Astm Standard Specification for Chemical Pasivation Treatments for Stainless Steel a967

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 7
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Documents

Published:

Views: 22 | Pages: 7

Extension: PDF | Download: 1

Share
Related documents
Description
&Designation: A 967 - 01 E1 ~L~ INTERNATIONAL Standard Specification for Chemical Passivation Treatments for Stainless Steel Parts 1 This standard. is issued under the fixed designation A 967; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or. Inthe case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscnpt epsilon (E) indicates an editorial change
Tags
Transcript
    esignation:A9 7 01 E1 ~L~ INT RN TION L StandardSpecificationfor ChemicalPassivationTreatmentsforStainlessSteelParts 1 Thisstandard.isissuedunderthefixeddesignationA967;thenumberimmediatelyfollowingthedesignationindicatestheyearof originaladoptionor. In thecaseofrevision,theyearoflastrevision.Anumberinparenthesesindicatestheyearoflastreapproval.A superscnptepsilon (E) indicatesaneditorialchangesincethelastrevisionorreapproval. ('NOTE-Paragraph3.I.1.5wasdeletededitoriallyinApl;12002.Paragraph10.2wascorrectededitOliallyinApril2002. 1.Scope 1.1Thisspecificationcoversseveraldifferenttypesof chemicalpassivationtreatmentsforstainlesssteelparts.It includesrecommendationsandprecautionsfordescalinz '  cleaning,andpassivationofstainlesssteelparts.Itincludes severalalternativetests,withacceptancecriteria,forconfirma- tionofeffectivenessofsuchtreatmentsforstainlesssteelparts. 1.2Practicesforthemechanicalandchemicaltreatmentsof stainlesssteelsurfacesarediscussedmore thoroughly inPractice A380.  1.3Severalalternativechemicaltreatmentsaredefinedfor passivationofstainlesssteelparts.Appendix Xl givessome nonmandatoryinformationandprovidessomegeneralguide- linesregardingtheselectionofpassivationtreatmentappropri- atetoparticulargradesofstainlesssteelbutmakesno recommendationsregardingthesuitabilityofanygrade,treat- \...J ment,andacceptancecriteriaforanyparticularapplicationor classofapplications. 1.4Thetestsinthisspecificationareintendedtoconfirmthe effectivenessofpassivation,particularlywithregardtothe removaloffreeironandotherexogenousmatter.Thesetests includethefollowingpractices: 1.4.1Practice A-WaterImmersionTest, 1.4.2PracticeB-High HumidityTest, 1.4.3Practice C-SaltSprayTest, 1.4.4Practice D-CopperSulfateTest, 1.4.5Practice E-PotassiumFerricyanide-NitricAcidTest, and 1.4.6Practice F-FreeIronTest. 1.5Thevaluesstatedininch-poundunitsaretoberegarded asthestandard.TheSIunitsgiveninparenthesesarefor informationonly. 1.6Thefollowingprecautionarycaveatpertainsonlytothe testmethodportions,Sections14through18ofthisspecifica- tion: Thisstandarddoesnotpurporttoaddressallofthesafety concerns, if any,associatedwithitsuse.It is theresponsibility oftheuserofthisstandardtoestablishappropriatesafetyand I ThisspecificationisunderthejurisdictionofASTMCommitteeAOIonSteel, StainlessSteel,andRelatedAlloysandisthedirectresponsibilityofSubcommittee AO1.14onMethodsofCorrosionTesting. CurrenteditionapprovedOct.10, : OOI. PublishedDecember2001.Originally publishedasA967-96.LastprevioiusedilionA967-99. healthpracticesanddeterminetheapplicabilityofregulatory limitationspriortouse. 