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RUNNING HEAD: MORAL, ETHICAL, & LEGAL ISSUES 1 Understanding Accessible Online Learning Environments as a Moral, Ethical, and Legal Issue Erin J. Ferris, Jaya Cookston, & Katie Bevins University of Tennessee 2 MORAL, ETHICAL, & LEGAL ISSUES Executive Sum
  RUNNING HEAD: MORAL, ETHICAL, & LEGAL ISSUES 1 Understanding Accessibe Onine Learning En!ir n#ents as a M ra, Et$ica, and Lega Iss%eErin ' (erris, a)a C *st n, & +atie e!insUni!ersit) - Tennessee  . MORAL, ETHICAL, & LEGAL ISSUES Executive Summary T$e /ri#ar) /%r/ se - t$is re/ rt is t /r !ide an %nderstanding - accessibe nine earning en!ir n#ents t a earners as a # ra, et$ica, and ega bigati n' S/eci-ic -edera reg%ati ns inc%ding t$e A#ericans 0it$ Disabiities Act - 12 3ADA4 re5%ire a -edera) -%nded instit%ti ns t /r !ide certain acc ## dati ns in rder t #eet t$e needs - /e /e 0it$ disabiities' H 0e!er, t$e need t /r !ide acc ## dati ns g es be) nd a ega c ncern - r t$e %ni!ersit)' 6e are ser!ing /e /e and stressing t$e i#/ rtance - r t$ers t %nderstand t$e # raand et$ica res/ nsibiities b) /r !iding e5%itabe ed%cati na // rt%nities - r indi!id%as 0$ 0is$ t be /art - %r c ##%nit)' Lega), accessibiit) t nine earning is an iss%e beca%se t$ere are a0s and reg%ati ns t$at 0ere 0ritten t ens%re access t a, n t 7%st a seect -e0, and t den) access 0 %d b!i %s) be iega' T$e A#ericans 0it$ Disabiities Act - 12 3ADA4 /r !ided an initia %#brea - a0s t$at g !erned t$e e5%a ed%cati n - /e /e 0it$ disabiities and $as been added t in recent )ears t inc%de access t tec$n  g)' C #bs8 3.2124 tite t t$e /ening c$a/ter a/t) describes i#/r !ed accessibiit) t a b) ega) 9creating a e!e earning s/ace' M rait) can be de-ined as 9a s)ste# - r%es - r g%iding $%#an c nd%ct and /rinci/es - r e!a%ating t$ se r%es 3Ta!ani, .21;, /';<=;>4' A # ra c de /r !ides an indi!id%a 0it$ t$e abiit) t decide %/ n 0$at is rig$t and 0r ng and as ed%cat rs 0e #%st 9t$in* ab %t rea  /e /e 0it$ rea needs 3H rt n, ?%esenber), & G%sta-s n, .21<, /'<4' Ed%cat rs #%st *n 0 t$eir / tentia a%diences be- re designing earning #aterias and@ r earning en!ir n#ents  beca%se %r earners $a!e !ari %s bac*gr %nds, c%t%res, ang%ages, s*is, -inancia stat%ses, and /$)sica and /s)c$  gica c nditi ns' T$e %ti#ate g a is t create an e5%a access - // rt%nities - r a t)/es - earners b) e#/ )ing /rinci/es - d ing 0$at8s rig$t, r et$ica c nd%ct 3Ta!ani, .21;4' Et$ica bigati ns ste# -r # # ra c des beca%se et$ics in! !e i#/e#enting t$e standards - rig$t and 0r ng t$r %g$ %r acti ns' T$e ega bigati ns are c%rrent) dri!ing %ni!ersities t assess and a//) c$ange' H 0e!er, in rder t -aciitate c%t%ra c$ange in t$e cassr # and n ca#/%s, %ni!ersities #%ste/ress a str ng # ra c de reated t e5%itabe ed%cati na /ractices b) setting t$e standard - et$ica c nd%ct - r a #e#bers - t$e instit%ti n' In acc rdance 0it$ t$e needs - t$e O--ice - Onine Br gra#s at t$e Uni!ersit) - Tennessee it is rec ##ended t$r %g$ c ab rati!e e-- rts t$at t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica bigati ns s$ %d be cear) de-ined and e/ressed t a #e#bers - t$e instit%ti n' Training - r a -ac%t) and sta-- in! !ed in designing and i#/e#enting nine cassr #s s$ %d be  /r !ided 0it$ ade5%ate training t$at is b%it n t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica standards de!e /ed  b) t$e instit%ti n 0it$ Uni!ersa Design 3UD4 and User E/erience 3U4 as t$e - %ndati na g%ideines - r de!e /#ent' (ina), t$e O--ice - Onine Br gra#s s$ %d be e5%i//ed 0it$ t$e  best t s and *n 0edge - r assessing c%rrent and -%t%re /r gra#s'  ; MORAL, ETHICAL, & LEGAL ISSUES Goals of Report T$ere are t$ree #ain g as identi-ied b) %r gr %/ - r t$is re/ rt inc%ding:cear) de-ine t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica bigati ns - creating accessibe nine earning en!ir n#ents in a %ni!ersit) setting%nderstand $ 0 t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica iss%es s$a/e design and t$e i#/e#entati n - nine c %rsesde!e / a /an - r i#/e#enting accessibe nine earning en!ir n#ents 0it$ Uni!ersa Design and User E/erience in #ind b) en$ancing t$e aread) eisting #eas%res in /ace t #eet t$e de#ands /aced n %ni!ersities b) -edera reg%ati ns' T$ese g as 0i $e/ # d t$e re/ rt b) /r !iding cear directi n 0$ie /r !iding %r cient 0it$ in!a%abe in- r#ati n t$at 0e $a!e gat$ered t$r %g$ c ab rati n' Cear) de-ining t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica bigati ns re5%ired t design and ad#inister accessibe nine earning en!ir n#ents /r !ides t$e rati nae - r t$e entire /r 7ect b) ans0eringt$e 5%esti n - why are we doing this? Ha!ing 0e de-ined b %ndaries 0i a 0 - r a # re  /recise /an - acti n - r i#/e#enting nine /r gra#s at t$e Uni!ersit) - Tennessee' T$e ega, # ra, and et$ica res/ nsibiities can be c ##%nicated t a -ac%t), sta--, and st%dents  /r !iding a str ng - %ndati n - r a c%rrent and -%t%re /ractices at t$e %ni!ersit)'Understanding %r ega, # ra and et$ica c ##it#ents t accessibiit) s$a/es t$e design and i#/e#entati n - nine c %rses see*s t ans0er t$e 5%esti n - how are we going to do this? It is %r g a t /r !ide t$e cient 0it$ t$e necessar) e!idence=based t s t s%ccess-%) train -ac%t), -aciitate a c%t%re - accessibiit), and t$e abiit) t assess nine c %rses t$at #eet t$e needs - a st%dents and -ac%t)' Br !iding !a%abe res %rces - r t$e O--ice - Onine Br gra#s is an i#/ rtant ste/ in c$anging t$e c%t%re and /ractices - accessibiit) at t$e %ni!ersit)' T$e de!e /#ent - a /an - acti n - r i#/e#entati n ta*es %r %nderstanding t t$e nete!e b) /r !iding a detaied, e!idence=based /an t carr) %t Uni!ersa Design t a %ni!ersit) nine c %rses t #eet t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica iss%es - /r !iding accessibe earning en!ir n#ents' ) %sing Uni!ersa Design and User E/erience as t$e - %ndati na b%iding  b c*s - r designing nine /r gra#s t$e %ni!ersit) can create a c%t%re - inc%si!it) /ri r t $a!ing an) accessibiit) iss%es' T$is /an - acti n str%ct%red ar %nd t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica bigati ns t accessibe nine earning en!ir n#ents 0i assist t$e O--ice - Onine Br gra#s in /r !iding -ac%t) #e#bers 0it$ t$e t s and *n 0edge t$e) need t create e5%itabe earning - r a t$eir st%dents, c%ti!ating a c%t%re - accessibiit) t$r %g$ UD and U,and t$e *n 0edge t assess nine c %rses t ass%re t$e) are #eeting t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica g%ideines as de-ined b) t$is re/ rt'  < MORAL, ETHICAL, & LEGAL ISSUES Steps for Preparing the Report T$is re/ rt 0as /re/ared in c ab rati n 0it$ %r s#a gr %/ and b) ea#ining /ri r 0$ e gr %/ c ab rati ns %sing t$e disc%ssi n b ard -eat%re 0it$in ac*b ard Learn' C ecti!e) %r gr %/ decided n t$e g as - r %r / rti n - t$e re/ rt based n %r c%rrent %nderstanding - accessibiit) iterat%re, etensi!e researc$ing - Internet based t s, and t$e needs - %r cient' In- r#ati n - r t$is re/ rt 0as c ected b) a c #/re$ensi!e searc$ - indi!id%a disc%ssi n b ard / stings and a re!ie0 - t$e c%rrent iterat%re n accessibiit), UD, U, and designing s%ccess-% nine earning en!ir n#ents' T$r %g$ c ab rati n n t$e disc%ssi n  b ards d%ring t$e c%rrent se#ester 0e $a!e been abe t s)nt$esie t$e #ateria n accessibiit) and de!e / /ractica /ans - r i#/e#entati n' Using n t n) t$e researc$ n t$e t /ic, b%t as t$e e!er)da) e/eriences - %r cass#ates 0e $a!e been abe t -%rt$er %r %nderstanding - t$e accessibiit), UD, and U and $ 0 it a//ies t t$e O--ice - Onine Br gra#s at t$e Uni!ersit) - Tennessee' G ge D cs 0as %sed t c ab rati!e) /re/are t$is re/ rt and s$are ideas a# ng %r s#a gr %/' A-ter c ecting in- r#ati n 0e rganied %r data and t$ %g$ts  b) c ##%nicating eectr nica), editing in rea=ti#e, and c ecti!e) s)nt$esiing t$e data 0e - %nd' ased n t$e needs e/ressed b) t$e direct r - nine /r gra#s 0e 0ere abe t identi-) t$e needs - r t$is /r 7ect in reati n t t$e ega, # ra, and et$ica bigati ns /aced n t$is --ice and t$e %ni!ersit) as a 0$ e' Once again, c ab rati!e e-- rts 0ere %sed t de!e / and address t$e needs - t$e cient and $ 0 t$ se needs 0 %d be #et' T$e iterat%re n accessibiit) /r !ided a - %ndati n - r a needs and t$e rec ##endati ns - r c$anging t$e c%t%re - nine  /r gra#s at t$e %ni!ersit)' Understanding of Client’s Needs T$e Uni!ersit) - Tennessee8s nine /r gra# --ers 5%ait)=earning %tc #es en$anced b) tec$n  g) 0it$ t$e added bene-it - its -eibiit)' Onine /r gra#s a 0 indi!id%as 0$ cann t c #e t ca#/%s an // rt%nit) t /%rs%e t$eir acade#ic g as' Additi na) t$e) can d s in a -as$i n t$at is c n!enient t t$e#' T$e /r gra#, as a 0$ e, ad7%sts - r a 0ide range -  /re-erences and abiities' On an indi!id%a basis - r st%dents 0it$ disabiities, acc ## dati ns are c%rrent) #ade t$r %g$ ODS' St%dents se-=identi-) and recei!e acc ## dati ns - r nine  /r gra#s t$r %g$ c /erati n 0it$ ODS' (r # a best /ractices instr%cti n /ers/ecti!e, sites s$ %d be cean, si#/e, and c ##%nicati!e' Sites s$ %d t erate err r and re5%ire  0 /$)sica e-- rt' T$e %ni!ersit) $as a /an - acti n and a ti#eine t #eet t$e c$aenges - creating accessibe earning - r a st%dents, 0$ic$ inc%des an Accessibiit) I#/e#entati n Tea#, s%bc ##ittees, a /r gressi n /an - r c$anging t$e c%t%re, training, and assess#ent t$r %g$ a%dits' An %nderstanding - t$ese needs t$r %g$ a ega and # ra ens 0i be i#/ rtant - r t$e cient as t$e) # !e t$r %g$ t$e /r cess - #eeting t$ese *e) c$aenges'
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