The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, known by its Spanish acronym, CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org), is a not-for-profi t research and - PDF

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 10
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Food

Published:

Views: 5 | Pages: 10

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Description
The International and Wheat Improvement Center, known by its Spanish acronym, CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org), is a not-for-profi t research and training organization with partners in over 100 countries. The center
Transcript
The International and Wheat Improvement Center, known by its Spanish acronym, CIMMYT (www.cimmyt.org), is a not-for-profi t research and training organization with partners in over 100 countries. The center works to sustainably increase the productivity of maize and wheat systems and thus ensure global food security and reduce poverty. The center s outputs and services include improved maize and wheat varieties and cropping systems, the conservation of maize and wheat genetic resources, and capacity building. CIMMYT belongs to and is funded by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (www.cgiar.org) and also receives support from national governments, foundations, development banks, and other public and private agencies. CIMMYT is particularly grateful for the generous, unrestricted funding that has kept the center strong and effective over many years. International and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) All rights reserved. The designations employed in the presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or its contributory organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. CIMMYT encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested. Correct citation: Worku, M., Twumasi-Afriyie, S., Wolde, L., Tadesse, B., Demisie G., Bogale, G., Wegary, D. and Prasanna, B.M. (Eds.) Meeting the Challenges of Global Climate Change and Food Security through Innovative Research. Proceedings of the Third National Workshop of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. AGROVOC descriptors: ; Germplasm; Plant breeding; Food security; Food production; Climatic change; Technology transfer; Innovation adoption; Research; Soil fertility; Crop management; Seed production; Extension activities; Farming systems Additional Keywords: CIMMYT AGRIS Category Codes: F30 Plant Genetics and Breeding E10 Agricultural Economics and Policies Dewey Decimal Classification: ISBN: Cover photograph: CIMMYT files Towards Sustainable Intensification of Legume Cropping Systems in Ethiopia Dagne Wegary 1, Abeya Temesgen 1, Solomon Admasu 1, Solomon Jemal 1, Alemu Tirfessa 1, Legesse Hidoto 1, Fekadu Getnet 1, Gezahegn Bogale 1, Temesgen Chibsa 1, Mulugeta Mekuria 2 1 CIMMYT, P.O. BOX 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2 CIMMYT-Zimbabwe Correspondence: Introduction Food security is a major concern in the eastern and southern African region. Urban food price within the region is extremely high, aggravating food insecurity among subsistence urban households. Among the food crops, maize is the main staple (Bänziger and Diallo, 2004), and legumes are an important dietary protein source for the rural poor (Onwueme and Sinha, 1991). In eastern and southern Africa, the demand for maize is projected to increase by at least 40% over the next ten years; and the demand for legumes by 50% (FAOSTAT, 2010). However, seasonal variability causes wide swings in food crop yields, including maize and legumes. Rainfed maize legume cropping systems show considerable promise in boosting productivity and helping reverse the decline in soil fertility that is a fundamental cause of low smallholder productivity in eastern and southern African region. and grain legumes co-exist in all maize agroecologies of Ethiopia. Most maize-growing areas in the country can be regarded as maize legume based farming systems; the difference lies in the maize varieties and legume species grown. Grain legumes are planted in intercrops, alleys and rotations with maize in mid-altitude sub-humid (common beans and soybean), highlands (faba bean and chickpea), dry land (common bean, pigeon pea, cowpea and groundnut) and lowaltitude sub-humid (cowpea) ecologies. The Sustainable Intensification of Legume based cropping systems for Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa (SIMLESA) project was launched in Ethiopia in March The overall objective of this project is to increase food security and incomes at household and regional levels, and contribute to the economic development of the country through improved productivity from more resilient and sustainable maize-based farming systems. The project which has CIMMYT as the executing agency is funded by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and implemented in Australia and Eastern and Southern African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Malawi). It is designed to fit the regional and national agricultural development priorities of the target