Arabic Elements in the Bengali Language of the Barak Valley - PDF

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Arabic Elements in the Bengali Language of the Barak Valley The language, Arabic is a Semitic one as mentioned in chapter-i in details. It is one of the oldest languages of the world spoken in all over
Arabic Elements in the Bengali Language of the Barak Valley The language, Arabic is a Semitic one as mentioned in chapter-i in details. It is one of the oldest languages of the world spoken in all over the Arab-world and the best or mother Semitic language as well. Besides Arabworld, where there is Muslim there is Arabic throughout the world. It is the 6th international language of the UNO. Whereas Bengali is one of the most recent Aryan languages spoken in the west Bengal and Barak valley of India and Bangladesh or in the greater and undivided Bengal and also by the people migrated from these regions. It is a rich regional language of these regions of the Asian sub- continent. Thereby it is quite natural that an old, international as well as Islamic ruling class language, Arabic must have some contributions and influences on a recently developed regional language, Bengali. Before going through these contributions and influences of the Arab and the Arabic language to the Bengalese and the Bengali language let us attempt to find out some more reasons behind this. If we look behind, we see that Indo-Arab relation in trade and commerce is an old and earliest one. Arab navigators reached here for business first. Besides this relation of the Indo-Arab, the two is related to, in many other respects of life like culture and custom which can never be ignored. This relation of the two and the influences of Arab to Bengali is also because of the Muslim rules in India for decades after decades and their lordship and supremacy in every field and in every step of Indian life. The Islamisation of the people of Assam like that of India and specially the Bengalese of undivided India caused to enter many Arabic elements in the Bengali language. Islamisation of the people means Arabicisation of them. As soon as one accepts Islam he or she must have to study the Quran, the Hadith and such other purely and originally Arabic works. This is because none is called Muslim in Islam in proper sense without performance of the five time prayers after faith and no prayer can be performed without Arabic or recitation of the holy Quran from his memory. (67) Co-existence of the converted Bengali Muslims and the non-muslims for decades after decades and the uses of the Quranic and Arabic terms by the Muslims to their day to day affairs and even to their non-muslim friends and the Islamic culture and customs as well is not less important a reason for this. The sweetness of the Arabic tongue and the brotherhood of Islam have also some impacts causing to enter some Arabic words and Arabic manners into the Bengalese and the Bengali language. Bengali in comparison to Arabic as said earlier is a recently developed language and it is quite natural that a regional language borrows some words from the international and the older one. This, no doubt may cause to use some Arabic words in Bengali. A foreign international language, Arabic like anything else is a means of attraction of the people which is not less important a reason behind it The riches of the Arabs and the unemployment problems of a country like India caused many Indians even non-muslims to know Arabic first and then to go to the gulf countries for earning livelihood. Many people of India as well as the Barak Valley of Assam, both Muslims and non- Muslims are living in the gulf countries and also attracting many others to be engaged there. This employment attitude compels many Indians to learn Arabic. This also helps to use Arabic to the non-arab, Bengalese of this region. Mineral resources like petroleum and their paucity in India and their abundance in Arab countries compelled India for bilateral relations with the Arab countries and to develop the Arabic