polsci | Justice | Philosophical Theories

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abstract concept by philosophers
  TruthSt. Thomas Aquinas states that truth is the conformity of the mind to the object ; that is, if we accept the outward information that our senses are transmitting to our intellect, and our intellect accepts these as they are, and doesn't deny them or distort them, through self-interest or other motives. Plato Plato believed that truth was something that only the wise could see (Plato also believed that wisdom was nowledge and talent that only belonged to certain people as a birthright! and thatit was the duty of the wise to help the others see the truth. n Plato's #llegory of the cave the wise man was the one who managed to escape the cave and see the wonders of the world. $hiswise man reali%es that he must share this discovery with the other people in the cave who are septical to believe him. $ruth for Plato was essentially nowledge and discovery. # modern e&ample of this would be of a psychologist or therapist. $he therapist tries to help their client to understand themselves better, but the client is often times resistant to believe everything that the therapist tells him because he (the client! cannot accept that there is another way to live his life.  JusticePlato doing good to your friends if they are good and doing harm to your enemies if they are bad ustice, therefore, is a relation between individuals depending on social and political organi%ation. t is to be studied as part of the structure of the community than as a uality of personal conduct. f one can visuali%e a just state, it is also easy to picture a just individual. Thasymachus what is the interest of the stronger party, according to $hrasymachus it is right to show obedience to the ruling power whatever the condition is. Aristotle  ustice is euality, but only for euals; and justice is ineuality, but only for those who are uneual.#ristotle claims that justice can mean either lawfulness or fairness, since injustice islawlessness and unfairness. n his view, laws encourage people to behave virtuously so, the justperson, who by de)nition is lawful, will necessarily be virtuous. *e says that virtue di+ers from justice because it deals with ones moral state, while justice deals with ones relations withothers. #ccording to #ristotle, justice must be distributed proportionately. or instance, ashoemaer and a farmer cannot e&change one shoe for one harvest, since shoes and harvestsare not of eual value (#ristotle, boo , part !. #ristotles euation of justice with lawfulnesscan create a problem since laws can be unjust too. *owever, #ristotle refutes this idea again byseparating political justice from domestic justice.#ccording to #ristotle, although political justice and domestic justice are related, they arealso distinct. Political justice is about laws since /justice e&ists only between men whose mutualrelations are governed by law0 (#ristotle, boo , part 1!. 2o, political justice is governed by therule of law, while domestic justice relies more on respect. Freedom Jean-Paul Sartre reedom is e&istence, and in it e&istence precedes essence. $his means that what we do,  how we act in our life, determines our apparent ualities. t is not that someone tells the truth  because she is honest, but rather she de)nes herself as honest by telling the truth again and again.  am a professor in a way di+erent than the way  am si& feet tall, or the way a table is a table.  $he table simply is;  e&ist by de)ning myself in the world at each moment.344567 is the central and uniue potentiality which constitutes us as human. 2artre rejects determinism, saying that it is our choice how we respond to determining tendencies. Kant 899 is a ind of causality belonging to living beings so far as they are rational. reedom would then be the property this causality has of being able to wor independently of determination by alien causes; just as natural necessity is a property characteri%ing the causality of all non-rational beings : the property of being determined to activity by the inuence of alien causes. LoveThomas Hobbes 9ove is a persons idea about his<her needs in other person what you are attracted to Aristotle 9ove is composed of a single soul inhabiting two bodies Rene escartes # person has two passions for love and abhorrence. # big disposition to e&cessiveness has just a love, because it is more ardent and stronger !qualitySocrates 2ocrates go further saying 5id we not see eualities of material things, such as pieces of wood and stones, and gather from them the idea of an euality which is di+erent from them= and he also said 5o not the same pieces of wood or stone appear at one time eual, and at another time uneual= !n el n treating the notion of euality, then, 4ngels as well as 7ar& holds fundamentally to two ideas>)rst, that euality is properly speaing only a political notion, and even a speci)cally bourgeois political notion; and second, that the real meaning of the proletarian demand for euality, to thee&tent that it has a meaning, is the demand for the abolition of classes ? and that this demand is a better developed and more precise e&pression of proletarian aspirations. #ar$ 4uality as a political concept @ourgeois euality before the law. $he 7ar&ian idea that euality is a political notion is itself a comple& idea ? as comple& as 7ar&s understanding of the politicalitself. $he most basic bourgeois euality, as 7ar& understands it, is a form of Aprocedural euality1 , namely, euality before the law> the legal system must not accord some estates more privileges than others Kant Bant, for instance, the identi)cation of euality with /independence of being bound by others tomore than one can in turn bind them0 emocracyPlatoemocracy comes into being as degenerating oligarchy. 6ligarchs are rich, fat, and la%y. 5emocracy comes about when the poor are victorious, illing some of their opponents and e&pelling others, and giving the rest an eual share in ruling under the constitution, and for the most part assigning people to positions of rule by lot. (3ep., Ca-b!   5emocracy is characteri%ed by great freedom in every sense, where a person can do anything he wishes or wills to do. t is the form of government in which one )nds people of all varieties. Peace peace has been considered to be a high if not one of the highest ends of political action, but anyone looing to account for what we mean by peace faces the fact that we seem to understand peace not on its own terms but only in relation to its opposite, war. %icero  $he name of peace is sweet, and the thing itself is bene)cial, but there is a great di+erence between peace and servitude. Peace is freedom in tranuility, servitude is the worst of all evils, to be resisted not only by war, but even by death. !instein Peace cannot be ept by force. t can only be achieved by understanding. Dou cannot subjugate a nation forcibly unless you wipe out every man, woman, and child. Enless you wish to use suchdrastic measures, you must )nd a way of settling your disputes without resort to arms. Po&e John Paul ''  $here is no true peace without fairness, truth,  justice    and solidarity
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