countries. It aims at increasing farm-level food security and productivity, in the context of climate risk and change. It promotes conservation agriculture (CA)-based maize legume integration to result in resilient, profitable and sustainable farming systems that overcome food insecurity for significant numbers of farm families. This paper presents the key achievements of the project in Ethiopia since its inception. Major Activities Undertaken Identification of target research communities The current activities were undertaken in two maize legume based farming systems classified broadly as the mid-altitude dry land zone in the rift valley and the midattitude sub-humid zone in western Ethiopia. In the dry land zone, moisture stress (drought) is the main limiting factor for crops and livestock production because rainfall is erratic and insufficient, a situation aggravated by high evapotranspiration rates. Irrigation and water harvesting techniques and technologies for the efficient use of the limited rainfall are poorly developed. The activities in the drought-prone areas of the rift valley region of Ethiopia were conducted by researchers from Melkasa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) and Hawassa Agricultural Research Center (HARC) while the activities in the sub-humid, high potential maize growing areas of the country were conducted by the researchers from Bako Agricultural Research Center (BARC) and Pawe Agricultural Research Center (PARC). To identify specific research communities in the vicinity of each research center, a group of researchers consisting of breeders, agronomists, agricultural economists and extension workers, and technicians from each SIMLESA implementing research center made exploratory visits to the target project areas in both the drought prone rift valley and the high potential maize growing agro-ecologies and selected target project communities for each research centre. As indicated in Fig. 1, in the drought-stress rift valley, the Melkasa team targeted five communities each in Boset, Sire, Dugda, Adami-Tullu and Shalla while the Hawassa team selected three communities each in Hawassa-Zuria, Meskan and Badawacho districts. In the high potential maize growing agro-ecology, the Bako team identified two target communities each Session III: agronomy, soil fertility and climate change 115 from Gobu-Sayo and Bako-Tibe districts. Similarly, PARC selected two communities each from Pawe and Guangua districts. The farming systems in both target areas consisted of mixed crop-livestock systems. The selection was based on the criteria of road accessibility for monitoring of the trials and importance of the two crops in the communities. Identification of options for systems intensification and diversification Potential, sustainable, risk reducing and more productive best-bet technology options that contribute to the sustainable increase of maize system productivity and legume options for system diversification were identified. Accordingly, an openpollinated variety (OPV; Melkasa2), a legume variety (Nasir) and CA practices (no till, residue management, maize-legume intercropping and rotations) were selected by MARC for on-farm exploratory trials. HARC also identified one hybrid maize variety (BH543) and one common bean variety (Awassa Dumme) and maize bean intercropping practices with different population densities for the same activity. (BH543), common bean (Anger) and soybean (Dedessa) varieties and CA technologies (maize legume intercropping and rotation) were selected by BARC to conduct integrated CA based on-farm exploratory trials. PARC used one popular hybrid maize variety for the area, BH540, and one soybean variety (Belessa95) and CA technologies (maize legume intercropping and rotation) for the exploratory trial. These best-bet options were integrated in various forms and evaluated in on-station and on-farm trials. Figure 1. Target districts of the Sustainable Intensification of Legume based cropping systems for Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa SIMLESA project in Ethiopia. NB. Currently Hawassa is the official name for Awassa. On-station evaluation of best-bet options under representative agro-ecologies Prior to preparing the trials, soil properties of the trial sites in each research center were characterized. The MARC experimental field had a dominantly loam and clay loam texture. Available soil water lies between 34.0% at field capacity and 16.7% at permanent wilting point on dry weight basis. The average bulk density at a depth of 0 90 cm was 1.13 g cm -3. The soil is slightly alkaline as ph in water ranged from , an optimum range for availability of major nutrients. BARC soil was classified as sandy clay loam at 0 20 cm and sandy clay at both cm and cm depths. The total N was 0.1% at a depth of 0 20 cm and dropped gradually to about 0.1% at cm soil depth. Organic carbon content dropped from 1.8% at 0 20 cm depth to 1.2% and 0.2% at depths of cm and cm, respectively. Available soil P was 8.0 ppm at 0 20 cm depth and then dropped to zero at depths of cm and cm. The soils at Pawe were broadly