language in India for the smooth conduct of the bilateral relations. This also causes to enter some Arabic elements ultimately to the Bengali language. The prophecy of the Arabian prophet, Hazrat Mohd., Peace be upon him, made Arabic study compulsory to each Muslim of whatever nationality he or she belongs to and the Egyptian civilization and the Arabian culture made a general attraction to study it and acquire knowledge from it. Arabic is a famous international language having mother tongue of most of the Arab nations who have some controls over most of the world nations economically and linguistically. The abundance of minerals especially petroleum indebted many nations economically on the one hand and their language, Arabic being the language of the Quran helped them on the other had (68) to create world brotherhood linguistically. The Arab navigators, travelers and specially the Sufis and their spreading of Islam to the different non-muslim world -nations helped them to come in contract of many. It is so that the Islamic religion came to India and to the Bengalese of Bengal and the converted neo-muslims had to learn Arabic for the religious purpose. Gradually these Arabic elements learned for the religious purpose entered into the use of Bengali and the Bengalese. Bengali after being established a neo-aryan language, the new culture the Bengalese came attached was the culture brought by the Muslims in the name of Muslim culture. It can easily be understood that the Bengalese could not comprehend the language of those Muslims when the former cam near the latter for the first time. Had those Muslims returned after defeating the Bengalese and looting their belongings without settling down here then the Bengalese would have no need to comprehend their minds nor could they have influenced the Bengali language. But as the foreigners not only settled but also ruled the land, the importance of comprehending the language of the Arab conquerors gained momentum which caused Bengali and the Bengalese to use many Arabic words and to enter many foreign terms in the Bengali language. As the *means of understanding of one s mind is language so the importance of learning the foreign Muslims language, Arabic increased. Now we, the Bengalese use many Arabic elements, words and the likes in our language, Bengali while most of us do not know the origin of these words. These words are the most important part of the foreign words used in the Bengali language. The Bengali scholars divided the Perso-Arabic words used in Bengali in different categories. Say for instance, many Perso-Arabic words are found to be used in Bengali with a Bengali word like Raja -wojir, Raja -badsha, Akkel-buddi, Kessa-kahini, Khabar-barta, Dhan-daulat,Niyamkanun, Man-ijjat,Mute-majur, Lazza-sharam, Lok-laskar, Shikka-talim, Salapharamarsha,Shakki-shabud, Hashi-muskura and Hakim-baddi and so many more. The Bengali scholars named such Perso-Arabic words used with a Bengali word as Hybrid or Misra Shabda. Of course, the Perso-Arabic words used in Bengali some time preceded the Bengali word and some time succeeded it. As in aforesaid word, Akkel- /. Bhasha Sahitya Samkriti, Calcutta 1986 PP Chattopadhay Dr. Girindranath (69) buddi the Arabic word, Akkel preceded the BengaU word; Buddi.Again in Niyam-kanuii, the Perso-Arabic word, kanun succeeded the Bengah word, Niyam. In practice, the Perso-Arabic words used in Bengali with a Bengali word are very often quite different. Sometimes these two words, Perso-Arabic and Bengali are synonymous carrying same sense and same meaning while some other times not. As in Raja-badsha both the Perso-Arabic and Bengali words are of the same meaning while in words like Raja-wojir the two words, Perso- Arabic and Bengali are of different meanings. Here the Bengali word. Raja means king but the Perso-Arabic word, wojir means minister. A language is as valuable to humanity as a wealth to an economic man. This wealth-like language is used by mankind as soon as they need to do so. Inspite of having so many barriers to use a foreign word the scope of which is confined by a few scholars and philologists it ultimately results excitement, disturbance and troubles at the time of any crisis economical, political or social. So, at present juncture, the prime duty of a philologist and a scholar is to make the language for the society and to make it scientific and logical. In this respect a philologist is to play an important role like a material scientist. The physical scientists are quite impartial to investigate a thing in a laboratory and their discovery is always true and a fact and it ths serves the society impartially. The philologist and their findings should also be impartial as well as universal and they should act in favour of the society. Of course, it is the main and the most important chapter under work. It tries to the display how the Arabic language contributes or influences the Bengali language in different possible ways and in different fields of activities due to the co-existence of the two for long. This chapter may be divided under the following sub- chapters for better and systematic study. a) Arabic elements in the basic vocabulary of Bengali. It may again be studied under the following heads. i) Numerals: Though not many, some of the Arabic numerals are found in the use of Bengali and Bangalese of course, some of them are largely and frequently used while some others are in particular and special cases. Some such numerals are as follows : (70) ii) Kinship- JJlalf Jjl aw'wal S. a'dad lh thalatha iijjl a'rba'a Luwik. khamsah Ji\2 thani alif awwal adad chalacha arba khamcha chani thousand first, best, highest number three four five second jlj wahid wahid one CJLJ thahth salis third person, mediator, arbitrator Some of the words of kinship and blood relationship used by the Arabs are found in the use of the Bangaleese as a result of the long co-existance of the muslim rulers and the Arabic qualified muslims with the Bangaleese. Of course, some of this kind of words are used only by the Bangali muslims. Some words are enlisted below: L.1 Lol abba amma abba amma father mother JLi. J AJIJ Sjlj jjj khalah khal walid walidah walod khala khalu walid walida wlod aunt uncle father mother son j-jl a'wlad a'alad children Jj Jik wali thifl woli thifil godlyman baby (7\ ) iii) Flora and Fauna : In case of natural animals, birds and trees, we find some such Arabic names and Arabic terms in the day to day use of the Bangaleese. Some of them may be noted as follows: J 6 a'qrab baqarah akrob bokra scorpion cow u'.? Jj.Mjl haiwan aswad haiwan ach'od animal cobra Ltujl insan inchan human yj j- ' khinjir shajarah khinjir shojor pig tree dirj narjil narjil coconut li hai'ya haia snake t\ini qachob kasab bamboo B) Arabic Elements in the Extended Vocabulary; This is the sphere in which most of the Arabic words and other elements are used in Bengali. Thousands of Arabic words are found to be used in Bengali and by the Bangalese in their extended vocabulary daily. Of course, it can be studied under following heads. i) Nouns: The feasibility and possibility of a foreign semetic language, Arabic to be used in an Aryan language, Bengali is easier and mostly found in the form and pattern of noun than in any other forms and cases. The Arabic words used in Bengali as nouns may be alphabetically listed overleaf : (72) JLlud ustaj ji aamm.1 aioier jlii azan JJI Allah Jbu ijl Allahta'ala Qu%i,\ ijlas jlialuil istighfar Jus j3,l«itl itteia' ikhtiyar isharah asl insaf imam inqilab %J islam jlul iman J 11 iqrar wumed 6'' j ajr, ujrat lj\ akherat ijl Uf ustad amon akner ajan Allah Allatala ajlas istekfar itla akhtiar ishara ashol insaf imam inkelab ichlam iman akrar womid ajor, ujrot akherot woph teacher saieiy, security at the end prayer call God God is Elevated assembly seek forgiveness, asking the pardon of God information, making aware choice, free will, freedom of action, jurisdiction hint, indication, signal, sign origin, root justice, equity leader, religious leader, one who leads congregational prayers revolution, a sudden change, agitation peace. Islamic religion faith, creed, religious belief confession, agreement, promise, fixing, acknowledgement wage, reward, pay, remuneration, salary here after woe (73) Jlj.«l amwal JUlJl intiqal JjLajl injil oujjl intekhab Sjl-i.! ijajot lj.a.1 ihram h)\ ajiyyat jliixl i'lan jlxlol imtihan y \ amr uij».l ikhtelaf \1\ aphat ol5jl awqat ol ayyub Jjl aw'wal (_LL1 ananas jvjl awlad A*M1\ aqsam jlojkl akhbar SjjukI akhirat ijuuil asia j) adam LjLI amanot (1 anis ll$jl arkan jji athar amwal intekal 1 injil intikhab izazot ahram aziyot alan amtehan amor akhtelaf aphod aokat aiyub auyal anaras awlad akcham akhbar akherot achiya adom amanot anich arkan achor riches, goods, property, wealth death, transfer Gospal, the New Testament election permission, sanction respect troubles proclamation, announcement, advertisement examination order difference, difference of opmion danger, trouble, difficulty time name of a prophet first pineapple children kinds news paper next world, hereafter wife of Pharo first man, man deposit, trust, safety relative, fundamental principles, foundation, basic rules influence, sign (74) ij\\ aliwal Hl ahkam LjLa.! ahbab ±A\ ahmad JUUI ijad ijlijl ittifaq jlojl insan jlkil iftar hl\ imamot (jlyji.1 ihsan 4U1 ihanat lal ummat jialjici itirad 11 aerabiyy alxol imdad Sjljl iradah jinri i'tibar 4L5l iqamot jliil inkar jslajl in'am Lkljl intijam (jai ikhlas ji lxjl injam tuji awlia' ahwal akam ahbab ahmod ijad ittifak inchan ifhtar imamot achan ihanot ummot atraj erabi amdad irada atebar akamot inkar anam intijam akhiach anjam awlia condition, state, circumstance religious injunction friends name of Hazrat Mohd. (S.M.) invention, creation event, happening, concord, chance a human being, a man break of fast leadership good deeds, charity, liberality, generosity be little, contempt followers, nation, community objection, opposition, criticism desert people, beduin help will, intention faith, consideration, confidence establishment, recital of the call to prayer denial, hate, rejection, disavowal reward, gift, present, prize arrangement, order sincerity end, accomplishment, termination divotees, saints, holymen, friends of God (75) LksLuul isti'fa i_jjl adab J.I3JI iljam LI abba LI amma jjil akbar kjjiil aqarib jliu.1 akhlaq ji\ akhir JLA.1 ahmal l».li ayyam jlijl adkar j*.lua.l ajnas ailcl a'zam Jl ajal oljl adaab u WJJI adab taslimat 6)\jl\ afwah JLvjl abdal jli aman PLUJI anoia A ayat ichtifa adob aljam abba amma akbor akarib akhlak akher ahmal aiyam ajkar ajnas azam azol adab adab taslimat afwa abdal amon amoia ayat resignation courtesy, politeness, good manner accusation, blame, censure, imputation my father my mother greatest near relatives character, moral final, end goods, belongings, immovable property, loads, burdens time, season remembrance, recital of the names of God kinds greater, greatest death, destiny politeness, greetings, salutation, I salute you most humble compliments, most respectful salutation rumours holymen, saints safety, peace, security, protection propneis verse of the holy Quran 76) A(I a'imma fbll al-wada Ij )l arwah ji al ayemma albeda arwa al religious leaders farewell, adieu spirits, souls discendams, ottsprmgs, tamily dj Xaa-JI alhamdulillah alhamdulilla nraise be to God. exnression uttered jijji aiwan 4iJl allahu (_yiul ashrofi kjlul ashraf JJOULI ashkhas olal asbab olawal ashab UJL_'V1 ahbab (i«jl ahmaqi ahmad JJA1 ahliyya CJJLJ JAI ahl-i bait JAI ahl jjl idhan JLa.1 ijmal (_Xa.l ijlas aioan allah ashrofi ashraf ashkhas asbab ashab ahbab ammoki ahmod ahha X 7 r on hearing any good tidings and after sneezing coloured sheet lord, supreme being gold coin great men, aristocrates persons things, furniture, goods, articles of house companions, companions of the prophet friends foolishness, folly most praised, another name of our prophet wife, domestic ahal-e-boit members belonged to the family of ahal izn ijmal ijlas the prophet people, family permission, consent abridgement, joint, possession court, sitting, meeting, session (77) )l\ izhar izar expression, information given to the police about the offences, statement made by the parties or witness ilisl idafa izafa oli ijab yejab jljl izar ajar SjU.1 ijara ijara jliji irsad irsad JLojl irsal irsal SJIJI irada jli.ji ilhan jmi ilham J\\ ilahiyy jlsjlxul istihar l\ ishhad f-wol islah jluilil istifsar 6jl \'y m (Jl..fl«T I.U istikhara irada ilhan a'lham alahi istehar ishhad ichla istifchar istekhara isti'mal istemal practice, use annexation, addition, incorporation affirmation, proposals veii,trousers, pantaloons,waist-cioth lease, farming direction, order, command sending, revenue desire, intention chanting or singing sweetly inspiration my God, O God, O, my God making public, proclamation, notice calling to witness correction, reform, rectification question, statement, asking for explanation asking for welfare, name of a muslim prayer ihtimam ahtemam supervision, care ihtiyat ahteyat caution, supervision, care ihtilam ahtelam wet dream, nocturnal emission athar asar sign, mark itikaf atekaf retirement in a mosque for prayer and meditation. (78) julcl i'tiqad JU.JI ittihad s\jo\ umara J Lit iqbal jkll ikram Jjl ijra if\ ittiham P\J1A\ imtina j\ iram (j«lji ilbas jl f ml ishtihar Al uhd Jj\ ula Jj.wal WUSUl IjlSl iqtida ioli imamot iill ulfat uijjl aluf sli intiha jllajol intizar j jl ibn (juxli ibiis )L\ imla tflj djl iyaka dafa ateqad ittehad umara akbal ackram ajra atteham imtina aram albas istihar uhud ula uchul akteda imamoti ulfot oluf inteha intejar bin iblich amla iyaka daf a confidence, belief, trust union, being one leaders, chiefs, nobles advancing, prosperity honouring, respect giving effect, execution accusation prohibition, injunction fabulous, gardens clothes, dress publishing, notice, proclamation a mountain near Medina first, highest receiving, obtaining, collection, payment following, going after, following the Islam leadership friendship very familiar, dedicate end, extreme, climax, final, last stage waiting, expectation son devil, satan spelling once, at one time (79) ijjl bari Jjj badla ol bab JLUJ bunyad (jju badn L baqi :$jj barkat JJAAJ banduq J-ij bakh'l Jikj bukh'l i«a.j baydah SjLiij basharat CiAj bait, bayt JLJLJ bayan j bashar IjLi baqarah j Jj baq baq xi burqa'a JJL SJIJ baqra id JIIJ baqqal p-l _ bazzaz J batul jj bid'at tjdj badawiyy AJtj bay'at bari bodla bab buniad bodan baki borkot bonduk bogol bokhl boida bosharat boyet boyan boshor bakra bokbok burga bokri id boukali bozaz botul bedat boddu boyth God change, wodol bodol is a reduplication of bodol or bodla meaning exchange door, chapter, item, topic, subject basis body balance, rest, remaining, resideu blessing, increase, abundance gun, missile, musket, rifle, firelock armpit misery egg, maggot good news house, couplet, verse explanation, description, lecture people, skin cow prattle veilmg, gown festival of sacrifice green grocer, vegatable seller dealer in clothes, draper virgin, maid, nun hersy, evils, inequity nomad, bedoin, nomad Aiab allegance, homage, fealty (80) *JLJ bay' l_i Ajtj baynama 3ji barq e bazrakh Sljj bara'at jii bahr (jkiaj ba'd jial batin JLL batil JAJ ba'd 4JU JJU ba'd juma' L»L JL babat nb ba'i.x. bala' Ci.-i bahth OJLJ bint Lu tamam JjLuaij tafsil 6jLib tafawat SUJ tafath UIAJIJ taklif bay boynama bark borzokh borat bahar baje batin batil bade badui jumma babot baya bola bohos binte tamam tofchil tafaat tofath tokiiph sale sale deed, sale certificate lighting lit. interval, barrier/period between death and resurrection immunity, privilege, lot, permit, passport sea, occean, navy some, useless, superfluous, extra interior, secret, hidden, mind, heart false, untrue, null and void, invalid, cancelled, ineffective after, afterwards Friday afternoon, after the Friday congregational prayer class, item, for, on account of seller, vendor calamity, misfortune, trial, evil argument, controversy, discussion, debate, dispute, alteration daughter of completion, perfection detail, particulars lit. interval, difference, distance
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