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ASIAN AND AFRICAN STUDIES, 12, 2003, 2, THE TURKISH FOLK CULTURE IN WORK OF SLOVAK SCHOLARS Xénia C e l n a r o v á Institute of Oriental and African Studies, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Klemensova
ASIAN AND AFRICAN STUDIES, 12, 2003, 2, THE TURKISH FOLK CULTURE IN WORK OF SLOVAK SCHOLARS Xénia C e l n a r o v á Institute of Oriental and African Studies, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Klemensova 19, Bratislava, Slovakia In the last five decades of the 20th century the Slovak Turkologists did not only deal with the Turkish history and literature but they also paid their attention to the Turkish folklore. The well-known Turkologist and connoisseur of Turkish folklore Armin Vámbéry (Hermann Wamberger, ), the professor of Oriental languages in the University o f Budapest, was bom at Dunajská Streda (according to some historians in Svätý Jur) in the South of Slovakia. His childhood and youth were spent here and later in Bratislava. At Imel village in the South of Slovakia was also bom the Turkologist Jozef Blaškovič ( ), the honorary member of the Turkish Linguistics Association (Türk Dil Kurumu eref Üyesi). His scholarly investigation was directed to the history of Turks within Slovakia and to the occurrence of Turkish words in Slovak with an accent on the toponyms.1from 1950 Blaškovič worked at the Charles University in Prague but he regularly contributed to the annual of the Slovak Orientalists Asian and African Studies. The Jozef Blaškovič's study, published in Asian and African Studies 12/ 1976,2 sets forth and discusses two Turkish poems which were composed during the course o f the Ottoman campaign against Nové Zámky (Uyvar, Neuhäusel) in The author of the poems reflecting the historical event was an unknown folk poet Ahmed Üsküdari. Nine Üsküdari's poems including two dealing with the conquest of the Uyvar fortress were preserved in the old manuscript published by Feyziye Abdullah3 in On the basis of the poems Blaškovič 1 BLASKOVICS, J.: Some Toponyms o f Turkic Origin in Slovakia. In: Acta Orientalia ASH 27, 1973, pp See Bibliography 1/7. 3 ABDULLAH, F.: XVII inci asir saz$airlerinden Üsküdari In: Ülkü, VIII, No. 44, Istanbul 1936, pp came to the conclusion that Üsküdari was probably a member of the Corps of Janissaries led by Ibrahim Pasha, who is mentioned in one of Üsküdarf's poem, and that he took part not only in the expedition to Uyvar, but also in the conquest of Crete (1669). Blaškovič gives the basic data concerning the Turkish folk poetry and also mentions European and Turkish research workers working in the sphere, which is an important part of the cultural inheritance of the Turks. The transcribed texts of Üskiidari's two poems were translated by Blaškovič into German and supplemented by their schema of metre and rhyme. Jozef Blaškovič can be regarded as a founder of the post-war modern Turkology in Slovakia owing to his translations from Turkish literature and folklore into the Slovak language. He also published some of his translations of Turkish fairy tales and anecdotes o f Nasreddin Hoca in Slovak periodicals. The publication of Turkish fairy tales was arranged by Milan Odran4 who attended a few semesters of Turkish during his study of Bulgarian language and literature at the University of Sophia. Unfortunately the Odran's translation of Turkish fairy tales cannot be evaluated as successful. On the other hand the book of anecdotes of Nasreddin Hoca, which were selected and translated into Slovak by Vojtech Kopčan ( ),5 is evaluated very positively. Kopčan studied in Prague under leadership of Jozef Blaškovič and he concentrated his research activities on the investigation of Ottoman history in relation to the countries of Central Europe including Slovakia. He went in for translation as well, mainly from the Ottoman historians.6 Kopčan translated with a commentary the passages from Seyahatnäme of Evliya elebi, in which the famous Turkish traveller is talking about his trips within Slovakia and to Budapest and Vienna.7 Vojtech Kopčan's selection of 235 anecdotes of Nasreddin Hoca was done on the basis