livestock and are therefore also productionsupport. Cash transfers are also a form of market support as Palm oil for sale at an IDP market, Bunia,eastern Democratic Republic of Congo  J  an eB  e e s l   e y /  Oxf   am ,DR  C 
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