Albania

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The Albania Country Profile skilfully unravels the historical and political background to the present situation in Albania. Despite the advent of democracy in 1992, Albanians have found it hard to participate fully in the building of a new society. The volatility of regional politics in the Balkans, and the absence of a democratic culture, have hindered economic and social progress. Much of this Country Profile is told in the voices of Albanians themselves: people imprisoned under the communist regime of Enver Hoxha
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  Albania  eil Olsen x  xf m  First published by Oxfam GB in 2000© Oxfam GB 2000ISBN 085598 432 5A catalogue record for this publication is available from theBritish Library.All rights reserved. Reproduction, copy, transmission, ortranslation of any part of this publication may be made onlyunder the following conditions:ã With the prior written permission of the publisher; orã With a licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd.,90 Tottenham Court Road, London WiP 9HE, UK, orfrom another national licensing agency; orã For quotation in a review of the work; or. Under the terms set out below.This publication is copyright, but may be reproduced by anymethod without fee for teaching purposes, but not for resale.Formal permission is required for all such uses, but normallywill be granted immediately. For copying in any othercircumstances, or for re-use in other publications, or fortranslation or adaptation, prior written permission must beobtained from the publisher, and a fee may be payable.Available from the following agents: USA:  Stylus Publishing LLC,PO Box 605, Herndon, VA 20172-0605, USAtel: +1 (0)703 661 1581; fax: + 1(0)703 661 1547;email: styluspub@aol.com; website www.styluspub.com Canada:  Fernwood Books Ltd,PO Box 9409, Stn. A , Halifax, N.S. B3K 5S3, Canadatel: +1 (0)902 422 3302; fax: +1 (0)902 422 3179;e-mail: fernwood@istar.ca India:  Maya Publishers Pvt Ltd,113-B, Shapur Jat, New Delhi-110049, Indiatel: +91 (0)11 649 4850; fax: +91 (0)11 649 1039;email: surit@del2.vsnl.net.inK Krishnamurthy,23 Thanikachalan Road, Madras 600017, Indiatel: +91 (0)44 434 4519; fax: +91 (0)44 434 2009;email: ksm@md2.vsnl.net.in South Africa Zimbabwe Botswana Lesotho Namibia Swaziland: David Philip Publishers,PO Box 23408, Claremont 7735, South Africatel: +27 (0)21 64 4136; fax: +27(0)21 64 3358;email: dppsales@iafrica.com Tanzania:  Mkuki na Nyota Publishers,PO Box 4246, Dar es Salaam, Tanzaniatel/fax: +255 (0)51180479, email: mkuki@ud.co.tz Australia:  Bush Books,PO Box 1958, Gosford, NSW 2250, Australiatel: +61 (0)2 043 233 274; fax: +61 (0)2 092 122 468,email: bushbook@ozemail.com.auRest  of the  world contact Oxfam Publishing,274 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7DZ, UK.tel. +44 (0)1865  3 311;  fax +44 (0)1865 3 X 3  9   5> email publish@oxfam.org.uk;websitewww.oxfam.org.uk/publications.html Printed by Information Press, Southfield Road, Eynsham 0X8 iJJ, UK Published  by Oxfam GB, 274 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7DZ, UK Series designed  by Richard Morris, Stonesfield Design.This title designed by Rowie Christopher Design.Typeset in FF Scala and Gill Sans.  over designed  by Rowie ChristopherOxfam GB is a registered charity, no. 202 918, and is amember of Oxfam International. Photo acknowledgements: All photographs © Rhodri Jones for Oxfam GB,except as follows:Bonita Glanville-Morris (©Oxfam GB): 36 bottomJenny Matthews (© Oxfam GB): 8Douglas Saltmarshe (©Oxfam GB): 65AKG London: 17 boxArben Bregu: 28/29Hardlines: 11Jim Rees: 15 2 ALBANIA This book converted to digital file in 2010   ont nts Introduction: freedom at last 5The country and its people 12History: from Skenderbeg to Hoxha 17The painful transition to democracy 23The legacy of central planning 30In search of a living: the lure of Europe 37Education: changing needs and ideas 42The health system under pressure 47New concepts and freedoms 52Albanian women s struggle for equality 55Unlocking the doors: the challenges 60facing people with disabilitiesThe environment: too little, too late? 65 Europe s wild west : the breakdown 70of law and orderAlbanian identity and the Balkan factor 74Conclusion: the need for choice 79and opportunityDates and events 82Facts and figures 84Sources and further reading 85Oxfam in Albania 86Index 87 ALBANIA 3
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