6-22-1-PB | Surgery | Gastroenterology

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 5
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Documents

Published:

Views: 10 | Pages: 5

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
d
Transcript
    International Journal of Advances in Medicine | October-December 2016 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 Page 808 International Journal of Advances in Medicine  Memon MA et al. Int J Adv Med. 2016 Nov;3(4):808-812  http://www.ijmedicine.com  pISSN 2349-3925 | eISSN 2349-3933 Original Research Article A study on acute surgical abdomen in paediatric age group M. Amin Memon, Jiwan Lal Patel*, Mahendra Dhuware INTRODUCTION Acute abdomen is itself a difficult and perplexing subject in adults but the difficulty is much more in diagnosis and treatment in paediatric age group. Symptom complex of acute abdomen in children and adults is similar but they differ in metabolic, physiologic response and clinical  presentation, their tolerance to surgical trauma, temperature variation, infection, fluid and electrolyte  balance. They have low reserve and narrow range of water and electrolyte balance therefore they tolerate acute stress badly. 1-3  In spite of the advances in the diagnostic modalities, there is no substitute for clinical examination. It is important to distinguish between causes requiring surgical treatment and those do not. 4,5  Hence this study is undertaken to ABSTRACT Background:  Acute abdomen is common surgical problem therefore it is important to understand its epidemiological and clinical aspects in order to adopt appropriate line of management. It is important to distinguish between causes requiring surgical treatment and those do not. Hence this study is undertaken to recognise the pattern of acute abdomen in paediatric age group. Methods: The present study conducted in paediatric surgery unit of department of surgery, Dr. BRAM Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, during January 2013 to December 2015. Patients were admitted and conservative line of management was started. Routine and specific investigations were done. After proper resuscitation and assessment  patients were managed either by conservatively or by appropriate surgical procedures. Postoperative care was done and outcome of the study was noted. Results:  In the present study, most of the patients were in the age group of 6-10 years (27.5%) followed by neonates (21.67%). Majority of patients were male. Etiology of acute abdomen was congenital in 21.66% cases and acquired in 78.33% cases. In acquired causes most common was non-penetrating abdominal trauma followed by acute appendicitis. In congenital causes most common was anorectal malformations followed by congenital megacolon. Most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain (83.33%) and vomiting (79.17) while most common sign was tachycardia and tenderness. Inflamed appendix was the most common intraoperative finding (16.67%) and colostomy was the most commonly performed operative procedure (25.57% cases) followed by appendicectomy (19.69%). Fever was most common postoperative complication followed by chest infection. Mortality was higher in operative group (16.67%) as compared to non-operative (9.25%) and neonatal mortality was higher followed by infants. Conclusions:  Early diagnosis and prompt intervention is crucial factor to improve the outcome in acute surgical abdomen cases. Keywords: Acute abdomen, Etiology, Paediatric age Department of Paediatric Surgery, Dr. BRAM Hospital, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India Received:  30 July 2016 Revised:  02 August 2016 Accepted: 06 August 2016 *Correspondence: Dr. Jiwan Lal Patel, E-mail: dhiraj.bhawnani@gmail.com Copyright:  © the author(s), publisher and licensee Medip Academy. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the srcinal work is properly cited. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20162818   Memon MA et al. Int J Adv Med. 2016 Nov;3(4):808-812 International Journal of Advances in Medicine | October-December 2016 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 Page 809 recognise the pattern of acute abdomen in paediatric age group. The purpose of present study is to analyse incidence, causative factors, associated congenital anomaly, clinico-pathological presentation, its management and associated morbidity and mortality of acute abdomen in paediatric age group. METHODS Acute abdomen is a common condition presenting in  paediatric age group. Present study enrolled all the  patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen in paediatric surgery unit of department of surgery of Dr. BRAM Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India during January 2013 to December 2015. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethical committee. Inclusion criteria    All patients presented with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen in paediatric surgery unit    Age <14 years of age. Exclusion criteria    Cases with mild intestinal colic and mild abdominal  pain not showing any definitive feature of acute abdomen and relieved after 24 hours. 1 st  time examination was done at the time of visit, second examination after investigation and the third repeat examination to make final diagnosis. According to common presentation of surgical abdomen, it can be classified into three sub-groups: Table 1:   Common presentation of surgical abdomen. Subgroup   Presentation  1. Definite local tenderness and spasm usually indicate a focal inflammation. 2. A palpable distended intestinal loop or a movable solid sausage mass indicates intestinal obstruction. 3. A resistant and silent abdomen indicates generalised peritonitis. By a soft flat abdomen without the above mentioned signs, patients can be excluded. Immediately after admission, resuscitation with I.V. fluids started till the hydration and urine output becomes normal. Nasogastric decompression and antibiotics started. Close observation of all parameters like pulse rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, abdominal girth,  bowel sounds and tenderness and guarding was done. The following investigations are carried out CBC, blood grouping, urine routine and microscopy, RBS, urea, creatinine, serum electrolytes in all patients. Plain X-ray abdomen erect was done in all patients. Special X-rays - invertogram and contrast enemas were done, when required. Ultrasonography of abdomino  pelvis was done in most of patients for confirmation of X-ray findings and associated others abnormalities. After  proper resuscitation and assessment patients were managed either by conservatively or by appropriate surgical procedure. Postoperative care was done and outcome of the study was noted (in terms of survival and death). The results are tabulated stressing the following  points-aetiology, age, sex, symptoms, examination findings, investigations, operative findings, and operative  procedures adopted. Data was compiled in MS Excel and checked for its completeness and correctness, and it was analysed. RESULTS In our study acute abdomen contributes 27.27% of admissions in paediatric surgery unit. Most of the patients were in the age group of 6-10 years (27.5%) followed by neonates (21.67%) (Table 2). Majority of patients were male (70%). In neonates, 38% had <37 weeks gestational age and 42% had weight <2.5 kg. Etiology of acute abdomen was congenital in 52 cases (21.66%) and acquired in 188 cases (78.33%). In acquired causes most common was non-penetrating abdominal trauma (15%) followed by acute appendicitis (12.5%). (Table 3) In congenital causes most common was anorectal malformations (10.8%) followed by congenital megacolon (5%). Most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain (83.33%) and vomiting (79.17) (Table 4) while most common sign was tachycardia (75%) and tenderness (58.33%). (Table 5) Table 2: Age wise distribution of cases. Age group No of cases percentage 0-1 month 52 21.67 1 month- 1 year 12 5 1-3 year 24 10 3-6 years 44 18.33 6-10 years 66 27.50 10-14 years 42 17.33 On investigating 65% patients were found anaemic and 54% patients had abnormal WBC count. X-ray shows  pneumo-peritoneum in only 50% of cases of perforation  peritonitis. And Ultrasonography was positive in 53.57% cases (Table 6). Out of 240 cases 132 patients (55%) underwent operative procedure while 108 cases (45%) were managed conservatively. Inflammed appendix was the most common intraoperative findings (16.67%) and colostomy was the most commonly performed operative  procedure (25.57% cases) followed by appendicectomy (19.69%). (Table 7). Exploratory laparotomy was done in 90 cases and transverse abdominal incision was used in 90% cases. Out of 132 operated patients 50 (37.88%) had fever postoperatively followed by chest infection in 44 (33.33%) (Table 8).   