Effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on the academic achievement of university students in Ethiopia

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Edith Cowan University Research Online Theses: Doctorates and Masters Theses 2012 Effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on the academic achievement of university
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Edith Cowan University Research Online Theses: Doctorates and Masters Theses 2012 Effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on the academic achievement of university students in Ethiopia Abesha A. Gota Edith Cowan University Recommended Citation Gota, A. A. (2012). Effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on the academic achievement of university students in Ethiopia. Retrieved from This Thesis is posted at Research Online. Edith Cowan University Copyright Warning You may print or download ONE copy of this document for the purpose of your own research or study. The University does not authorize you to copy, communicate or otherwise make available electronically to any other person any copyright material contained on this site. You are reminded of the following: Copyright owners are entitled to take legal action against persons who infringe their copyright. A reproduction of material that is protected by copyright may be a copyright infringement. Where the reproduction of such material is done without attribution of authorship, with false attribution of authorship or the authorship is treated in a derogatory manner, this may be a breach of the author s moral rights contained in Part IX of the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth). Courts have the power to impose a wide range of civil and criminal sanctions for infringement of copyright, infringement of moral rights and other offences under the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth). Higher penalties may apply, and higher damages may be awarded, for offences and infringements involving the conversion of material into digital or electronic form. Effects of Parenting Styles, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on the Academic Achievement of University Students in Ethiopia By Ayele Gota ABESHA A Dissertation Submitted in Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Doctor of Philosophy (Psychology), School of Psychology and Social Science, Faculty of Computing, Health, and Science, Edith Cowan University Principal Supervisor: Dr. Justine Dandy Co-Supervisor: Dr. Deirdre Drake May 2012 Perth, Western Australia Copyright Effects of Parenting Styles, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on the Academic Achievement of University Students in Ethiopia USE OF THESIS The Us of Thesis statement is not included in this version of the thesis. Signature of Author July 2012 Date of Graduation i Abstract The prime purpose of this study was to propose and test an integrated parental and social-cognitive model of academic achievement and examine the effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on academic achievement by employing an ex-post facto prospective research design. The data on demographic characteristics, parenting styles, academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation were collected through self-report questionnaires from a sample of 2116 (763 females and 1353 males) undergraduate first year students selected via multi-stage cluster random sampling technique from Addis Ababa University, Kotebe College of Teacher Education, and Wolayta Soddo University in Ethiopia and accessing their second semester Grade-Point-Averages (GPAs) of 2008/09 academic year from the Registrars Offices of the respective Higher Education Institutions. Preliminary analyses of the data consisted of percentage and correlational analyses. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses with Analysis of MOment Structures (AMOS 18.0 version) were employed to test the adequacy of the hypothesized model and examine the relationships among the variables. A one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was also used to assess sex differences in the academic self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic achievement of students. The results of preliminary analyses pertaining to the most predominantly practiced parenting style in the families of Ethiopia revealed that authoritative parenting was the most commonly adopted parenting style; however, parenting styles varied as a function of late adolescent and young adult children s sex (i.e., parents were authoritative for their daughters but neglectful for their sons). The results from tests of the proposed parental and social-cognitive model of academic achievement showed that the hypothesized model provided a good fit to the empirical data for both the overall sample and the sub-samples of female and male students. The results of the path analyses provided partial support for the hypothesized model, in that, irrespective of students sex, parenting styles had a significant and positive direct effect on academic self-efficacy, as well as significant and positive mediated effects on achievement motivation (i.e., via academic self-efficacy) and academic achievement (i.e., via achievement motivation for female students and via academic self-efficacy for male students). Parenting styles had also a significant and positive direct effect on achievement motivation for female students, but not for male students. ii Specifically, regardless of sex, students who rated their parents as authoritative had higher academic self-efficacy than their counterparts who perceived their parents as non-authoritative; however, only female students who described their parents as authoritative had higher achievement motivation when compared with their counterparts who characterized their parents as non-authoritative. The results also revealed that both female and male students who described their parents as authoritative had higher academic self-efficacy and these students in turn had higher achievement motivation than their counterparts who characterized their parents as non-authoritative. In addition, female students who rated their parents as authoritative had higher achievement motivation and these students in turn had higher academic achievement when compared with their counterparts from non-authoritative families. Similarly, male students who characterized their parents as authoritative had higher academic self-efficacy and these students in turn had higher academic achievement when compared with their counterparts from non-authoritative families. With regard to the interrelationships among academic self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic achievement, irrespective of