of two editions. The first was Veled elebí Bahä's Latäif-i Hoca Nasreddin published in Istanbul 1908 and the second was the book of Nasreddin Hoca fikralan edited in Sophia in Kopčan divided his book into seven thematic spheres. In the epilogue he makes a Slovak reader more familiar with the figure of Nasreddin Hoca. He quoted the sources, which support the real existence of the legendary figure. According to these sources Nasreddin Hoca was bom in 1208 at Horto village and died 1284 in Ak ehir. Kopčan situated the personality of Nasreddin Hoca and his stories in their historical context. In his prologue he also mentioned the tradition of humorous stories in the Near East. The Kopčan's translation of Nasreddin Hoca anecdotes was published within the very successful edition Pradávne príbehy (Ancient Stories) of the Publish 4 See Bibliography IV/1. 5 See Bibliography IV/2. 6 KOPČAN, V.: Translations of Mehmed Necäti, Mustafa Zühdi, Hasan Aga, Pegevi and others, not published. 7 EVLIYA ČELEBI: Kniha ciest. Cesty p o Slovensku (Seyahatnäme. Travels in Slovakia). Translation and prologue Vojtech Kopčan. Bratislava, Tatran pp. 207 ing House Mladé letá (Youth), which brought near to the Slovak readers the folk epic of different nations of Europe and Asia. In the same edition, known by the first-rate adaptation of texts and illustrations made by the top Slovak artists, was published in 1981 the Turkish folk epic Köroglu translated by Xénia Celnarová.8 During compiling the Slovak edition of Köroglu were used the four sources from which I would like to underline the Köroglu Destani of B ellet Mahir.9 This was not my first contact with this unique product of the folk spirit of Turkish nation. In my comparative study Typologische Auswertung einiger Rebellengestalten, published in the Asian and African Studies 8/1972,10 where stories of some folk heroes - outlaws from England to the Middle East were analysed, the Turkish Köroglu took one of the first places in the framework of comparison. My comparative work is divided into three chapters. The introductory one deals with the outlaw epic as a unique kind of folk epic, with the historical background of its origin and with the anchoring of this subject in written literature. The motifs and episodes of individual epic narratives about outlaw heroes are amplified in chapter II. From the Turkish area, besides the already mentioned Köroglu, there are also Sepetsioglu, čakircah Efe, Ka^ak Nabi and Ince Mehmed, the title hero of the famous novel of the contemporary Turkish writer Ya ar Kemal (bom 1922). In the mentioned study beside the Turkish heroes we can also find outlaws of the Carpathian Mountains, of the Balkan Peninsula, English Robin Hood and Sándor Rózsa from Hungary. Chapter III contains a typology confirming that the epics on outlaws contain a lot of common or analogical episodes and motifs. The leading Slovak folklorist Viera Gašparíková declared the work Typologische Auswertung einiger Rebellengestalten to be instmctive and she quoted from it the summary showing the common marks of epic heroes.11 Mehmet Bayrak in his monograph on outlawry and folk songs on outlaws ranked the mentioned work among the important European works done in this field. He quotes the chapters II and III (translated in Turkish by Metin Alemdar).12 Czech Turkologists also mentioned positively the work in their dealing with Turkology in Czechoslovakia.13 8 See Bibliography IV/6. 9 See Bibliography II/2d. 10 See Bibliography 1/4. 11 GAŠPARÍKOVÁ, V.: Povesti o zbojníkoch zo slovenských a poľských Tatier (Legends on Outlaws from the Slovak and Polish Sides of the Tatras). Bratislava, KSLK 1979, pp ; BAYRAK, M.: E^kiyahk ve E kiya Türküleri. Ankara, Yorum Yayinlan 1985, pp VESELÁ, Z. - HŘEBÍČEK, L. - BEČKA, J: Turkologie in der ČSSR. Materialia turcica. Band , Bochum, Studienverlag Brockmeyer 1984, pp The mediaeval Turkish epic cycle Kitab-i Dedem Korkut is not only a unique cultural monument, but also a noteworthy document of its epoch. I have studied all available editions of The Book of Dede Korkut, and I evaluated five editions from the 1970s in my review articles.14 Especially the Turkish edition by Orhan aik Gökyay dated is evaluated as the most complete processing of The Book of Dede Korkut available so far. Since 1989 the main subject of my studies has become the relations between Sufism and Turkish folk literature (written and folk as well).16 Especially my attention was focused on the personality and poetry of the great Turkish Sufi Yunus Emre.17 Within the context of the international comparative project I concentrated my effort on the factors, which have united the Turkic literatures into a literary community. Especially Sufism and the poetry connected to it, was a very important and connecting factor. My study The Interliterary Community o f Turkic Nations within the Context o f Islamic Culture18 was evaluated from precisely this point of view by the Uzbek scholar J. A. Sultanov who wrote: The study is of a high theoretical standard. Celnarová deduces Yesevi's works from Islamic ideology from folk literature and classical literature, acquire the form of literary tradition in Ahmed Yesevi's tradition that played an important role in the forming process of literature of several Turkic nations. Celnarová gives convincing evidence of Ahmed Yesevi's influence on the well-known Turkish mediaeval mystic Yunus Emre. O f value are also her reflections intimating that the poetry of the mystics became a mediator between folk and classical literature and contributed to the development of literary languages. Celnarová has outlined a perspective in the development of Islamic literature and has shown that when Islamic cultural impulses weakened in the early 17th century, their function was taken over by original traditions that had formed enfolded within folk literature. 19 In my investigation of the interliterary relations within the Mediterranean region I laid stress on the role of folklore during a creation of the cultural interchange among the nations of this region. There were Turkish fairy tales, anecdotes of Nasreddin Hoca, and proverbs as well, which infiltrated from the Asia Minor to the countries around the Mediterranean Sea and further to the North.20 I would also like to mention my selections from the Turkish folk poetry, which was presented by examples of ko ma, tilrkii, mani, nini etc., and was pub- 14 See Bibliography II/l., Dedem Korkudun Kitabi. Hazirlayan Orhan aik Gökyay. Istanbul, Milli Egitim Basimevi DCLXXI pp., 1 map, 12 supplements. 16 See Bibliography 1/20., See Bibliography 1/14., 17., 18, 2 4, II/4b, III/2, 13, See Bibliography 1/ SULTANOV, J. A.: Uzbek Voice about Dionýz Durisin's Scientific Initiative. In: Slovak Revue No. 1, 1993, pp See Bibliography 1/24, pp lished in the renowned periodical Revue slovenskej literatúry (Review of Slovak Literature). Each of these selections21 was introduced by a study22 describing the individual genres of Turkish folk poetry. A charming little book of Turkish proverbs and sayings, that was published in Bratislava at the end of 2000,23 is for the present the last Slovak work concerning Turkish folklore. At the end of my prologue to this book I wrote:...turkish words of fathers are a well full of humorous and serious lessons, advice, wisdom and they are for us a source of a knowledge of people from another country living in the distance and not so distant past. We can find among Turkish proverbs and sayings a lot of parallels to Slovak ones, but there are also expressions reflecting the different culture and different human experience. 24 I. Studies and articles: BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. HORÁLEK, K.: Beitrag zur Textologie orientalischer Märchen. In: Asian and African Studies 2, 1966, pp BLA$KOVÍ, Y.: (jekoslovak Folklorunda Tiirklerin izleri. In: Bilimsel bildiriler. Ankara 1968, pp KOPČAN, V.: Príbehy Hodžu Nasreddina (Fables of Hodja Nasreddin). In. Príbehy Hodžu Nasreddina. Bratislava, Mladé letá 1968, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Typologische Auswertung einiger europäischer und westasiatischer Rebellengestalten auf Grund der Volksdichtung und deren Bearbeitung in der Kunstliteratur. In: Asian and African Studies 8, 1972, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Turecká ľudová lyrika (Turkish