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Chapter 6: Use and Design of the Inventory and Warehouse Management Module CHAPTER 6: USE AND DESIGN OF THE INVENTORY AND WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT MODULE Objectives The objectives are: ã Describe how reservations and marking are used in the system. ã Review the inventory transactions and on hand inquiries. ã Describe the data model
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  Chapter 6: Use and Design of the Inventory and Warehouse Management Module 6-1 CHAPTER 6: USE AND DESIGN OF THE INVENTORY AND WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT MODULE Objectives The objectives are: ã   Describe how reservations and marking are used in the system. ã   Review the inventory transactions and on hand inquiries. ã   Describe the data model for inventory transactions and on hand inventory. ã   Review the structure of the InventOnHand Class. ã   Explain how inventory journals are used. ã   Discuss the inventory journals data model and the structure of the InventJournalCheckPost classes. ã   Describe how quarantine management and quality management are used in the system. ã   Explain inventory blocking. ã   Describe other functionality that is available in the Inventory and warehouse management module. Introduction The following sections explain the functionality offered by the Inventory and warehouse management module by describing a series of tasks that are  performed by using the module. The following main tasks are supported by the Inventory and warehouse management module. ã   Reservations and marking of inventory ã   Maintenance of item transaction history and on hand inventory ã   Inventory journal transactions such as cycle counts and adjustments ã   Quarantine and quality management ã   Other  Development IV in Microsoft Dynamics ®  AX 2012 6-2 Reservations and Marking When you enter a sales order line, you can make a commitment against the current stock or an expected future arrival. The reserved quantity will be deducted from the available quantity. This guarantees that the sales order line can  be delivered as promised. This concept is known as reservation. When an item is delivered to a customer, the cost value of the item is used to calculate the sale’s contribution margin. You can allocate a single sale of an item against a specific stock lot to make sure that this calculation is completed correctly. This concept is known as marking. Marking is used on items where the average cost could be misleading because of large fluctuations in the costs of individual stock lots. Marking is a more detailed specification within the combinations of the dimensions set up as financial dimensions. You cannot mark across financial dimensions. Reservations Overview There are two basic types of reservations in Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012— reserved physical and reserve ordered. A physical reservation is a hard allocation or reservation. When a transaction is physically reserved, the item is available in the warehouse and it is specifically set aside for the transaction(s) that it is reserved against. The reserve ordered type reservation is a soft allocation. This means the items are currently on order and those specific ordered items are reserved for a specific transaction. When the items are available in inventory, the reservation is changed from reserve ordered to reserved physical. For example, you have created a sales order for 100 widgets. The widgets are not available in inventory. However there are several open purchase orders for the item so that you can make an ordered reservation for the widgets against the sales order. After the widgets are received, the reservation can be updated to a physical reservation. There are three methods for making reservations in Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012. ã   Manual : This type of reservations requires a user to manually select the items to be reserved. ã   Automatic : This type of reservation is created by the system when you are creating transactions. ã   Explosion : This type of reservation is designed specifically for Bill of Materials (BOM) products. The reservation is exploded or expanded to the line of the BOM not just the header.  Chapter 6: Use and Design of the Inventory and Warehouse Management Module 6-3 Reservations Data Model The data model for reserved inventory is the same as other types of inventory transactions. When inventory is reserved, the inventory transaction (InventTrans table record) is updated with an Issue status to indicate that the quantities are  physically reserved or reserve ordered. Additionally, the InventDimFixed  field is updated with the inventDimID for the dimension combination that the inventory is reserved against. The InventSum table is used to make sure that the reserved quantities are available. This requires that negative physical inventory is not allowed and it is controlled by the item model group that is specified on each released product.   The control of the availability only considers the dimensions that are marked as  part of the physical inventory.  NOTE  : For more information about the inventory transaction data model, refer to the Inquiries and Transactions topic in this course. Inquiries and Transactions You can use the Inventory   and warehouse module to make inquiries on the actual status and on historic transactions. On hand The quantity on hand (available quantity) is a key figure when you make decisions related to a specific item. This information can be supplemented by expected stock movements because of future purchases, production, or sales. One of the main purposes of the Inventory and warehouse management  module is to supply this important information; many of the other functions described are intended to maintain this information. Transactions Historic transactions are an important source of information because they show all item movements. By knowing the current quantity of an item, and its historic transactions, you can calculate the quantity in stock for any historic date. You can also print an inventory list for a given date, even if the quantities have changed because of transactions after this date.  Development IV in Microsoft Dynamics ®  AX 2012 6-4 Inventory Transactions Many different actions in the system can trigger how you can create inventory transactions. The four primary transactions include the following. ã   Purchase : When purchase orders are created, the expected receipt is recorded in the inventory transactions. The status is changed when the product receipt and invoice are updated. ã   Production : When a production order is created and estimated, the expected receipt and consumption are recorded in the inventory transactions. The status is changed when the raw materials are consumed and when the goods are reported as finished. ã   Project : The Project management and accounting  module has several functions to register the consumption of items. A project can  be related with a purchase order that contains items bought for the specific project. The project can also have related sales orders to manage the items sold to the customer as a part of the project. The consumption of items can also be registered by using an inventory  journal or by creating an item requirement. ã   Sales : When a sales order is created, the expected withdrawal is recorded in the inventory transaction. If the quantity is reserved, this is reflected in the status of the inventory transaction. Item status is changed as picking lists, packing slips, and invoices are updated. Inventory Transactions Data Model The InventTrans table is one of the largest tables in Microsoft Dynamics AX, and it keeps growing because of too much redundant data. Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 begins changing this trend by refactoring parts of the table. Refactoring helps reduce the amount of data that is stored (disk space) and help  parts of the table to avoid redundant data and the inherent risk of inconsistent data. The earlier versions of Microsoft Dynamics AX used the InventTransId  field name to identify sets of inventory transactions in the InventTrans table to then identify the srcin of inventory transactions in the srcinating tables, such as the SalesLine, PurchLine, ProdTable, or InventJournalTrans table. However, the InventTransId is not the ID for inventory transactions. This field identified the set of inventory transactions related to the inventory transaction srcinating record. Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 introduces a new table named InventTransOrigin that uses the RecId as the primary key, and the InventTransId is the alternative or natural key. The new table stores data that is common to all the transactions related to the same inventory transaction srcinating record.
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