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facilitating learning
  APPLICATION OF BEHAVIORISM Support Praise With Evidence Saying nice things to your students will work fine for a while, but they might stop  believing you unless you can show them exactly why their behavior warrants praise in the first place. Whenever possible, showthem the proof: point out the specific act and explain why it was so important. Another way to provide concrete examplesof good behavior is to have them keep their work in portfolios for you to review regularly. The routine of reviewing keeps you from appearing as though youve gone out of your way to issue some praise, and having their work right in front of you   Compliment Good Behavior The simplest way in which to apply positive reinforcement is to praise a student when she behaves well or successfully completes a task. !ou could employ asystem of giving gold stars that result in a small pri e when enough have been earned. Take advantage of the effectiveness of simle statements of raise. Utilize Negative Reinforcement  #egative reinforcement isnt punishment. $ather, its when reward good behavior by taking away something your students see as negative. %or example, your class clown always makes inappropriate comments during health lessons and disrupts the class. &e also really doesnt like writing book reports because the writing is  boring. !ou could offer to let him do his book report another way, perhaps as a diorama, on the condition he   Apply Unpleasant ConsequencesWhen Necessary Sometimes punishment is necessary to discourage undesirable behavior, but you must be careful not to go too far and embarrass your students. And (ust as there are positive and negative reinforcement for good behavior, two methods are appropriate for applying punishment. )resentation punishment is the type we aremost familiar with: a student misbehaves and you act by adding a punishment like a detention or time*out. $emoval  punishment is similar to negative reinforcement: you remove something the students see as good because they have  behaved badly. %or example, if they refuse   !e onditionin# e!pe iall$ in e!ta%li!hin# ro&tine!'  $outines are very effective means not only in saving time  but also in maintaining order inside the classroom. %or example, a teacher will raise his+her hand and sign as if counting *-. This signals that papers should be passed at the count of three. )avlovs /lassical /onditionin (rill! help e!pe iall$ in retention and improvement o) learnin# . Allot a time for drills, practice and exerciseespecially before giving a test. $emember to givefeedbacks and point out the things that need to beimroved. Thorndikes 1aw of 2xercise Let p&pil! have proper mind !et! %e)ore !tartin# ale!!on'  A pre*activity, mini*game, warm up exercise,songs, energi ers, icebreakers and a lot more can be used by the teacher. As much as possible, avoid promisingsomething that will excite the pupils+students and then atthe end break it. This might cause frustration amonguils. Thorndikes 1aw of $eadiness   Re*ard! an %e an e))e tive mean! to motivate learner!'  &owever, use this verywisely especially in giving material rewards. Also remember that inner and non*materialrewards like self*fulfillment, self improvement, positiveemotions, praises andcompliments are more fulfilling than any material rewards. Skinners 3erant /onditionin   Simple ontra t! an %e e))e tive in helpin# hildren )o &! on %ehavior han#e . 4t is helpful if teachers and  parents work together with the student to ensure that the contract is being fulfilled. Two examples of behavior contracts are listed below:A student is not completing homework assignments. The teacher and the student design a contract providing that the student will stay for extra help, ask parents for help, and complete assigned work on time. Teacher will be available after school, and during free periods for additional assistance.A student is misbehaving in class. The teacher and studentdevise a behavioral contract to minimi e distractions. )rovisions include that the student will be punctual, will sit in front of the teacher, will raise hand with 5uestions+comments, and will not leave his seat without  permission. The Behavioral +i!! 'egin class by offering each student a handout or another paper. Whenever a student says 6thank you,6 give that studenta chocolate kiss and say 6youre welcome.62ventually the students should catch on and consistently thank you for the paper in order to receive a candy. This brief illustration of operant conditioning may besilly, but its fun. APPLICATION OF CONSTRCTIVISM  Hand!,on a tivitie!  are the best for the classroom applications of constructivism, riti al thin-in#  and learnin# . &aving observations take place with a dail$  .o&rnal  helps the students to better understand how their own experiences contribute to the formation of their theories and observational notes, and then comparing them to another students reiterates that different  backgrounds and cultures create different outlooks, while neither is wrong, both should be respected.   Some strategies for classroom applications of constructivism for the teacher include havin# !t&dent! *or-in# to#ether and aidin# to an!*er one another/! 0&e!tion!'  Another strategy includes designating one student as the 1e2pert1  ona sub(ect and having them teach the class. %inally, allowing students to *or- in #ro&p! or pair! and re!ear h ontrover!ial topi !  which they must then Allowing on!tant onver!ation  between the students and teacher. This engagement creates a discourse of comfort wherein all ideas can be considered and understood and the students then feel safe about challenging other hypotheses, defending their own, and supporting real*world situations with abstract supporting   (i! overin# and maintainin# an individ&al/! intelle t&al identit$ . This forces students to support their own theories, in essence taking responsibility for their words and resectin those of Allows each student to !olve pro%lem!  while the teacher monitorsand flexibly guides the students to the correct answer, while en o&ra#in# riti al thin-in#'   4nstead of having the students relying on someone elses information and accepting it as truth, the students should be exposed to data , primar$ !o&r e! , and the ability to intera t *ithother !t&dent!  so that they can learn from the incorporation of their experiences. The classroomexperience should be an invitation for a myriad of different backgrounds and the learning experience which allows the different  backgrounds to come together and observe and analy e information and ideas.   