Folk Poetry). In: Revue svetovej literatúry 9, 1973, No. 3, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Turecké uspávanky (Turkish Lullabies). In: Revue svetovej literatúry 11, 1975, No. l,p p BLAŠKOVIČ, J.: Zwei türkische Lieder über die Eroberung von Nové Zámky aus dem Jahre In: Asian and African Studies 12, 1976, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Pozvanie na svadbu do Erzurumu (An Invitation to a Wedding to Erzurum). In: Revue svetovej literatúry 16, 1980, 5, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Povesť o šľachetnom zbojníkovi Kôrogluovi (The Epic on the Noble Outlaw Köroglu). In: Šľachetný zbojník Köroglu. Turecký epos (The Noble Outlaw Köroglu). Bratislava, Mladé letá 1981, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Das Thema der Wahren Liebe in einem slowakischen Roman. In: III. Uluslararasi Türk Halk Edebiyati Semineri (3rd Seminar of the Turkish Folk Literature). Eski ehir, Yunus Emre Kültür Sanat ve Turizm Vakfi Yayinlan 3, 1987 pp See Bibliography 1/20., See Bibliography 1/14., 17., 18., 24., II/4b, III/2., 13., See Bibliography IV/7. 24 CELNAROVÁ, X.: Pár slov o slovách tureckých predkov, p. 9. See Bibliography 1/ 11. CELNAROVÁ, X.: Köröglu ve Yanofik. Türk ve Slovak Halk Kahramanlari Arasindaki Benzerlikler. In: First International Turkish Folk Literature and Folklore Congress. Papers October Konya, Selguk Üniversitesi 1990, pp CELN AROVÁ, X.: Turkish Popular Poet o f the 16th Century. Pir Sultan Abdal. Tradition and Historical Background. In: Asian and African Studies 24, 1991, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Yunus Emre's Message to our Contemporaries. In: IV. Milletlerarasi Türk Halk Kültürü Kongresi Bildirileri (Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Turkish Folk Culture). Ankara, Feryat Matbaasi 1991, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Pohrebné obyčaje Turkov v predislamskom období (Funeral Customs of Turks Before Islam). In: Kultové a sociálne aspekty pohrebného rítu od najstarších čias až po súčasnosť (Cultic and Social Aspects of Funeral Rite from the Earliest Times up to the Present). Edited by E. Krekovič., Bratislava 1993, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: The Interliterary Community of Turkic Nations within the Context o f Islamic Culture. In: Asian and African Studies 2, 1993, 1, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Posolstvo lásky. Turecký mystický básnik Yunus Emre (The Message of the Love. Turkish Mystic Poet Y. E.). In: Tvorba III. (XII.), 1993, 8, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Some Remarks on the Poetry o f Yunus Emre. In: Proceedings of the 35th Permanent International Altaistic Conference. September, 12-17, Taipei, China. Ed. by Chieh-hsien Ch'en. Center for Chinese Studies Materials 1993, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: The Role o f Folklore in Creating the Interliterary Community of Turkic Nations. In: Baldauf, I. - Friedrich, M. (Hrsg.), Bamberger Zentralasienstudien. Konferenzakten ESCAS IV., Bamberg 8-12 Oktober Klaus Schwarz Verlag, Berlin 1994, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Sufism and Turkish Literature. In: Contemporary Relevance of Sufism. Ed. by Seyda S. Hameed. Indian Council for Cultural Relations, 1993, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: (jek Yazar Jo sef Kainar'in Anlayi inda Nasreddin Hoca. In: Nasreddin H oca'nm Dünyasi. UNESCO Nasreddin Hoca Yili. Türkiye Í Bankasi Kültür Yaymlari, Ankara 1996, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Der Sufismus und die türkischen Volksdichter. In: ZAFAR NAME. Memorial Volume of Felix Tauer. Ed. by R. Veselý and E. Gombár. Enigma Corporation Ltd., Praha 1996, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Türk Halk Kültürünün Yüzydlar Boyunca Zenginlepnesi Kaynaklari ve Tesirleri (Enrichment of the Turkish Folk Culture within the Space of Centuries. Sources and Influences). In: V. Milletlerarasi Türk Halk Kültürü Kongresi Genel Konular Seksiyon Bildirileri (Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of the Turkish Folk Culture). Ankara 1997, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: The Basic Postulates o f Sufism in the Poetry o f Yunus Emre. In: Across the Mediterranean Frontiers. Trade, Politics and Religion, Selected Proceedings of the International Medieval Congress. University of Leeds, July 1995, 8-11 July Edited by D. A. Agius and Ian R. Newton. Turnout, Brepols 1997, pp CELNAROVÁ, X.: Forme di mediterraneita in Asia Minor. Les Formes de la méditerranéité de V Asie Mineure. Maloázijské formy mediteránnosti. In: Durišin, D. - Gnisci, A. (ed): II Mediterraneo. Una rete interletteraria. La Méditerranée. Un réseau interlittéraire. Stredomorie-medziliteráma sieť. Bulzoni Editore, Roma 2000, pp , , 25. CELNAROVÁ, X.: Pár slov o slovách tureckých predkov (Some Words on the Words of Turkish Ancestors). In: Dva razy rozmýšľaj, raz sadaj na koňa, alebo turecké príslovia a porekadlá (Twice think, once sit on a horse or Turkish proverbs and sayings). Bratislava, Q , pp II. Review Articles: 1. CELNAROVÁ, X.: On the Latest Editions o f the Book o f Dede Korkut. In: Asian and African Studies 13, 1976, pp Evaluated books: aj The Book of Dede Korkut. A Turkish Epic. Translated into English and Edited by F. Siimer, A. E. Uysal and W. S. Walker Vol pp. with 4 illustrations and a map. b/ LEWIS, G.: The Book of Dede Korkut. Translated with an Introduction and Notes. London, The Penguin Classics pp. with a map. c/ BINYAZAR, A.: Dedem Korkut (My Dede Korkut). istanbul, M illet Yayinlan pp. d/ Dedem Korkudun Kitabi. Hazirlayan Orhan aik Gökyay. istanbul, Milli Egitim Basimevi DCLXXI pp., a map, 12 supplements. 2. CELNAROVÁ, X.: Ethnographic Publications o f the Atatürk University in Erzurum. In: Asian and African Studies 15, 1979, pp Evaluated books: aj Ba ar, Z.: iqtimai Adetlerimiz-inanqlarimiz ve Erzurum ilindeki Ziyaret Yerlerimiz (Our Social Customs-Superstitions and our Places of Pilgrimage in the Erzurum Province). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlan No Ankara, Seving Matbaasi 1972, XIV pp. b/ Ba ar, Z.: Erzurum'da Tibbi ve Mistik Folklor Araqtirmalari (Medical and Mystic Folklore Studies in Erzurum). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlan No Ankara, Seving Matbaasi XVII pp. c/ Sakaoglu, S.: Gümüqhane Masallari. Metin, Toplama ve Tahlil (Stories from Gümü hane. Text, Collection and Analysis). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlan No Ankara, Seving Matbaasi XVII pp. dj Köroglu Destam. Presented by Behget Mahir. Compiled by Mehmet Kaplan - Mehmet Akalm - Muhan Bali. Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlan No Ankara, Seving Matbaasi IV pp. f/ Bali, M.: Ere iq 'li Emrah ile Selvi Han Hikáyesi Varyantlarin Tesbiti ve Halk Hikáyeciligi Bakimindan Önemi (Determination of Variants of the Story of Emrah of Erci and Selvi Han and its Significance from the Aspect of Folk Narration). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlan No Ankara, Baylan Matbaasi pp. g/ Türkmen, F.: Áqik Garip Hikáyesi Üzerine Mukayeseli bir Araqtirma (A Comparative Study o f the Story of Ashik Garip). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlan No Ankara, Baylan Matbaasi XXXVIII pp. j/ Aslan, E.: Qildirli Äqik enlik Hayati, iirleri ve Hikäyeleri (Ä ik $enlik of ildir, His Life, Poems and Stories). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlan No Ankara, Seving Matbaasi XLV pp. 3. CELNAROVÁ, X.: Ethnographie Publications o f Atatürk University in Erzurum. II, In: Asian and African Studies 20, 1984, pp Evaluated books: a/ Ba ar, Z.: Degi$ik Örnekleri ve Agiklamalariyla Yemin (Oath and Its Various Examples and Explanations). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlari. Ankara, Kalite Matbaasi 1978, XII pp. b/ Ba ar, Z.: Halk Hekimliginde ve Tip Tarihinde Yilan (The Snake in Folk Medicine and the History of Medicine). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlari. Ankara, Kalite Matbaasi 1978, 105 pp. c/ Acipayamli: Türkiye'de Dogumla ilgili Adet ve linanmalarin Etnolojik Etüdü (Ethnographic Study on Customs and Superstitions Relating to Birth). Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayinlari No Ankara, Seving Matbaasi 1974, 172 pp. d/ Seyidoglu, B.: E
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