An Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis Case Study: Changing Responses to the Haiti Earthquake | Economies | Business

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In 2007, and based on the value chain development framework, the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) toolkit was designed to help staff to understand, work with and support critical markets in sudden onset emergencies. Oxfam GB and the International Rescue Committee have now used this assessment tool in a number of emergency responses. This case study looks at the EMMA that was undertaken in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake, and the emergency responses implemented as a result of this, by both the IRC and OGB.
   An Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis study Changing Responses to the Haiti Earthquake Written by: Carol Brady Edited by: Emily Henderson and Philippa Young   A cash transfer beneficiary shows off the produce from an urban garden. The Karoi programme combined cash transfers with support to income generating activities   Charitable Pierre, 45, is a small restaurant (canteen) owner. She was a renter and ran her business from her house, which collapsed into a heap of rubble during the earthquake. Oxfam gave her a grant that she used to restock her shelves with food items for sale. She’s re-opened in a makeshift spot across the street. Someday – when she has saved enough – she plans to rebuild a small house on a parcel her landlord has given her as a gift. Photo: Toby Adamson  In 2007, and based on the value chain development framework, the Emergency Market Mapping and  Analysis (EMMA) toolkit was designed to help staff to understand, work with and support critical markets in sudden onset emergencies. Oxfam GB (OGB) and the International Rescue Committee (IRC) have now used this assessment tool in a number of emergency responses. This case study looks at the EMMA that was undertaken in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake, and the emergency responses implemented as a result of this, by both the IRC and OGB. The principles of EMMA  In recent years, international humanitarian agencies have been re-examining their responses to emergencies. Many have begun experimenting with cash-based initiatives alongside, or in place of, conventional relief distributions of food and non-food items. In addition, local procurement is also being encouraged. However, there has also been a subsequent realisation that unless responses (both cash and in-kind) are designed with a good understanding of key markets, they may inadvertently damage livelihoods, jobs and businesses, thus undermining recovery and prolonging dependence on external assistance. In response to the need for a better analysis of markets in emergencies, between 2007 and 2010, the IRC, OGB and Practical Action, in consultation with a wide panel of agencies from the international community, developed the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) toolkit.Crucially, EMMAs depend on a clear understanding of household contexts, from needs, livelihoods and incomes to expenditure and debts. This understanding relies on other initial assessments, such as the Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA) and the Household Economy Analysis (HEA).EMMA is designed to provide additional and complementary information that specifically details the extent to which markets are functioning at all levels – from for example breakdowns in transport, access to credit and labour constraints to obstructive trade and licensing laws. Using a three pronged approach – gap analysis, market analysis and response analysis - EMMA employs a variety of existing tools, (such as seasonal calendars, market maps, household income and expenditure profiles and response frameworks) to examine the extent to which critical market systems are functioning, and can be used and supported to meet people’s needs.EMMA was designed to allow non-market specialist staff to collect enough systemic market information needed to identify market blockages and inform decision-making in sudden onset emergencies. In such contexts, there is no time for sustained, deep and detailed analysis. EMMAs are based on a ten step iterative process that demands rapid and rough, or ‘good enough’ analysis. EMMA encourages users to disregard non-essential or unnecessary detail (‘optimal ignorance’) and be satisfied with approximations and rough estimates (‘appropriate imprecision’) i . Since the EMMA Toolkit was developed, it has been piloted in four emergencies and has been implemented in 14 sudden onset emergencies globally ii , including the Haiti earthquake in January 2010. Good practice standards guidelines and evaluations all emphasise the importance of including markets in emergency situation and response analysis. While this approach has become more widely accepted by international organisations in recent years, in practice it is clear that support is still needed to develop the skills of humanitarian workers to ensure that they don’t overlook the role of markets in emergency and early recovery responses. Common challenges include not knowing what data to gather and from where (macro versus micro levels), how to interpret basic information collected, how to effectively present findings or how to translate analysis into programme decisions. Why use EMMA? ã  To make early decisions  about the relative wisdom of different direct response options ã  To assess opportunities for complementary ‘indirect’ actions ã  To reduce the risk of doing harm ã  To  assist in monitoring  performance and accessibility of market-systems ã  To improve the quality   of disaster preparedness ã  To define the requirements for  more detailed market analysis.    The EMMA toolkit is still relatively young. Gathering implementation information, lessons learnt and best practices is crucial in the drive to hone and improve the tool, to adapt it to the needs of the humanitarian sector as well as to increase its effectiveness in supporting better humanitarian responses. This case study looks at the impacts of the EMMA for the IRC and OGB and is part of the ongoing documentation, assessment and development of the EMMA toolkit. Background  At 16:53 on January 12th 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale hit Haiti, approximately 25 kilometres west of Port au Prince (PaP). Approximately 3.5 million people lived in the areas directly affected by the earthquake.  An estimated 220,000 people died during and immediately after the earthquake. A further 1.5 million people were displaced. For those who survived the earthquake, their realities had been dramatically changed. Homes and productive assets were lost or damaged and infrastructure was shattered. Poverty levels were estimated to have risen by 30-50% in PaP and by 80% in the commune of Carrefour. Across the city, people struggled to afford to eat as purchasing power crumbled. As a result, food became less affordable and, therefore, less accessible. The earthquake had disrupted lives and had disrupted the markets upon which these lives and livelihoods depended. EMMA in the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Response  An EMMA pilot assessment had been carried out in Haiti following severe tropical storms in 2008. Considering the practical uses and advantages of undertaking EMMA assessments, it was felt to be appropriate to carry one out following the 2010 earthquake. The EMMA was carried out from the 7th to the 17th of February, three weeks after the earthquake. In parallel, a rapid Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA) took place covering the directly affected communes, from the 5th to the 12th of February, 2010. This was led by Haiti’s Coordination Nationale de la Sécurité  Alimentaire (CNSA), in partnership with Action Contre la Faim (ACF), OGB, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) and the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and World Food Program (WFP). This parallel activity was fairly well coordinated, and both teams found the work of the other assessment useful. In Haiti the EMMA team was led by IRC and included a total of 18 staff members from 11 organizations including: American Red Cross, Haitian Red Cross, the International Federation of the Red Cross, Save the Children (SAVE-US), Mercy Corps, OGB, WFP, ACDI/  VOCA, ACF and FEWS NET. While EMMA is designed to be used by those without economic training, this team had a mix of those with significant market experience and those with none. Approximately two days of training was provided, with additional training throughout the course of the assessment on various aspects of the tool iii . The target group of EMMA assessments was the earthquake affected population of greater PaP, numbering more than two million people in this area alone and spread across different wealth groups. The EMMA team chose not to disaggregate the target population, not only due to the widespread needs both across the city and across all wealth groups, but because the critical markets analysed affected everyone. To different extents, the earthquake had damaged so many people’s homes, lives and means to making ends meet. To limit responses to the ‘most vulnerable’ would have, undoubtedly, only focused attention and efforts on part of the picture. While supporting those people, such as market traders, who traditionally are not perceived to be amongst the most vulnerable, may appear to be contrary to many NGOs mandates, recognising the role they play is a central tenet of EMMA. Organisations may seek to target the most vulnerable; however, to effectively and sustainably meet the needs of this group, other actors within the larger market system, including traders, wholesalers and importers, might need support to enable them to Before the earthquake Carlene Charles ran a small local café. Oxfam’s livelihoods teams have enlisted her and 55 more local ““restauratrices” (street cooks)” to serve a hot meal every day to people who are most in need. “We’re very content with this idea, it has enabled me to start work again” says Carlene. Photo: Alex Renton
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