Aligarh Movement | British Raj

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Aligarh Movement
  CHAPTER  - V ALIGARH MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL POLITICS  CHAPTER-V ALIGARH MOVEMENT AND NATIONAL POLITICS In the first half of the 20' century, AHgarh Movement had reached on its climax. It was a period of political development in the context of the National Movement. Many ups and downs could be seen in the political horizon of the country in the first half of the 20' century. The partition of Bengal (1905) and subsequently the creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam generated widespread reaction from the Indian people and a countrywide agitation started in the form of Swadeshi Movement. On the other hand, the rise of Swadeshi Movement and its demand for the annuhnent of the partition of Bengal brought some sort of anxietv among the Muslim community of newly created Province of Eastern i-Jengal and Assam. Even Muslim intelligentsia also had the same anxiety regarding the increasing demand for annulment of partition of Bengal as they thought thai it would hamper the better prospects of the Muslims of newly l^rovince of Eastern Bengal and Assam. To safeguard their interests they led the foundation of Muslim League as a parallel political body like Indian National Congress. On the other hand Aligarh Movement led by its leaders, turned into a new direction under the able guidance of Nawab Viqarul Mulk. Sahabzada Aftab Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Ali, Sir Ziauddin and many others to achieve ils goal to achieve a full-fledged L'niversity which would have the full autonom\ under the Muslims of India. The agitation for the demand of the Muslim University intermingled with the national politics of India in 20'^ centur}.  And the goal of achieving the Muslim University was fulfilled during the period  oi'  Sir Ziauddin who was the Principal of M.A.O. College. The period of Sir Ziauddin as Principal of M.A.O. College witnessed the rise of Khilafat and Non-Coperation Movement in the College Campus and thus national politics had badly affected the atmosphere of the College. The period of Sir Ziauddin as the Vice-Chancellor of AMU (1935-1938) and (1941-1947)  168 also wilncssed the development of national politics in the University campus and it was passing through the difficult phase not only the national politics become the cup of the tea of the students of the University but also separatist groups became active in the University Campus and later they played their decisive role in the partition of India. In this way we could also see the development of national politics and the separatist trends which crept into the Unixersil} politics in the first half of the 20 ^ century which marked the development of pro-Muslim League activities in the first half of the 20^^ centur) in the University campus and their subsequent role in the creation of Pakistan led the University authorities into trouble. In this chapter an attempt has been made to analyze the contemporary politics of India and its impact on the Aligarh Movement vice-versa from 1913 to 1947 i.e. after the resignation of Nawab Viqarul Mulk from the post of llonorar) Secretaryship of the M.A.O. College till the partition of India. How the Aligarh leaders and the Muslim community able to get a Muslim university which was a cherished dream of Sir Syed was discussed here. An attempt is also made to analyze the development of Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement in the M.A.O. College Campus and what role played by the Aligarh leaders in creating a separate National University has been focused in detail. In this chapter an attempt is also made to analyze the nationalist and separatist trend which developed in the University and to what extent they played their role in the politics of the country in the first half of the 20^^ century has also been anahzed in detail. A) Struggle for Muslim University I- or more than two decades (1898-1920). the struggle for a Muslim University ^vas carried on by Muslim leaders with varying degree of zeal and earnestness. British educational policy and the general political climate of the country acted and reacted on this struggle, which passed through various phases of disillusionment and hope. The leaders of the Movement had. from the very  169 beginning commilled themselves to the following features of the proposed Muslim Universit}: -(a) An All India status. (b) Power of affiliating Colleges outside Aligarh. and (e) Complete administrative and academic autonomy.' To get these above demands of the future Muslim University, successors of Sir S>ed and the Muslim community started their struggle for University movement after the death of its founder in 1898. The struggle for university movement passed through the four phases, which are as follows : (i) From 1898 to 1904, when the Movement was initiated with great enthusiasm but the Indian University Act of 1904 dampened the spirits of the people; (ii) l-rom 1904 to 1910. when the Movement was just carried on without any real force or momentum; (iii) From 1910 to 1914 when the coming of Agha Khan, who initiated a fresh drive for collection of funds for University Movement and Lord Crew  s  veto in 1912 took the stream out of  the  Movement. (iv) From 1915 to 1920; when after the war. various political Movements thrilled the country and reached Aligarh also, and the Government deemed at politic to fulfill some of  the  Muslims aspiration by raising the M.A.O. College to the status of  a  University. The progress of the University Movement was hampered by the involvement of its leaders viz. Nawab Mohsinul Mulk. Nawab Viqarul Mulk in wider political concerns of their community after the death of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. From the beginning of the 20^'^ century, the Nagari Resolufion of 1900 brought up by then the Lieutenant-Governor of N.W. Provinces. Sir Antony K.A. Ni/ami.  History of AMU.  op.cit., p. 2^ Ibid., p. 29.
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