categorized as Vertisols, which accounted for 40 45% of the area, Nitisols, which accounted for 25 30%; and intermediate soils of a blackish brown color, which accounted for 25 30%. The on-station trials conducted at the three research centers (MARC, BARC, and PARC) consisted of three treatments including sole maize and legume, intercropping (maize legume), and rotation (legume maize) both under conventional practice (CP) and CA management laid out as randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split-plot arrangement whereby tillage practices (CP vs. CA) were used as main plots and all cropping systems (sole, intercropping and rotation) were used as sub-plots. The trials were sown in plot sizes of more than 100 m 2 following the recommended row and plant-to-plant spacing of respective localities. During data collection the outermost rows at both sides of the plots and 0.5 m row length at each end of the rows were considered as borders. Recommended fertilizer rates for maize and beans for the sole cropping and the rate recommended for maize for the intercropping was used. and legume varieties selected by each center were used for the study. Grain yield of maize and haricot bean under CA, CP, sole and intercropping at Melkasa is presented in Fig. 2. Intercropped (4.2 t ha -1 ) and sole cropped (4.8 t ha -1 ) maize showed higher grain yield under CP than under CA, which produced grain yield of 2.8 t ha -1 under intercropping and 3.2 t ha -1 under sole cropping. About a 50% grain yield reduction was observed under CA during this first year of CA practice, which was attributed to a lack of appropriate residue management and weed control. It is anticipated that CA will lead 116 Meeting the Challenges of Global Climate Change and Food Security Through Innovative Research to a sustainable increase in crop productivity in the long term. Wider efforts on implementing CA-oriented practices in Africa showed the feasibility of CA-oriented systems under smallholder farm conditions (Wall et al., 2009). Common bean showed higher grain yield under CP (2.2 t ha -1 ) than under CA (1.8 t ha -1 ) while the same level of grain yield (0.6 t ha -1 ) was observed for common bean intercropped with maize under both CP and CA. Five best-bet treatments (including sole maize, sole haricot bean, 50% haricot bean population density intercropped with 100% maize population density, 100% haricot bean population density intercropped with 100% maize population density and farmers practice, where 30% of haricot bean population density intercropped in maize) were tested at Hawassa with the objective of selecting the best rate of intercropping and assessing the advantage of intercropping over sole cropping of maize and haricot bean. The results indicated that intercropping of maize with haricot bean had an advantage over sole planting of the component crops (Fig. 3). Farmers practice showed higher maize grain yield and lower haricot bean yield followed by the treatment with 100% maize and 50% haricot bean Grain yield (kg/ha) CP_SM 3.2 CA_SM CP_M-HB inter CA_M-HB inter CP_SHB Haricot bean CA_SHB CP_HB-M Rot CA_HB-M Rot Figure 2. Grain yield (t ha -1 ) of maize and haricot bean under conservation agriculture, conventional practice, sole and intercropping; and land equivalent ratio (LER) at Melkasa in CP_SM = sole maize under conventional practice, CA_SM = sole maize under conservation agriculture, CP_M-HB = maize haricot bean intercropping under conventional practice, CA_M-HB inter = maize haricot bean intercropped under conservation agriculture, CP_SHB = sole haricot bean under conventional practice, CA_SHB = sole haricot bean under conservation agriculture, CP_HB-M Rot = haricot bean maize rotation under conventional practice, CA_HB-M Rot = haricot bean maize rotation under conservation agriculture population densities while intercropping of 100% maize and 100% haricot population densities yielded relatively lower maize grain and higher haricot bean seed. At BARC, grain yield of maize was higher under CA than CP in sole cropping condition whereas maize grain yield was slightly lower under CA in maize soybean intercropping condition (Fig. 4). Sole maize showed a yield advantage of 32% in CA as compared with the CP. In contrast, under maize soybean intercropping the mean yield of maize in CA was 9.0% less than that of CP. There was a minimal decrease in grain yield of soybean in all cropping systems under CA as compared to CP. At PARC, maize grain yield was slightly higher under CA than CP, indicating the potential contribution of CA based faming systems to increase productivity of maize (Fig. 5) beginning from the early stage of the practice. In addition, CA practice provides long term merits in maintaining soil fertility and structure, soil and water management and weed control. On the contrary, grain yield of soybean was slightly higher in CP than that of CA under both sole and intercropping conditions. However, the study needs to be continued for some years to arrive at more conclusive results. Land equivalent ratios (LERs) were calculated for maize legume intercropped plots at all