Cambodia Impact Report: The World Citizens Panel | Survey Methodology

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The World Citizens Panel (WCP) was established by Oxfam Novib to measure the impact of its programmes among people living in poverty and injustice. The approach combines quantitative research (impact surveys) with qualitative research (stories of change) and gives participants a voice in evaluation, and the opportunity to learn how programmes can be improved and to contribute to public debate on the effectiveness of development cooperation. This impact study of the programme in Cambodia was carried out in 2014. The study included a broad set of indicators, covering major dimensions of poverty and injustice. Data collected by partners with the help of a smart phone app was transferred into a central data base, managed and analysed by the Oxfam Novib World Citizens Panel team. This report describes the process and presents the major findings of the analysis which include: the positive impact on livelihoods (particularly on increased income levels and value of assets) but not on food security
    CAMBODIA IMPACT REPORT 0   cambodia impact report THE WORLD CITIZENS PANEL: INSIGHTS IN OXFAM'S CONTRIBUTION TO CHANGES IN PEOPLE'S LIVES MAY 2015    WORLD CITIZENS PANEL CAMBODIA IMPACT REPORT 1 INDEX SUMMARY 2   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 4   1   INTRODUCTION 5   1.1 CAMBODIA’S CONTE XT 5   1.2 OXFAM'S THEORY OF CHANGE FOR CAMBODIA 6   1.3 RIGHTS BASED APPROACH 9   1.4 IMPACT MEASUREMENT APPROACH IN BRIEF 10   1.5 STUDY OBJECTIVE 10   2   METHODOLOGY 11   2.1   SURVEY PROCESS 11   2.2   QUESTIONNAIRE 11   2.3   PARTNERS AND RESPONDENTS 11   2.4    ANALYSES 13 2.5 STORIES OF CHANGE 16   3   RESULTS 18   3.1   SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS 18   3.2   ESSENTIAL SERVICES 29   3.3   LIFE AND SECURITY 31   3.4   SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION 33   3.5   GENDER AND EMPOWERMENT 41   3.6   IMPACT OF THE INFLUENCING WORK OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS ON CITIZENS IN CAMBODIA 43   4   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50      WORLD CITIZENS PANEL CAMBODIA IMPACT REPORT 2 SUMMARY  An impact study was   carried out by Oxfam and partners in Cambodia in 2014. The study consisted of two com-ponents: a survey among participants and non-participants of Oxfam programs, and in-depth interviews with a selected number of participants to collect ‘stories of change’ . Besides this study a separate qualitative research on the role and influence of civil society in Cambodia was carried out by an independent researcher. The survey and stories of change processes were led by Oxfam Novib’s World Citizens Panel (WCP) team, based in The Hague, in collaboration with a local researcher and Oxfam ’s country team  in Cambodia. The re-search on the role and influence of civil society was conducted by an external consultant, commissioned by World Citizens Panel team in collaboration with the Oxfam office in Cambodia. This report presents the main findings of the WCP survey and Stories of Change process. The findings of the research on civil society can be found on the World Citizens Panel website 1 . MAIN FEATURES OF THE CAMBODIA IMPACT SURVEY ã  The survey included a broad set of indicators, covering the major dimensions of poverty and injustice as described in Oxfam’s rights -based approach. ã  Data were collected by partners in their own working areas with the help of a smart phone app, which transferred data into a central database, managed and analysed by the Oxfam Novib World Citizens Panel team in The Hague. ã  About 50 interviewers carried out a total of 3658 interviews. ã  The interviewees were randomly selected and are a representative sample of the primary stakeholders (the total number of people participating in the projects) of Oxfam and partners in Cambodia and a comparable control group. ã  Data collection took place in May and June 2014. ã  Eleven partners carried out the surveys in their own operational areas. ã  The data of two partners were not included in this country impact report, because the survey served for them as a baseline without a control group. ã  Major activities in which the respondents had been involved were: sustainable livelihoods (32%), gender (32%), education (28%) and health (28%). ã  The average number of years that respondents had participated in the activities of partner organizations varies a lot between partners (from a few months to more than ten years). MAIN FEATURES OF THE CAMBODIA STORIES OF CHANGE PROCESS ã  Based on the outcomes of the impact survey, Oxfam and partners identified domains for more in-depth investigation through the collection of stories of change. Stories of Change were collected either on video or on paper, accompanied with pictures. ã  Seven organizations collected a total of 81 stories on paper. Three organizations prepared one to three videos, with a compilation of various stories in each video. ã  Stories were collected on one of the four domains identified: food security & income; access to information; gender based violence (GBV) and land rights. ã  Data collection took place from September to November 2014. ã  A reflection workshop was organized from November 24  –  26, in which Oxfam and partner organizations together analyzed a selected number of stories and discussed the findings. 1      WORLD CITIZENS PANEL CAMBODIA IMPACT REPORT 3 MAIN OUTCOMES OF THE CAMBODIA IMPACT STUDY Sustainable livelihoods: ã  Impact on livelihoods: Significant differences between target group and control group with respect to increased income and increased value of assets, but not on food security. The differences are caused by women; the differences between men in target group and control group are not significant. ã  With regard to food security & income four main areas for improvement were identified: a) on how to provide better agricultural extension; b) on how to strengthen saving groups; c) on how to increase the link with the market; d) on how to improve mainstreaming of gender issues in livelihood projects. ã  The number of land concessions granted to external investors has increased despite the work that Oxfam and partners have done in this area. Awareness on land rights has grown, people have more frequently been able to file their complaints, but little follow up action (such as compensation) has been observed from the government. Awareness raising and community mobilization are crucial steps in ensuring participants get/keep the rights to their land. More emphasis should be put on facilitating networking among communities and among organizations to increase the chance that people get their rights indeed. Life and security: ã  Significant differences between target group and control group with respect to disaster preparedness: there is evidence of impact on some of the life and security indicators, showing less damage for target group members to themselves and their belongings, better preparedness and greater capability to cope with future disasters. Social and political participation: ã  Access to information is very limited in Cambodia. Radio, CBOs and verbal information from relatives and neighbours are the major sources of public information. Half of the respondents say it is difficult to get public information, while the other half say it is easy.    Among those that have access to media, rather large proportions get never or rarely informed on public issues. Youth (between 16 and 25 years) has more access to internet, email and social media than other age groups. Most of the changes mentioned regarding access to information are individual and/or informal changes. Linking with organizations working on formal, systemic change is needed to ensure sustainable change. ã   There has been a big impact of partners’ activities on people’s participation in social organisations, collective action against injustice and their influence on decision making processes. ã  There has been a positive trend during the last five years with regard to increased space for civil society, increased possibilities for female leadership and reduced gender based violence. ã  The positive developments initiated by influencing work of civil society organizations are being attributed to awareness raising and (to a lesser extent) to advocacy work of civil society organizations, but also to increased space and possibilities created by the government. Gender & empowerment ã  Violence against women is a problem according to the majority of respondents. The problem is decreasing, however, in the eyes of a large majority. Awareness seems to be higher among the target group, resulting in a higher percentage reporting gender based violence as a problem in their community. In this area, projects focusing on GBV should act as a catalyst for local change agents, involving local authority and the couple  –  instead of the husband/wife only  –  and supporting role model families in the community. ã  There are generally good possibilities for women to become politically active and take a leadership role in society.
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