students sex, academic self-efficacy had a significant and positive direct effect on achievement motivation and a significant and positive mediated effect (i.e., through achievement motivation) on academic achievement. Furthermore, regardless of students sex, achievement motivation had a significant and positive direct effect on academic achievement. Academic self-efficacy had also a significant and positive direct effect on academic achievement for male students, but not for female students. The results of a one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) indicated that there were significant sex differences in the academic achievement of students (i.e., favouring male students); however, there were no significant differences among female and male students in their academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation. The findings also uncovered that undergraduate first year university students in Ethiopia who participated in the present study had high academic selfefficacy and achievement motivation but low academic achievement. Based on the findings, some practical and theoretical implications of the study for designing interventions to maximize students academic achievement in higher education institutions are addressed. Key Words: Parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, achievement motivation, academic achievement, and university students. iii Declaration I certify that this dissertation does not, to the best of my knowledge and belief: (i) Incorporate, without acknowledgement, any material previously submitted for a degree or diploma in any institution of higher education; (ii) Contain any material previously published or written by another person except where due reference is made in the text; or (iii) Contain any defamatory material. I also grant permission for the Library at Edith Cowan University to make duplicate copies of my dissertation as required at its discretion, upon requests of individuals or institutions and at their expense. The author reserves all publication rights. Signature: Date: May 2012 Ayele Gota ABESHA iv Dedication This work is dedicated to my late father, Mr. Gota AYELE, for implanting in me the beliefs and powers that I can do anything I want to do no matter whatever hurdles are there, instilling those qualities in me to persevere, to work hard, and to live with integrity because of which I was able to attain the highest level of professionalism. In addition, this dissertation is dedicated to my mother, Mrs. Dela HEREGE, whose belief and pride in me has laid the foundation for success. And also it is dedicated to my wife, Mrs. Fantu WOINSHET and my lovely children, Selamawit, Etsegenet, Alemberhan, and Elroy, for tolerating all those hard times I could not share with you and the sacrifices you made to enable me complete this research project. v Acknowledgements The completion of this dissertation would not have been possible without the unyielding support, help, and encouragement of many people, friends, and relatives who have kindly offered their time, support, reassurance, advice and words of encouragement in helping me professionally, emotionally, and financially. However, there are several that deserve special mentioning. First and foremost, I would like to recognize my God, Jesus Christ- who makes all things possible- for putting the enthusiasm in my heart, inspiration and encouragement in my mind, and determination in my soul to complete this research work. Although words cannot fully express my gratitude to my Principal Supervisor, Dr. Justine DANDY, I would first like to thank her, for offering her precious time and allowing me to dive into this research project and continuously guided this work through all its steps, constant enthusiasm, encouragement at each step in this long and arduous process, flexibility, and most importantly, her normalcy. She enabled me to taste this multidisciplinary research by lending her insight and experience for each step along the way and stimulated my interest for cross-cultural research. She has been a relentless driving force providing me with opportunities, advice, and amazing support. I perceive the opportunity to work with her as a privilege. Her contribution to this work and to my personal growth was invaluable. She has touched my life in way that is very meaningful to me. Dr. Justine DANDY, your open mindedness, professional caliber, willingness to help, emotional support and encouragement, and astonishing smiles will always be remembered in my heart. Therefore, you have my utmost respect and are truly my model as a research supervisor and scholar. I am grateful also to my Co- Supervisor, Dr. Deirdre DRAKE, who encouraged and supported my application and paved the way for me to join Edith Cowan University by guiding to contact and discuss with my Principal Supervisor, Dr. Justine DANDY, and also who accepted to provide expertise for this dissertation as a Co-Supervisor. In short, I would humbly thank and appreciate Dr. Deirdre DRAKE for her wisdom and support throughout the whole process of my PhD research project at Edith Cowan University. Dr. Justine and Dr. Deirdre, expressing my thanks and appreciations to you in simple words cannot convey the ways in which your professional caliber, knowledge, enthusiasm, and thoughtfulness made me to see things beyond the screen and widen my critical, analytical, and abstract thinking which were needed to complete this journey. Specially, your timely feedbacks, vi suggestions, recommendations, and critical analyzes were very useful and challenged me to go further and learn much more during my journey of PhD studies. I would like to express my deepest love and appreciation to my wife, Mrs. Woinshet, for her undying and unconditional love, endless support, encouragement, strength, optimism, devotion, and patience through it all, whose credible support and sacrifice made the accomplishment of this work possible. Her commitment, encouragement, advice, caring, and support really helped me outshine myself. Mrs. Woinshet, your dedication and care for our family during my tenure of studies at Edith Cowan University, Australia, was remarkable. I thank God often for your strength and wisdom. Thank you for believing in me and for showing your confidence and faith in my fulfillment. You are my pillar of strength and I am proud to have achieved this as your husband. In addition, you are the wife whom I admire and respect and a true friend that I would like to share all my life. I would also like to express my appreciations and thanks to my sweet children, Selamawit, Etsegenet, Alemberhan, and Elroy for displaying a tremendous amount of patience throughout the tenure of my studies. My children, you are my greatest inspiration and I