locations using the Mead and Wiley (1980) model to assess the grain yield advantage of intercropping as compared to sole cropping of the component crops. Accordingly, LERs of 1.2 and 1.2 were observed for maize haricot bean intercropping under CP and CA, respectively at MARC. At HARC, the highest LER of 1.7 was obtained for intercropping of 100% haricot bean with 100% maize Yield (t/ha) Haricot bean LER: M with 50% HB= 1.6 M with 100% HB= SM SHB M with M with Farmers 100%HB 50%HB Practice Figure 3. Grain yield of maize and haricot bean under sole and intercropping conditions; and land equivalent ratio (LER) at Hawassa in SM = sole maize, SHB = sole haricot bean, M = maize, HB = haricot bean Session III: agronomy, soil fertility and climate change 117 Grain yield (t/ha) Figure 4. Grain yield (t ha -1 ) of maize and soybean under conservation agriculture (CA), conventional practice (CP), sole and intercropping; and land equivalent ratio (LER) at Bako. CP_SM = sole maize under conventional practice, CA_SM = sole maize under conservation agriculture, CP_M-SB = maize soybean intercropping under conventional practice, CA_M-SB Inter = maize soybean intercropped under conservation agriculture, CP_SSB = sole soybean under conventional practice, CA_SSB = sole soybean under conservation agriculture, CP_SB-M Rot = soybean maize rotation under conventional practice and CA_SB-M Rot = haricot bean maize rotation under conservation agriculture. Grain yield (t/ha) CP_SM 3.7 CP_SM 7.9 CA_SM 4.0 CA_SM CP_M-SB inter CP_M-SB inter CA_M-SB inter CA_M-SB inter LER: CP=2.03 CA= 1.24 CP_SSB CP_SSB CA_SSB CA_SSB Soybean CP_SB-M Rot CP_SB-M Rot CA_SB-M Rot CA_SB-M Rot Figure 5. Grain yield (t ha -1 ) of maize and soybean under conservation agriculture (CA), conventional practice (CP), sole and intercropping; and land equivalent ratio (LER) at Pawe. CP_SM = sole maize under conventional practice, CA_SM = sole maize under conservation agriculture, CP_M-SB = maize soybean intercropping under conventional practice; CA_M-SB Inter = maize soybean intercropped under conservation agriculture, CP_SSB = sole soybean under conventional practice, CA_SSB = sole soybean under conservation agriculture, CP_SB-M Rot = soybean maize rotation under conventional practice and CA_SB-M Rot = soybean maize rotation under conservation agriculture LER: CP= 1.55 CA= Soybean while LER of 1.6 was realized for intercropping of 50% haricot bean with 100% maize. LER of 2.0 for CP and 1.2 for CA were obtained at Bako while LERs of 1.6 and 1.4 were observed in CP and CA, respectively at PARC. Since LERs greater than 1.0 show the greater advantage of intercropping, the LERs observed in the current study indicate that an intercropping system has potential in increasing total land productivity and efficient use of limited land resources. On-farm exploratory trials CA-based exploratory trials of integrated maize-legume cropping options with 3 5 treatments were established on 4 7 farmers fields in each target community to compare CA options with CP under farmers conditions. MARC conducted on-farm exploratory trials in five districts; viz. Boset, Dugda, Adami Tulu, Sire and Shalla. Each district had one research community; each research community consisted of five farmers. However, in one of the districts (Sire district) the trial was established only on three farmers fields. Three treatments were used on each farmer-plot, these were: 1. Farmers check: Traditional land preparation and maize crop management but with the same varieties, and fertilizer as the other treatments, and residues may be grazed, removed, burned or incorporated. In some areas farmers used intercropping while sole cropping was used in other areas. 2. Conservation agriculture (CA): No tillage, residue retained (mulch). Haricot bean intercropped between maize rows thirty days after maize planting. 3. Conservation agriculture with tie-ridging: No tillage, residue retained (mulch). Ridges tied at every 5 m between maize rows. variety Melkasa2 and haricot bean variety Nasir were used for the trial. Each plot consisted of m plot area. Recommended fertilizer rates for maize and haricot bean were used for the sole cropping while the recommended rate for maize was used for the intercropping at all locations. Relevant agronomic, grain yield and yield components data were collected, but only grain yield data is presented in this paper. The overall results revealed that tie-ridging effectively conserved moisture and resulted in higher maize grain yield; especially, in moisture stressed areas e.g., Sire (Fig. 6). Intercropping was also found to be advantageous in providing a substantial amount of grain yield for both component crops, in addition to other advantages obtained from legumes in terms of soil fertility replenishment, nutritional quality, fodder, and cash source. 118 Meeting the Challenges of Global Climate Change and Food Security Through Innovative Research HARC identified three districts as target sites for the implementation of the exploratory trials. However, due to the late launching of the pro
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x