Memon MA et al. Int J Adv Med. 2016 Nov;3(4):808-812 International Journal of Advances in Medicine | October-December 2016 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 Page 810 Table 3: Distribution of cases according to aetiology. Etiology   No of cases   Percentage   Inflammatory  Acute appendicitis 30 12.5 Primary peritonitis 4 1.66  Necrotising enterocolitis 8 3.33  perforation peritonitis 16 6.66 Acute gastroenteritis 18 7.5 Urinary tract infection 14 5.83 Acute gastritis 4 1.66 Jejuno-ileitis 4 1.66 miscellaneous 6 2.5 Acute mechanical obstruction  Anorectal malformation 26 10.8 Adhesions 6 2.5 Intussusception 4 1.66 Bowel atresia 8 3.33 Malrotation 4 1.66 Congenital megacolon 12 5.0 Meckel’s diverticulum  2 0.83 Koch’s abdomen  8 3.33 Congenital hypertrophic  pyloric stenois 8 3.33 miscellaneous 12 5.0 Traumatic  Penetrating 10 4.16  Non penetrating 36 15.0 Vascular - - Table 4: Distribution of cases according to symptoms. Symptoms   No of cases   Percentage  Abdominal distension 142 60 Abdominal pain 200 83.33 Vomiting 190 79.17 Excessive cry 72 30 Loose stool 40 16.67 Fever 76 31.67  Not passing flatus and motion 126 52.51 Blood in stool 6 0.025 Table 5: Distribution of cases according to signs. Signs   No of cases   Percentage  Tachycardia 180 75 Dehydration 100 41.67 Shock 40 16.67 Tenderness 140 58.33 Guarding 136 56.6 Rigidity 90 37.5 Lump abdomen 8 3.33 Absent bowel sound 56 23.33 Signs of established sepsis 50 20.84 Positive per rectal examination 30 12.5 Table 6: Distribution of cases according to investigations. Investigations No of cases Percentage Hemoglobin (gm/dl) >11 84 35 mild 8-11 124 51.67 Moderate 6-8 22 9.67 Severe <6 10 4.16 Total 240 WBC count  Normal 110 45.83 Abnormal High 100 41.67 Low 30 12.5 Total 240 X-ray in hollow viscous perforation  Normal 8 50 Abnormal 8 50 Total 16 Ultrasound Positive 60 53.57  Negative 52 47.43 Total 112 Table 7: Distribution of cases according to operative procedures. Operative procedure No of cases Percentage Resection and anastomosis 12 9.09 Colostomy 34 25.57 Primary repair of perforation 14 10.60 Appendicectomy 26 19.69 Ladd’s procedure  4 3.03 Exploratory laparotomy with lavage 8 6.06 Cut back anoplasty 6 4.54 Ramstedt’s  pyloromyotomy 8 6.06 Release of adhesion 2 1.50 Ileostomy 14 10.6 Splenectomy 2 1.50 Suprapubic cystostomy 2 1.50 Table 8: Distribution of cases according to postoperative complications. Complications No of cases Percentage Fever 50 37.88 Shock 16 12.12 Septicaemia 16 12.12 Chest infection 44 33.33 Wound infection 26 19.69 Wound dehiscence 12 9.09 Fistula 2 1.51 Diarrhoea 14 10.60 Anastomotic leak 2 1.51   Memon MA et al. Int J Adv Med. 2016 Nov;3(4):808-812 International Journal of Advances in Medicine | October-December 2016 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 Page 811 Postoperative wound infection was found in 26 (19.69%)  patients who were mainly in patients with contaminated  peritoneum 24 (92.3%). In our study mortality was higher in operative group (16.67%) as compared to nonoperative (9.25%) and neonatal mortality was higher followed by infants (Table 9).  Table 9: Mortality according to age group. Age group No of cases Mortality percentage 0-1 month 52 20 38.46 1 month - 1 year 12 2 20 1-3 year 24 2 7.7 3-6 year 44 2 4.76 6-10 year 66 6 9 10-14 year 42 0 0 DISCUSSION Acute abdomen is common surgical problem therefore it is important to understand its epidemiological and clinical aspects in order to adopt appropriate line of management. The incidence of acute abdomen was 5.4% with male to female ratio 2.3:1 in study done by Erkan T et al. 6  In our study, aetiology of acute abdomen was congenital in 21.66% and acquired in 78.33%.In acquired causes most common was non-penetrating abdominal trauma (15%) followed by acute appendicitis (12.5%). Acute abdomen due to blunt injury abdomen was the most common cause due to fast development of traffic and lack of traffic sense in this area. In inflammatory causes acute gastroenteritis was second most