feel blessed that you are my children. I am sincerely grateful to my brothers, sisters, and other relatives who always wish and dream my success in life. I am indeed grateful to Dr. Shanka TEKLE, Dr. Tadesse GELAYE, Mr. Gunssa URGA, and Mr. Mebratu DESTA together with their lovely families, Mr. Bogale SAMUEL, and many other Ethiopian people here in Western Australia who welcomed me when I came to Edith Cowan University to pursue my studies, encouraged morally, and offered constant and unwavering support throughout my journey. Last, but not least, my appreciation and many thanks go to Addis Ababa University, Kotebe College of Teacher Education, and Wolayta Soddo University, for permitting to conduct the research and rendering unconditional support during data collection; and students from these higher education institutions, for their cooperation and interest to participate in the study. In addition, I am deeply grateful to the staffs of Addis Ababa University, Kotebe College of Teacher Education, and Wolayta Soddo University, who helped me directly or indirectly in different ways. vii Table of Contents Title Page Copyright..i Abstract....ii Declaration...iv Dedication...v Acknowledgements...vi Table of Contents...viii List of Tables...xii List of Figures xiii Chapter 1. Introduction Background Statement of the Problem Objectives of the Study Significance of the Study Assumptions and Scope of the Study Assumptions of the Study Scope of the Study Chapter 2. Review of Literature Theoretical Models of Parenting Styles, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation Theoretical Models of Parenting Styles Theoretical Model of Self-Efficacy Theoretical Models of Motivation Parenting Styles, Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement International Studies Parenting Styles and Academic Achievement Social-Cognitive Factors and Academic Achievement Academic Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement...31 viii Interrelationships between the Predictors of Academic Achievement Relationships between Parenting Styles and Academic Self-Efficacy and Achievement Motivation Relationship between Academic Self- Efficacy and Achievement Motivation Sex Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Performance Sex Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy and Achievement Motivation Sex Differences in Academic Achievement Cross-Cultural Research Culture and Parenting Styles Culture and Self-Efficacy and Motivation Culture and Academic Achievement Research in Ethiopia Socio-Economic Situation of Ethiopia Higher Education in Ethiopia Parenting Styles in the Ethiopian Cultural Context Parenting Styles and Academic Achievement Academic Self-Efficacy and Achievement Motivation as Predictors of Academic Achievement Academic Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement Sex Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement Summary of the Literature Review The Current Study...75 ix Chapter 3. Design and Methodology Design of the Study Participants Measures Parenting Styles (PSs) Academic Self-Efficacy (ASE) Achievement Motivation (AM) Academic Achievement (AA) Procedure Methods of Data Analysis...86 Chapter 4. Results of the Study Demographics of the Study Sample Results of the Preliminary Analysis Parenting Styles in the Ethiopian Cultural Context Relationships between the Study Variables Testing the Hypothesized Model Testing the Measurement Model Testing the Structural Model The Effects of the Predictor Variables on Criterion Variables The Direct Effects of the Predictor Variables on Criterion Variables Mediators and Moderators in the Relationships between the Predictor and Criterion Variables The Mediated Effects of the Predictor Variables on Criterion Variables The Moderated Effects of the Predictor Variables on Criterion Variables The Proportion of Variance (R 2 ) Explained by the Model for Each Criterion Variable Sex Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement Chapter 5. Discussion Differential Parenting Styles for Daughters and Sons x 5.2. The Fitness of the Hypothesized Model Interrelationships among the Study Variables Effects of Parenting Styles on Academic Achievement Effects of Parenting Styles on Academic Self-Efficacy and Achievement Motivation Effects of Academic Self-Efficacy on Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement Effect of Achievement Motivation on Academic Achievement The Proportion of Variance (R 2 ) of Academic Achievement Explained by the Hypothesized Model Sex Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement The Levels of Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement.135 Chapter 6. Summary and Conclusions of the Study Summary Conclusions Limitations of the Study and Future Research Practical and Theoretical Contributions of the Study Practical Contributions of the Study Theoretical Contributions of the Study..151 References Appendices Appendix A. English Questionnaire Appendix B. Amharic Questionnaire Appendix C. A Letter of Cooperation to Addis Ababa University Appendix D. A Letter of Cooperation to Kotebe College of Teacher Education Appendix E. A Letter of Cooperation to Wolayta Soddo University Appendix F. Information Letter to Participants of the Study..216 Appendix G. Informed Consent Form xi List of Tables Tables Page Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of the Study Sample...89 Table 2. Parenting Styles by Sex of the Students...91 Table 3. The Zero-Order Correlations of the Study Variables for the Overall Sample and the Sub-Samples of Female and Male Students.92 Table 4. The Means and Standard Deviations of the Scores of Academic Self- Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement by Sex of the Students and Parenting Styles..94 Table 5. The Summary of Fit Indices Statistics for the Measurement Model of Academic Self-Efficacy for the Overall Sample and the Sub-Samples of Female and Male Students Table 6. The Summary of Fit Indices Statistics for the Full Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Analyses for the Overall Sample and the Sub-Samples of Female and Male Students Table 7. The Standardized Coefficients (β) for the Overall Sample and the Corresponding Unstandardized Coefficients (β) Parameter Estimates for the Sub-Samples of Female and Male Students for MLM and BSBM Table 8. The Summary of MANOVA Results for the Effects of Sex of the Students on Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement Table 9. The Summary of One-Way ANOVA Results for Tests of Between- Subject Effects of Sex of the Students on Academic Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Academic Achievement Table 10. The Estimated Marginal Means and Standard Errors of
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