Cooperative Learnin#  This activity helps students understand the different types of cooperative learning that can be implemented in the classroom. 7singa (igsaw, students are divided into small groups and learn about a  particular method. 3ne student from each group forms another group to teach each other about the method they researched. Students return to their srcinal groups to review. Then students are given a 5ui on the   En#a#ement &ave the students line up in order of birthdaysfrom youngest to oldest0. The students will pair up in two8s based upon who they are next to. Thestudents will write a paragraph about themselves,using the list of 5uestions as a guide to tell themwhat to include. The students will write their  paragraphs and then come up with 5uestions toask their partner about other aspects of their lives.   E2perimentation3  students individually  perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results. Re!ear h pro.e t!3  students research a topic and can present their findings to the class. Field trip! . This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real*world context. %ield trips would often  be followed by class discussions. Film!'  These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience. Cla!! di! &!!ion! . This techni5ue is used in all of the methods described above. 4t is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.   E2ploration The students will read their paragraphs to their  partners and ask 5uestions that they would like toknow. The students will take notes on their classmates responses E2planation W hen the students are done sharing then theywill share their findings with the class byintroducing their partner to them. They studentswill tell the class what they found out about them.2ach group will have to participate but the  APPLICATION OF COGNITIVISM   The Memor$ Game 9isplay seven to ten items in front of the classroom for about ; seconds on a tableor in an overhead0. Ask the students to commit them to memory, then remove the items. Ask the students to write down what they have seen. 4ntroduce the 13/4 techni5ue and display another list of items for them to remember.   Idea! )or Re!pon!e Paper! Any of the following ideas could be used as a springboardfor a thoughtful student reflection about the material they have been studying. 2ncourage students to expand on the information they have read by provided examples from their own lives and offering srcinal insights or creative applications.Write about an toic that is of secific interest to ou.  The best way for a teacher to approach using cognitivism in the classroom is to a!- 0&e!tion!  to help students refine their thinking and recogni e where they may be wrong. !ou want to approach topics that they may think they already know and introduce some new aspect to make them redefine something. Alternately, for entirely new topics, you want to dra* &pon %a -#ro&nd -no*led#e  before you challenge existing ideas schema0 and create learning toward amplification or change of those schemata.Activating prior kno   wledge before  beginning a lesson helps prepare students to connect new information. )rior knowledge can be activated using a +4L hart or an anti ipation #&ide'  <W1 charts document what students know, want to know, and have learned in a learning segment. Anticipation =uides ask students 5uestions about what they are getting reading to learn, giving them the opportunity to guess the correct answer, which engages them and helps them Mind map!  are a way of graphically organi ing thoughts.>ind maps begin with a central idea from which related information branches out,  becoming increasingly more specific.   Cla!!i)i ation  uses the same concept in reverse **students begin with something specific and increasingly put it into broader categories. %or example, a teacher may show students a grasshopper and then allow students to figure out what else it is. A grasshopper may also be classified as an insect, a plant*eater, consumer,  pest, prey, orthopteran, etc. The same process is used when a student sorts ob(ects, words, and concepts. Sorting is putting specific things into a  broader category. Compare and Contra!t a tivitie!  are another way to make connections. When students compare two things, they are identifying similarities. When they contrasttwo thins the are identifin differences. Sortin# Game! Sorting games re5uire individuals to utili erecognition and reasoning. Teachers can engage children in games in which the children sort items by various criteria, suchas color, si e, texture, and other physical attributes of the items. A more advanced approach to sorting is discussing how the items are similar. This process promotes critical thinking. P&55le!  %inding a solution to a pu le develops a childs problem solving ability. )u les re5uire a child to consider  patterns, orders, and associations. Some children are  better problem, and pu le, solvers than others. /hildren who actively solve pu les that they are able to touch and  piece together are more likely to understand certain concepts and develop their own theories about those concets. Board    Game! Teachers may include board games in their classrooms to promote cognitive development. 7nlike computer and video games, boardgames are tangible. /hildren can manipulate different pieces in the game. 'oard games can be implemented to enhance mathematical and linguistic skills and enhance a childs ability to understand and follow directions. >onopoly and 'ingo are two examples of ames that ma be considered in the   CE Learnin# Teach your students the acronym /. 7. 2., which stands for /reative, 7seful and 2motional &ook. =ive them several learning tasks and ask them to come up with waysto include each of these elements in a lesson lan
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