2.ReferencedDocuments 2.1ASTMStandards: A380PracticeforCleaning,Descaling,andDepassivation ofStainlessSteelParts,Equipment,andSystems? B117PracticeforOperatingSaltSpray(Fog)Apparatus  B 254PracticeforPreparationofandElectroplatingon  t inless teel   2.2FederalSpecification: QQ-P-35CPassivationTreatmentsforCorrosion-Resistant Steels  3.Terminology 3.1 Definition ofTermSpecifictoThis Standard-s-is isnecessarytodefinewhichoftheseveralcommonlyused definitionsoftheterm passivation willbeusedinthis specification.(SeeDiscussion.) 3.1.1Discussioll-StainJess steelsareautopassivatinginthe sensethattheprotectivepassivefilmisformedspontaneously onexposuretoairormoisture.Thepresenceofexogenous surfacecontamination,includingdirt,grease,freeironfrom contactwithsteeltooling,andsoforth,mayinterferewiththe formationofthepassivefilm.Thecleaningofthesecontami- nantsfromthestainlesssteelsurfacewillfacilitatethespon- taneouspassivationbyallowingtheoxygenuniformaccessto thesurface.Thepassivefilmmaybeaugmentedbychemical treatmentsthatprovideanoxidizingenvironmentforthe stainlesssteelsurface. 3.1.1.1Inthisspecification,passivation,unlessotherwise specified,isdefinedasthechemicaltreatmentofastainless steelwithamildoxidant,suchasanitricacidsolution,forthe purposeoftheremovaloffreeironorotherforeignmatter,but whichisgenerallynoteffectiveinremovalofheattintoroxide scaleonstainlesssteel.Inthecaseofstainlesssteelswith additionsofsulfurforthepurposeofimprovedmachinability, 2 AnnualBookofASTMStandards, Vol01.03. - AnnualBookofASTMStandards, Vol03.02. ,AnnualBookofASTMStandards, Vol02.05. 5 AvailablefromSuperintendentofDocuments, U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office,Washington.DC20402. Copyrighl©ASTMtnternational, 100 BarrHarborDrive.POBox ClOO. WestConshohocken.PA 19428·2959, UnitedStates.  A 967 1E1 ·ulf passivationmayalsoincludetheremovalofsulfidesfromthe surfaceofthemetalforthepurposeofmaximizingcorrosion resistance.3.1.l.2Theformationoftheprotectivepassivefilmona stainlesssteel,alsocalledpassivationinamoregeneral context,willoccurspontaneouslyinairorotheroxygen- containingenvironmentwhenthestainlesssteelsurfaceisfree ofoxidescaleandexogenousmatter. 3.1.1.3Chemicaltreatments,suchassodiumdichromate solutions,mayfacilitatethemorerapidformationofthe passivefilmonastainlesssteelsurfacealreadyfreeofscaleor foreignmatter.Suchtreatments,alsosometimescalledpassi- vationincommonusage,aredesignatedaspost-cleaning treatmentsinthisspecificationinordertodistinguishthem fromchemicaltreatmentscapableofremovingfreeironfrom stainlesssteels. 3.1.1.4Thechemicaltreatmentscapableofremovingheat tintoroxidescalefromstainlesssteelandcapableofdissolving thestainlesssteelitself,typicallycalledpickling,aresubstan- tiallymoreaggressivethantreatmentsusedforpassivation,as definedin3.l.l.l.Thesurfaceofstainlesssteelthathasbeen pickledisfreeofscale,freeiron,andexogenousforeign matter,anddoesnotrequireaseparatetreatmentforpassiva- tionasdefinedin3.1.1.1.Thepassivationprocessdefinedin 3.1.1.2willoccurwithoutfurtherchemicaltreatmentbutmay beaugmentedandimprovedbythepost-cleaningtreatments definedin3.1.1.3. 3.1.1.5Electrochemicaltreatments,includingelectropick- lingandelectropolishingcapableofremovingheattintoroxide ~scalefromstainlesssteelandcapableofdissolvingthestainless steelitself,aresubstantiallymoreaggressivethantreatments usedforpassivation,asdefinedin3.1.1.1.Thesurfaceof stainlesssteelresultingfromthesetreatmentsisfreeofscale, freeiron,andexogenousforeignmatter,anddoesnotrequirea separatetreatmentforpassivationasdefinedin3.1.1.1.The passivationprocessdefinedin3.1.1.2willoccurwithout furtherchemicaltreatment,butmaybeaugmentedandim- provedbythepost-cleaningtreatmentsdefinedin3.l.1.3. Statementsregardingchemicaltreatments,unlessotherwise specified,aretakentoincludeelectrochemicaltreatments. 