common cause after appendicitis which correlates with the study done by Alexander K.C. et al. 1  In congenital causes most common was anorectal malformations (10.8%) followed by congenital megacolon (5%). Most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain (83.33%) and vomiting (79.17) which correlates with the Chana RS et al. 3  Evaluation of pain in terms of duration, location, mode of onset and character helps in making diagnosis. Parietal pain is sharper and better localised. Abdominal pain that persist for 6 hours and more with severe intensity increases the likelihood of surgical causes. Vomiting may occur due to severity of pain or  because of disease in gastrointestinal tract. When abdominal pain precedes vomiting chances of surgical cause is more. 3  Content and colour of vomiting is also significant in making diagnosis of acute abdomen. Most common sign was tachycardia (75%) which is an established fact (Julian Britton). 7  It may be due to inflammation, infection, fever, septicaemia, hypovolumia, pain in abdomen, diffuse peritonitis etc. Tenderness was the second most common sign of acute abdomen (58.33%). 3  It may be localised or diffuse. Rebound tenderness was the most important sign which was present in 20% patients in this study. It is best elicited by percussion. Guarding was present in 56.67%  patients. It is due to reflex contraction of muscle of the abdominal wall when the examining hand palpates it and thus causes pain. Rigidity which was due to involuntary increase in the resting tone of the muscles of the abdominal wall was present in 37.5% cases. On investigating 65% patients were found anaemic. Anaemia doesn’t itself affect the outco me in otherwise healthy patient. 4  Healing is impaired by conditions often associated with anaemia such as malnutrition, abnormalities of circulating blood volume and increased  blood viscosity following trauma. Anaemia should be corrected preoperatively if possible, low haematocrit can’t be tolerated in stressed children. White blood count was normal in 45.83% and abnormal in only 54%  patients. This could be due to the fact that most of the  patients are partially treated and on medication, some are undernourished and having low immunity. Plain x-ray abdomen was normal in 66.67% patients of acute abdomen. In hollow viscous perforation group, plain x-ray abdomen was positive in 50% cases and in rest 50%  plain X-ray was unable to detect pneumo-peritoneum  preoperatively which is comparable with the result of Simeone et al. 8  Absence of pneumoperitoneum in hollow viscous perforation may be explained by the position of  patient during radiography, sealing of perforation, lack of gas at the site of perforation, adhesion around the  perforation or early presentation. 8 Ultrasonography was consistent with intraoperative findings in 53.57% cases and negative in rest 47.43%. Because of non-invasive nature, cost effectiveness and non-exposure to radiation sonography has become a highly reliable tool in diagnosis of acute abdomen in children but its use and proper interpretation is necessary since it is highly operator dependent. 9,10  In our study 55% underwent operative procedure while 45% were managed conservatively. Most of the blunt injuries, acute gastroenteritis and renal causes are managed conservatively. Study done by Overbo KK et al shows 37% surgical intervention done. 11  Inflamed appendix was the most common intraoperative findings (16.67%) and colostomy was the most commonly  performed operative procedure (25.57% cases) followed  by appendectomy (19.69%). 6  During exploratory laparotomy transverse abdominal incision was used in 90% cases. Transverse incision is gold standard for paediatric patients as wound dehiscence rate is very low, easy access to the entire peritoneal cavity and healing occurred with minimal scarring. 12 Postoperatively 37.88% had fever followed by chest infection in 33.33%. Most of the early postoperative fever is caused by inflammatory stimulus of surgery and resolves spontaneously. 7  Pulmonary complications are due to incomplete recovery of chest function, prolonged hospital stay, intubation complications and prolonged surgery. 5 Lungs are not completely developed at birth and
Recommended
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks