EOC Test Preparation: Secession, Civil War, Reconstruction

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EOC Test Preparation: Secession, Civil War, Reconstruction Westward Expansion Railroad Allowed farmers and ranchers to ship products Moved people to western cities Transcontinental railroad Union Pacific
EOC Test Preparation: Secession, Civil War, Reconstruction Westward Expansion Railroad Allowed farmers and ranchers to ship products Moved people to western cities Transcontinental railroad Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined tracks in Utah (1869) Linked east to west Westward Expansion Native Americans Plains Indians and buffalo Reservations Battles Between US Troops and Natives Sand Creek Massacre Native American resistance, 1861 Cheyenne were supposed to give up claims to land that had been promised by US gov. Cheyenne warriors launched raids on mining camps US forces killed 270 Native Americans (most were women and children) Battles Between US Troops and Battle of Little Bighorn Sioux Indians, Red Cloud, Crazy Horse 1876 George Custer attempted to surprise and defeat Sioux, who were resisting US troops Sioux warriors surrounded the outnumbered US troops, killed Custer and 200 men. Last great victory for Native Americans 1877: Sioux and Cheyenne surrendered, forcibly moved to Dakotas and OK Natives Battles Between US Troops and Natives Wounded Knee 1890 Sioux holy man developed a religious ritual called the ghost Dance Sioux believed the dance would bring back the buffalo, land, and banish the whites from their land US believed Sitting Bull was using the dance to start an uprising, US Army arrested and killed Sitting Bull and others. Soldiers pursued Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek, 150 Native Americans were dead. Battles Between US Troops and Natives Dawes Act 1887 Abolished tribal organizations and divided up reservations for individual Native American families After 25 years, land would go to those who became US citizens Failed Why? States Rights Favoring stronger government Unify national economy Provide infrastructure Pass legislation that states would need to follow Southern Politics Did not like the idea of stronger federal government Any power not delegated to fed. gov. by Constitution went to state gov. Slavery really had to do with property laws which was a state right. South Carolina John C. Calhoun argued for states rights You don t need to follow a law that is unconstitutional Nullification Crisis in 1832 High tariffs on British goods SC threatened to secede if tariffs were not repealed President Andrew Jackson sent federal troops Senator Henry Clay proposed a compromise Tensions still existed Conflict Over Slavery As new regions became US states, how would the nation balance free vs. slave territories? Missouri Compromise 1820 All states admitted below 36 degrees north would be slave, all states above would be free Missouri would be slave Maine would be free Conflict Over Slavery As new regions became US states, how would the nation balance free vs. slave territories? Compromise of 1850 Congress admitted California and unorganized western territories as free Utah and New Mexico could decided by popular sovereignty (vote) if they would be free or slave. Fugitive Slave Law-northern states must return escaped slaves to southern owners Conflict Over Slavery Wilmot Provisio War with Mexico reignited slave debate Summer of 1846, PA congressman David Wilmot created the Wilmot Provisio (condition) Banning slavery from any land purchased from Mexico Voted down, reopened sectional divisions Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Allowed previously free and unorganized territories to choose whether or not to permit slavery Basically: repealed Missouri Compromise bleeding Kansas because violence erupted Sumner-Brooks incident Sumner from MA, Brooks from SC Conflict Over Slavery Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857 Scott was a slave in Missouri, taken by owner into a free territory where he lived for 4 years Later, they returned to Missouri, owner died Scott sued for freedom Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court ruled that Scott had no right to sue b/c he was a slave, not citizen Also ruled that slave owner could not be deprived of his property w/o due process of law Struck down Missouri Compromise because it declared that it was a violation of 5 th Amendment Slave could not just leave his owner without due process, even if they were in a free state John Brown s Raid Oct Abolitionists led by John Brown attacked federal arsenal at Harper s Ferry, VA. Wanted to seize weapons and give them to slaves Rebellion Plan failed US troops under Robert E. Lee surrounded them and forced their surrender Brown was executed Raid intensified southern resentment of abolitionist movement Free Blacks and Slaves (Mid 1800s) Life for slaves was not good Free African Americans existed because they had purchased their own freedom or masters had freed them Worked as artisans, farmers, laborers, some owned businesses, some even owned slaves Abolitionist Movement William Lloyd Garrison Grimke sisters Frederick Douglass Slave who escaped to freedom Harriet Tubman Escaped slave Underground RR Harriet Beecher Stowe Republicans and Secession Election of 1860 Democratic party split along sectional lines over free/slave Northern Dems. Suppored popular soverignty Stephen Douglas Southern Dems. Wanted federal protection of slavery in all US territories VP John Breckinridge Republicans chose Abraham Lincoln Republicans and Secession Election of 1860 South felt threatened by Lincoln b/c he was against its expansion Lincoln won, SC seceded from the Union on Dec. 20, By February, 6 other states had seceded. Southern delegates from the seceded states met in Montgomery, AL Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis Republicans and Secession Fort Sumter Union soldiers had only a month s worth of supplies Lincoln told governor of SC that he would be sending ships with food Confederate soldiers opened fire on the fort, forcing Union troops to surrender (April, 1861) Republicans and Secession Fort Sumter (cont.) Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers Border states had to decide which side they would support KY, MI, MD stayed with the Union VA, NC, AK, TN went with Confederacy Capital was moved to Richmond, VA Union Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman Confederacy Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Key People in the Civil War Advantages in the War North More railway lines Supplies can be transported More factories Produce weapons and supplies Standing military force 2/3 of nation s population lived in the North Labor force and soldiers Advantages in the War South Originally, better military commanders War of Attrition Defensive war designed to damage and wear down enemy s will to fight Motivation Believed they were defending their homeland, way of life, right to govern themselves Important Battles of the Civil War First Battle of Bull Run/First Manassas First confrontation between two armies Big defeat for Union Confederates were not organized enough to invade Washington DC Anaconda Plan Surround Confederacy and cut of supply lines Coastal blockades Important Battles of the Civil War Naval Battles Ironclad-warships used by Confederacy with iron to protect it from enemy fire Union still used wooden ships Confederate ship the Merrimack/Virginia vs. Union Monitor fought for several hours Both ships were later destroyed Submarines were used Union was the first to use Eastern Theater Second Battle of Bull Run (Aug. 1862)/Second Manassas Robert E. Lee commanded Army of Northern VA Success for Confederacy Union couldn t invade Richmond Lee made an attempt to invade the North Eastern Theater Antietam (Sept. 1862) Lee was ready to invade General McClellan (Union s commanding general) was unaware of Lee s position until they found his orders at a Confederate camp Antietam Creek, MD Bloodiest single day of the war Halted Confederate advance McClellan didn t pursue, Confederates got away Eastern Theater Chancellorsville (May, 1863) Lee s perfect battle General Stonewall Jackson and Lee defeated over 70,000 Union troops What happened to Jackson? Eastern Theater Gettysburg (July, 1863) Key turning point Lee s forces were not as aggressive as usual Couldn t win high ground early in the battle Union forces under General George Meade defeated Confederates and ended any hope for them to invade the North 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, missing Bloodiest battle in entire war Western Theater Vicksburg (May-July 1863) Mississippi Last Confederate obstacle for Union control of the river General Grant (Union) laid siege (similar to Anaconda Plan) People were starving, eating animals like dogs and rats Western Theater Sherman s March (May- Dec. 1864) William T. Sherman commanding Union forces Captured Atlanta Secured reelection of Lincoln March to the Sea Lots of destructions of Southern areas Political Issues of the War Issues with border states Writ of habeas corpusguarantee that a person can t be imprisoned w/o being brought before a judge Lincoln suspended this and declared martial law Draft Who was drafted? Copperheads: Union Dems. Who criticized Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation Freed slaves in states in rebellion against the Union But: allowed slavery in border states loyal to the Union Hope was that Confederate states would return to union rather than risk losing slaves Get support from France and England Emancipation Proclamation Encouraged free African Americans to serve in Union army Segregation existed in most military areas Navy was the exception Racism and discrimination still existed 54 th Massachusetts Movie: Glory Led an assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston, July 1863 Union Victory March 1864 Grant in command of Union army Union troops outnumbered Confederates Grant s armies lost 65,000 men in less than 2 months but Confederates were on the retreat April 9, 1865: Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse 2 weeks later: General Joseph Johnston surrendered to General Sherman in Durham, NC Reconstruction Gov. attempted to rebuild (and punish) the South Lincoln wanted healing, not all felt that way Lincoln killed on April 14, 1865 Reconstruction Andrew Johnson New president Sympathetic to the South Presidential Reconstruction plan Radical Republicans-viewed Johnson s plan as too lenient Reconstruction Radical Reconstruction: African Americans will get full citizenship rights, Congress should oversee Reconstruction, Majority of the voting population of a state needs to pledge allegiance before being readmitted to the Union Reconstruction Republicans ended up dominating southern govs. During Reconstruction Drafted new state constitutions which reflected their ideals 14 th Amendment Recap: 13 th ended slavery in the US 14 th : guaranteed that no person would be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process Blacks got full citizenship Bill of Rights applied to both state and federal gov. Reconstruction Johnson s Impeachment 1868: tensions between president and Congress Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens voted to impeach Johnson Saved by 1 vote Reconstruction 15 th Amendment Grant becomes president No citizen can be denied right to vote due to race, color, or previous condition (slavery) Meant slaves had the ability to vote in Southern elections African Americans During Farming No land Sharecropping-farmed a portion of a landowner s land in return for housing and a share of the crops Turned into its own form of slavery Tenant farming Paid rent to farm the land Owned the crops they grew Were not at the mercy of white landowners Reconstruction African Americans During Reconstruction Freedmen s Bureau First relief agency Clothing Medical attention Meals Education Land granted to freed blacks and some poorer whites Disbanded in 1869 African Americans During Education and Church Reconstruction Became the center of life and culture b/c it was truly led by African Americans Ministers were often political figures as well First black schools established Children and adults African Americans During Reconstruction African Americans took on political roles through Republican policies In Congress State Legislatures Lt. Governor Issues between blacks Northern blacks and southern elites saw themselves superior to poorer, uneducated blacks. Racism During Reconstruction Black Codes Ku Klux Klan Compromise of 1877 and End of Reconstruction Compromise of election issues between dem. & rep. candidates and votes Dems agreed to rep Hayes becoming president Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction Southern states got federal money, more power to govern themselves, withdrawal of federal troops. Solid South Southerners supported Democratic candidates for almost 100 years Post-Reconstruction Jim Crow Laws Literacy Tests Poll Taxes Grandfather Clauses Segregation De jure Plessy v. Ferguson De facto Important African Americans Booker T. Washington WEB DuBois Ida Wells Barnett
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