4.OrderingInformation 4.1Itistheresponsibilityofthepurchasertospecifyatest practiceappropriatetoanyparticularmaterialandapplication. Thisspecificationwaswrittenforthepurposeofprovidingan alternativetoUnitedStatesFederalSpecificationQQ-P-35C. Determinationofthesuitabilityofthisspecificationforthat purposeistheresponsibilityofthepurchaser. 4.2Unlessspecifiedbythepurchaser,thechemicaltreat- mentappliedtothestainlesssteelpartsshallbeselectedbythe sellerfromamongthelistedpassivationtreatments. 5.MaterialsandPreparationforPassivationTreatments 5.1Thepassivationtreatmentsshallbeofoneormoreofthe followingtypes.Theeffectivenessofaparticulartreatmentfor aparticulargradeofstainlesssteelinaparticularapplicationis demonstratedbymeetingthespecifiedtestingrequirements: '---../5.1.1Treatmentsinnitricacid, 5.1.2Treatmentsincitricacid, 5.l.3Otherchemicaltreatments,includingelectrochemical treatments,5.1.4Neutralization,and 5.1.5Post-cleaningtreatments. 5.2Materials: 5.2.1Thechemicalsusedforpassivationtreatmentsshall producepassivatedsurfacesthatmeettherequirementsofone ormoreofthetestsofthisspecification.Attentionshallbe giventomaintainingadequatevolume,concentration,purity, andtemperaturecontrolappropriatetothesizeandamountof stainlesssteeltobetreated. 5.2.2Theprocessorshallmaintainarecordwithregardto concentrationandtemperatureofthepassivationsolution sufficienttodemonstratethatthespecifiedpassivationcondi- tionsweremaintainedforeachlotofstainlesssteelparts processed.Suchrecordsshallbeavailableforinspectionwhen specifiedinthepurchaseorder.Theprocessorisnotrequiredto revealtheprecisecompositionofproprietarychemicalmix- turesbutshallmaintainauniqueidentificationofthemixture thatwillensureitsaccuraterepresentationforsubsequentuse. 5.2.3Theprocessorshallberesponsibleforthesafedis- posalofallmaterialgeneratedbythisprocess. 5.3PreparationforPassivationTreatments: 5.3.1Thepretreatmentmethodsandproceduresusedprior tothepassivationtreatment,includingmechanicalandchemi- calmethods,singlyorincombination,fordescalingand pickling,shallbeinaccordancewithPracticeA380.When electrochemicalcleaningisrequired,itshallbeperformedin accordancewithPracticeB254. 5.3.2Theresultingpretreatedsurfaceshallbesubstantially freeofoil,grease,rust,scale,andotherforeignmatter. 5.3.3Whenthefinalpretreatmentofapartincludespickling oftheentiresurfaceofthepart,nofurtherpassivation treatmentisrequiredpriortotestingofthesurfaceunless specifiedbythepurchaser. 6.TreatmentsinNitricAcidSolutions 6.1PassivationTreatment: 6.l.1Stainlesssteelpartsshallbetreatedinoneofthe followingaqueoussolutionsandmaintainedwithinthespeci- fiedtemperaturerangeforthespecifiedtime. 6.1.1.1NitricJ-The solutionshallcontain20to25volume percentofnitricacidand2.5 + 0.5weightpercentofsodium dichromate.Thepartsshallbeimmersedforaminimumof20 minatatemperatureintherangefrom120to130°F(49to 54°C). 6.l.1.2 Nitric 2-Thesolutionshallcontain20to45volume percentofnitricacid.Thepartsshallbeimmersedfora minimumof30minatatemperatureintherangefrom70to 90°F(21to32°C). 6.1.1.3Nitric 3-Thesolutionshallcontain20to25volume percentnitricacid.Thepartsshallbeimmersedforaminimum of20minatatemperatureintherangefrom120to140°F(49 to60°C). 6.1.1.4Nitric 4-Thesolutionshallcontain45to55volume percentofnitricacid.Thepartsshallbeimmersedfora minimumof30minatatemperatureintherangefrom120to 130 0 P(49to54°C). 2  A 967-01e1 '1.111 r >. 6.1.1.5 Nitric 5-0thercombinationsoftemperature,time, andconcentrationofnitricacid,withorwithoutotherchemi- cals,includingaccelerants,inhibitors,orproprietarysolutions, capableofproducingpartsthatpassthespecifiedtestrequire- ents. 6  WaterRinse-Immediately afterremovalfromthepas- sivatingsolutionthepartsshallbethoroughlyrinsed,using stagnant,countercurrent,orspraywashessinglyorincornbi- ation,withorwithoutaseparatechemicaltreatmentfor neutralization(see9.1)ofthepassivationmedia,withafinal rinsebeingcarriedoutusingwaterwithamaximumtotalsolids contentof200ppm. i  TreatmentsinCitricAcid 7.1 PassivationTreatment: 7.1.1Stainlesssteelpartsshallbetreatedinoneofthe 0110 wingaqueoussolutionsandmaintainedwithinthespeci- fiedtemperaturerangeforthespecifiedtime. 7.1.1.1 Citric i-Thesolutionshallcontain4to10weight percentofcitricacid.Thepartsshallbeimmersedfora minimumof4minatatemperatureintherangefrom140to 160°F(60to71°C). 7.1.1.2 Citric 2 hesolutionshallcontain4to10weight oercentofcitricacid.Thepartsshallbeimmersedfora minimumof10minatatemperatureintherangefrom120to L40°F(49to60°C). 7.1.1.3 Citric 3-Thesolutionshallcontain4to10weight ercentofcitricacid.Thepartsshallbeimmersedfora inimumof20minatatemperatureintherangefrom70to l20°F(21to49°C). 7.1.1.4 Citric 4-0thercombinationsoftemperature,time, ind concentrationofcitricacid,withorwithoutothercherni- :alstoenhancecleaning,includingaccelerants,inhibitors,or >roprietarysolutionscapableofproducingpartsthatpassthe pecifiedtestrequirements. 7.1.1.5 Citric 5-0thercombinationsoftemperature,time, ndconcentrationsofcitricacid,withorwithoutothercherni- alstoenhancecleaning,includingaccelerants,inhibitors,or roprietarysolutionscapableofproducingpartsthatpassthe pecifiedtestrequirements.Immersionbathtobecontrolledat .pHof1.8-2.2. 7.2 WaterRinse-Immediately afterremovalfromthepas- ivatingsolution,thepartsshallbethoroughlyrinsed,using agnant,countercurrent,orspraywashes,singlyorincombi- ation,withorwithoutaseparatechemicaltreatmentfor I eutralizationofthepassivationmedia(see9.2),withafinal I nsebeingcarriedoutusingwaterwithamaximumtotalsolids ontentof200ppm.  . TreatmentsinOtherChemicalSolutions,IncludingElectrochemicalTreatments 8.1Itisrecognizedthatthepurposeofremovalofall 6 xogenousmatterfromastainlesssteelsurface,includingthe emovaloffreeiron,canbeaccomplishedbydifferentmedia, ithpotentialforbenefitstobegainedfromuseofproprietary sillsandart,includingproprietarypassivationmedia.Such n 'eatmentsmayincludeexternallyapplyinganelectricalpo- ntialonthestainLesssteelparts,asinthecaseofelectropol- i;hing.Thesuitabilityofsuchpassivationtreatmentsforusein meetingtherequirementsofthisspecificationshallbedeter- minedbythecapabilityoftheprocessedpartsmeetingthe specifiedtestrequirements. 8.2Stainlesssteelpartsshallbetreatedinaspecified aqueoussolution,withorwithoutexternallyappliedelectrical potential,andmaintainedwithinaspecifiedtemperaturerange foratimesufficientfortheprocessedpartstomeetthe specifiedtestrequirement. 8.3 Water Rinse-Immediatelyafterremovalfromthepas- sivatingsolution,thepartsshallbethoroughlyrinsed,using stagnant,countercurrent,orspraywashes,singlyorincombi- nation,withorwithoutaseparatecbemicaltreatmentfor neutralizationoftbepassivationmedia(see9.2),withafinal rinsebeingcarriedoutusingwaterwithamaximumtotalsolids contentof200ppm. 9.Neutralization 9.1Tbechemicalreactionsofthepassivatingmediaontbe surfaceoftbestainlesssteelshallbestoppedbyrinsingoftbe stainlesssteelpart,withorwithoutaseparateneutralization treatment. 9.2Tbesuitabilityofaneutralizationprocedureisdeter- minedbythecapabilityoftheprocessedPaJ1Smeetingtbe specifiedtestrequirements.(SeeNote1.) NOTE I-The selectionofmediumandproceduresforaneutralization dependsofthechemistryofthepassivationandoneconomicconsider- ations.Anexampleofaneutralizingtreatmentwouldbeimmersionofthe partforaminimumof30rnininasolutionof5%NaOHat160to180°F (71to82°C),followedbyawaterrinse. 10.Post-CleaningTreatments 10.1Althoughtbepassivefilmcbaracteristicofstainless steelwillformspontaneouslyinairoranyotberoxygen- containingenvironment,theprocessorshall,whenspecified, applyachemicaltreatmenttbatwillacceleratetbeformationof thepassivefilmonachemicallycleanstainlesssteelsurface. Anexampleofamediumthatservestoacceleratetbeforma- tionoftbepassivefilmbutdoesnotcontributetotheremoval offreeironfromtbestainlesssteelsurfacewouldbean aqueoussolutionofsodiumdicbromate. 10.2Whenspecified,withinonehourafterthefinalwater rinseasrequiredin6.2,7.2,or8.3,allferriticandmartensitic steelpartsshallbeimmersedinanaqueoussolutioncontaining 4to6weightpercentofsodiumdichromateatatemperaturein therangefrom140to160°F(60to71°C)foraminimumof30 min,followedbyarinseinaccordancewith6.2,7.2,or8.3. Thepartsshallthenbetboroughlydried. 10.3Thepurcbasermayspecifyotherpost-cleaningtreat- ments. 11.Finish 11.1Tbepassivatedpartsshallexhibitachemicallyclean surfaceandshall,onvisualinspection,shownoetching, pitting,orfrostingresultingfromthepassivationprocedures. 12.TestingAgency 12.1Whenrequired,tbepurchasershallbepermittedto performsucbinspectionsasnecessarytodeterminethattbe testingagencyiscapableofperformingthespecifiedtest. 3   6 A9 7 01 Et  ~I ~1..Lot,FrequencyofTesting,andSelectionofTest16.2Thesamplerepresentingthelotofpassivatedparts 13.1DefinitionofLot-A lotshallconsistofoneoftheshallbetestedbythesaltspraytestconductedinaccordancewithPractice B 117foraminimumof 2 husinga S   saltfo llowing, attheoptionoftheprocessor:13.1.1Thepassivatedpartsofsimilaralloyandmanufac-solution. tu .ing methodsthatarepretreatedandpassivatedinasingle16.3Thetestedsampleshallnotexhibitrustorstainingdorwithinatimeframethatwillensureconsistentpassiva-attributabletothepresenceoffreeironparticlesimbeddedintinresults;thesurface.13.1.2Thepassivatedpartsofthesameproductofonesizefrmoneheatinoneshipment;or13.1.3Whenfewpartsareinvolved,thepassivatedpartsfrmanentireproductionrun.13.2Unlessagreaterfrequencyoftestingisspecifiedonthepichaseorder,onetestperlotshallbesufficient. 13.3Oneormoreofthefollowingtests,whenspecifiedonthãpurchaseorder,shallbeperformedoneachlotofstainlessst el parts.Notallofthefollowingtestsaresuitableforall gt Idesofstainlesssteel.(SeeNote 2.) 13.3.1Practice A-WaterImmersionTest, 13.3.2Practice B-HighHumidityTest, 13.3.3Practice C-SaltSprayTest, 13.3.4Practice D-CopperSulfateTest,and 13.3.SPractice E-PotassiumFerricyanide-NitricAcidTst. OTE 2-Someofthetestsmayproducepositiveindicationsnotas'ociatedwiththepresenceoffreeironontbestainlesssteelsurface.An exunplewouldbeapplicationofPracticeConsomelesser-alloyed mrrtensiricorferriticstainlesssteels. PracticeA-WaterImmersionTest4.1Thistestisusedforthedetectionoffreeironoranyoteranodicsurfacecontaminantsonstainlesssteel.14.2Thesamplerepresentingthelotofpassivatedpartss III bealternatelyimmersedinanon-rustingtankofdistilled w: terforIhandallowedtodryinairfor1h.Thiscycleshall berepeatedaminimumoftwelvetimes.l4.3Thetestedsampleshallnotexhibitrustorstaining at(ibutabletothepresenceoffreeironparticlesembeddedin thsurface.ISPracticeB-HighHumidityTest5.1Thistestisusedforthedetectionoffreeironoranyot eranodicsurfacecontaminantsonstainlesssteel. 15.2 Thetestshallbe performed usingahumiditycabinetcaiableofmaintainingthespecifiedtestconditions. S.3 Thesamplerepresentingthelotofpassivatedpartssh II becleanedbyimmersioninacetoneormethylalcoholorbyswabbingwithacleangauzesaturatedwithacetoneor me thylalcohol,anddriedinaninertatmosphereordesiccated cotainer,Thecleanedanddriedpartshallbesubjectedto97 +   humidityat100 : : SOF (38 : : 3°C)foraminimumof24h.5.4Thetestedsampleshallnotexhibitrustorstainingatnibutabletothepresenceoffreeironparticlesimbeddedin thd surface.16PracticeC-SaltSprayTest6.1Thistestisusedforthedetectionoffreeironoranyot~eranodicsurfacecontaminantsonstainlesssteel. 17. PracticeD-CopperSulfateTest 17.1Thistestisrecommendedforthedetectionoffreeiron onthesnrfaceofausteniticstainlesssteelsinthe200and300series,precipitationhardenedstainlesssteels,andferritic400seriesstainlesssteelshavingaminimumof16 % chromium. Thistestisnotrecommendedformartensitic400seriesstainlesssteelsorforferritic400seriesstainlesssteelswithlessthan16   chromiumbecausethesesteelswillgiveapositiveindicationirrespectiveofthepresenceorabsenceofanodicsurfacecontaminants.Thistestshallnotbeappliedtopartsto beusedinfoodprocessing.17.2Thetestsolutionispreparedbydissolving4gofcoppersulfatepentahydrate(CuS0 4 'SH 2 0)in 2S0 mLofdistilledwatertowhich 1 mLofsulfuricacid (H 2 S0 4, spgr1.84)hasbeenadded.Aqueouscoppersulfatesolutionsmore thantwoweeksoldshallnotbeusedforthistest.17.3Thetestsolutionisswabbedonthesurfaceofthesamplerepresentingthelotofpassivatedparts,applying additionalsolutionasneededtokeepthesurfacewetforaperiodofatleast6min.Attheendofthisperiod,thesurfaceshallbecarefullyrinsedanddriedwithcaretakennottodisturbcopperdepositsifpresent.17.4Thetestedsampleshallnotexhibitcopperdeposits.18.PracticeE-PotassiumFerricyanide-NitricAcidTest 18.1Thistestisrecommendedwhendetectionofverysmallamountsoffreeironisrequired.Itisrecommendedfordetectionoffreeirononaustenitic200and300seriesstainlesssteels.Thistestisnotrecommendedfordetectionoffreeirononferriticormartensitic400seriesstainlesssteels,becausethesesteelswillgiveapositiveindicationirrespectiveofthe presenceorabsenceofanodicsurfacecontaminants.Thistest shallnotbeappliedtopartstobeusedinfoodprocessing. 18.2Thetestsolutionispreparedbyadding10gofchemicallypurepotassiumferricyanideto500mLofdistilled water,adding30mLof70   nitricacid,agitatinguntilalloftheferricyanideisdissolved,anddilutingto1000mLwith distilledwater.Thetestsolutionshallbemixedfreshonthedayofthetest.18.3Thetestsolutionisswabbedonthesurfaceofthe samplerepresentingthelotofpassivatedparts.Theformationofadarkbluecolorwithin30sdenotesthepresenceofmetalliciron. 18.4Thetestedsampleshallnotexhibitthedarkbluecolor indicativeoffreeirononthesurface.18.5Whenthetestisnegative,thesurfaceshallbethor- oughlywashedwithwarmwatertoremovalalltracesofthetestsolution.Whenthetestispositive,thedarkbluestainshall beremovedwithasolutionof10 % aceticacidand8 % oxalicacid,followedbyathoroughhotwaterrinse. 4
Recommended
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks