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1973 USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-10 AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOGGING ON FISH OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES AND CANADA This file was created by scanning the printed
1973 USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-10 AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF LOGGING ON FISH OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES AND CANADA This file was created by scanning the printed publication. Text errors identified by the software have been corrected; however, some errors may remain. Dave R. Gibbons Ernest O. Salo Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Portland, Oregon Compilers of this bibliography: Dave R. Gibbons, Predoctoral Research Associate, and Ernest 0. Salo, Professor, Fisheries Research Institute, College of Fisheries, University of Washington, Seattle. Publication made possible by a grant from the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, to the Fisheries Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle. ABSTRACT This bibliography is an annotation of the scientific and nonscientific literature published on the effects of logging on fish and aquatic habitat of the Western United States and Canada. It includes 278 annotations and 317 total references. Subject areas include erosion and sedimentation, water quality, related influences upon salmonids, multiple logging effects, alteration of streamflow, stream protection, multiple-use management, streamside vegetation, stream improvement, and descriptions of studies on effects of logging. A review of the literature, a narrative on the state of the art, and a list of research needs determined by questionnaires are included b This bibliography includes reports involving pesticides published by inany agencies. Recornendation for use of these pesticides is not implied, I nor that the uses discussed have been registered. All uses of pesticides must be registered by appropriate State and/or Federal agencies before they can be recommended. CONTENTS A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON LOGGIIIG AIlD FISHERIES-- A STATE;MENT ON TIE STATE OF THE ART * * * * * * * * * * - * * * * 1 Introduction Review of the Literature... 1 Sources of Literature Analysis of Literature LiteratureSummary, Sedimentation... 5 WaterQuality., Streamflow Environmental Requirements of Salnonids Related to Logging. 11 Ecological Effects.. 12 Streamside Vegetation... b 12 Watershed Management and Stream Protection. 13 Stream Improvement. 14 Summary of Research Needs as Uetermined from the Literature Survey Analysis of the Workshop of November Summary of the Horkshop Summary ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY w w 22 Introduction. b.) 22 Erosion and Sedimentation.. e 23 Streamside Vegetation Water Quality I. Alteration of Streamflow Descriptions of Effects of Logging Studies. 79 Related Salmonid Information.... e 84 Multiple Logging Effects.. b 101 Stream Protection Stream Improvement Multiple-use Xanagement Additional References ijot Annotated SUBJECTINDEX I *137 AUTHORINDEX.... * I.. 51 A REVIEW OF THE LfTERATURE ON LOGGING AND FISHERIES-- A STATEMENT ON THE STATE OF THE ART This narrative on the state of the art of the effects of logging on fish of the Western United States and Canada consists of two parts; the first is a review of the literature; the second, an analysis of a workshop on logging and fisheries held at the University of Washington, November 20-21, The numbers in parentheses indicate references in the annotated bibliography developed from the literature. INTRO DU CTlO N There is no question that, historically, certain logging and associated land-use practices have had deleterious effects upon freshwater and anadromous fish populations. It is evident that some of these detrimental practices are continuing, although many others have been discontinued. A tremendous amount of progress has been made. Man's activities, coupled with naturally occurring events such as forest fires, floods, and slides, generate complexities that are difficult not only to assess but to control. Obviously, continuous assessment of potential environmental impacts is the concern of the land-user as well as of the resource manager. On the other hand, the ability of the management biologist sometimes is limited by ignorance of the requirements and status of fish stocks inhabiting the waters in question. This ignorance may range from the lack of knowledge of the peculiarities of the life histories of the endemic fishes in the streams and of the basic productivity of streams to the role of nonlogging factors such as fishing. In the absence of precise information, the biologist is inclined to recommend conservative regulations as a safety factor to protect the fish resources. Multiple uses of resources such as by fisheries and forest harvesters have, in the past, been conflicting; however, recently, the two groups have attempted to enter into coordinated research and management. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Sporadic research was conducted on the effects of logging and related use on the ecology of streams from 1900 to the 1950's. Since that time, extensive research has been conducted by many agencies. As productive as the research has been, it is still not possible to generalize on the effects of logging because of the varied land and aquatic habitats found in the Western United States and Canada. The hazards of logging to fish and water resources of the Pacific coast have seldom been quantitatively defined; in most cases, the potential harm was only inferred. Definite problems have been recognized in the literature. The harmful effects on fish which can result from logging and poor silvicultural methods used on the Pacific coast include: ' Introduction of sediments a. Bedload sediments (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) reduced dissolved oxygen caused by reduced interand intragravel waterflow physical barrier to the emergence of alevins lowered production of aquatic plants and invertebrates damage to eggs by adhesion to the chorion reduced catchability of sport fish b. Suspended sediments (1) erosion of gill membranes (2) degradation of rearing habitat (3) lowered production of aquatic plants and invertebrates Altered streamflow regimes Introduction of logging debris a. Barriers to movement by juveniles and spawning adults b. Reduced dissolved oxygen as a result of high biological oxygen demand Degradation of rearing habitat through streambank erosion Altered temperature regimes a. Increased summer temperatures b. Decreased winter temperatures Alterations in stream energy resources Indiscriminate use of pesticides and herbicides Altered chemical water quality regimes by the exposure of mineral soils and indiscriminate use of fertilizers. The sources and effects of erosion and sedimentation have received the greatest research emphasis (fig. 1); however, the general topics of water quality, alteration of streamflow, stream protection and improvement, and the environmental requirements of salmonids have also received considerable discussion and documentation within North America. The research conducted before and after 1960 has shown similar emphases but with increased emphasis on water quality after 1960 (fig. 1). Sources of Literature The majority of the research results have been published in symposia or by academic institutions ; however, considerable quantities can also be found in biological and forestry journals and in publications by the U.S. Forest Service and State agencies (table 1). 2 PRIOR TO TO PRESENT NUMBER OF ARTICLES Erosion and sedimentation Water quality Related salmonid information Multiple logging effects Alteration of streamflow Stream protection SUBJECT AREAS Multiple use management Streamside vegetation Stream improvement Descriptions of effects of logging studies Figure 1. Research conducted on the effects of logging in the Western United States and Canada. 3 ~ Table 1.--Literature concerning the effects' of logging on fish, Categories Number Symposia and academ5.c institutions 83 Biological journals 60 Forestry journals 60 U.S. Forest Service publications 59 State agencies 49 Analysis of Literature An analysis of the literature shows that although some critical analyses of the detrimental effects of logging are in the scientific literature, most blanket condemnations of logging are found in the popular, nonscientific journals. Actual quantitative, documented evidence on detrimental effects of logging on fish populations is limited to seven articles (56, 61, 252, 153, 275, 277, 222). Many unpublished data are present in the files of fisheries management agencies. The results of many research summaries can be'classified only as inconclusive. Table 2 is an attempt to categorize the conclusions of articles which appraise logging and silvicultural practices; 118 articles were not included as they do not fit the classifications chosen. Recent publications on the effects of logging have been less critical than in the past, perhaps as the complexity of the problem has become better understood. There seems to be a recent change in attitude favoring prevention instead of rehabilitation and an increase in collection of data for integration into watershed models. Table 2.--Categorization of articles which appraise logging practices as described in the literature Rank Category Number of articles Percentage 1 Data collection on the effects of logging leading to inconclusive results Description of adverse logging practices Prevention of adverse logging practices Table 2.--Categorization of articles which appraise logging practices as described in the literaturecontinued Rank Category Number of articles Percentage 4 Undetermined as to the effects of logging Reviews of literature Quantitative evidence of the detrimental effects Condemnation of logging Beneficial results of logging TOTAL LITERATURE SUMMARY Sedimentation Most articles on sedimentation of streams have been purely descriptive, and sometimes dramatic, in their portrayal of an adverse effect on the environment. A lesser number of articles have reported qualitative effects of sedimentation. Quantitative studies of sedimentation, although few in number, have provided the real basis for present knowledge and can be divided into two categories: its sources and its effects on stream environments. Sources of Sediment Erosion, landslides, and the occurrence of sediments in our waters are natural phenomena and vary with the inherent erodibility of soils, geology, climate, and vegetation. Man's activities can, and usually do, accelerate these natural processes. The summation of approximately 25 articles documenting the effects of logging and logging roads on sediment production indicates: (a) logging roads are the greatest source of man-caused stream sediments; (b) sediments from clearcuts occur infrequently and are primarily a result of bared mineral soils and reduced surface-soil permeability due to compaction; and (c) severe burning of logging slash is often followed by increased rates of surface soil erosion, due primarily to the removal of stabilizing vegetation and litter. 5 The diverse characteristics of watersheds prevent extrapolation of results over wide geographical areas. Stephens (50) stated that because of the striking differences in watershed characteristics, most of the published research results on the effects of logging on streams from other areas cannot be extrapolated directly to Southeast Alaska. Recently, however, some researchers through quantitative measurements of soil characteristics, meteorology, topography, and land-use conditions, have provided a basis for predicting differences in sediment production (2, 5, Sz). Continuous research needs to be conducted on the development of new or redesigned logging methods that require fewer roads and produce less soil disturbance. Effeots of Sediment on Aquatic Environments Fluctuations in the characteristics of aquatic environments, including the numbers and diversity of organisms, are natural phenomena. Through time, organisms have become selectively adapted to life within a set of environmental parameters. Changes which exceed the natural tolerance of these organisms will drastically change the population. The severity of stresses imposed by man upon the adaptability of these organisms will determine the degree of change. Suspended sedhent--the summation of six available articles dealing with the direct effects of suspended sediment or turbidity on fish, mostly salmonids, demonstrates several mechanisms of damage, including: (a) the adhesion of silt particles to the chorion of salmonid ova (29) and (b) the abrasion, thickening, and fusion of gills as a result of increased silt concentration (295). In addition to direct mortality of fish, suspended sediment also blocks or decreases light penetration and thereby limits the production of phytoplankton and other aquatic plants. It may also cause alterations in stream temperature-change rates and precipitation of organic particles which produce high stream BOD (Biological Oxygen Demands). Another concern is the loss of sport fishing time as a result of increased turbidities. It has been stated that fishing success declines with increasing turbidity above 25 ppm (43). The literature demonstrates a large variation in results, making it impossible to define precisely what levels are lethal. Generally, prolonged exposures to concentrations from 200 to 300 ppm are lethal to fish. Shorter exposure times to concentrations of 90 to 810 ppm may reduce survival through synergistic effects with other stresses (Le., increased temperature and decreased dissolved oxygen) in the environment (18, 295). This research on the direct effects of suspended sediment on fish has been conducted in the laboratory and bears questionable applicability to field situations. 6 Future research should emphasize: (a) more detailed laboratory studies of the mechanisms of damage to fish from suspended sediments, (b) quantitatively documented studies in actual field situations, and (c) studies of the adaptability of salmonids in glaciated streams vs. natural streams subjected to increased suspended sediment concentrations. BedZoad sedkents--of all the factors affecting aquatic life, bedload sediments cause the most damage. The smothering effect and instability of sediment reduce invertebrate diversity and populations (55, 56, 298, 299), reduce available living space for fish (29, 431, and reduce early survival of fish (284, 295, ZZZ). A summation of the findings from 50 articles dealing with bedload sediments shows: (a) sediment fills gravel interstices, thereby reducing inter- and intragravel waterflow, reducing dissolved oxygen to incubating salmonid ova; (b) deposited sediment can physically prevent emergence of fry (fig. 2); and (c) sediment reduces food resources by filling gravel interstices and promoting unstable substrates for aquatic invertebrates and periphyton communities. Research has indicated that the lethal effects of sediment are most pronounced during the developmental stages of fish while in the gravel, and that once hatching occurs, physical environmental factors become less important and food availability becomes more important. Research on the effects of sediment has been quite extensive, as shown by the literature reviews of Cordone and Kelley (251, Gebhardt (289), Hollis et al. (291, and Koski (32). In spite of the fine work that has been completed, there still exist serious gaps in data documenting the quantities of sediment altering stream productivity related to fry quality and survival Organic sedhents--organic fines introduced by logging are important in stream environments where they decrease dissolved oxygen concentrations and intergravel flows and increase salmonid ova and alevin mortalities through the promotion of the growth of SphaerotiZis (bacteria which attack fish gills, resulting in suffocation). Suspended conifer fibers have been shown to lower the survival of rainbow and brown trout fry by inhibiting gill functions (95). 7 Water Quality The watersheds of the Western United States and Canada harbor some of the most productive salmonid populations in the world. In the past, forest management has focused primarily upon the production of timber with little regard for maintaining stream quality; and consequently, water quality in many streams has been degraded. Logging and silvicultural practices have resulted in changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of water, e.g., increased water temperatures and the addition of silvicultural chemicals. STEELHEAD PERCENT SURVIVAL COHO PERCENTAGE OF FINE SEDIMENTS (1-3 mm in diameter) Figure 2. The relation between amount of fine particles in an artificial gravel bed and the ability of coho salmon and steelhead trout fry to emerge through the gravel (211). 8 Water Temperature Water temperature is a parameter that has received considerable attention recently in reference to land-use studies. Water temperature has been proven to be a major determinant in the suitability for salmonid production, with small forested streams being the most susceptible to a temperature change (78, 80, 90). As well as inducing direct mortality of organisms, adverse water temperature influences the level of dissolved oxygen and nutrients; controls algal blooms which may impart taste, odor, color, and ecological changes; and affects growth, condition, and behavior of fish. Warm water is also conducive to the growth of bacterial species which may constitute health problems to humans and fish. Finally, prolonged alteration in the temperature regime may eventually alter the species composition of streams. A summation of 22 articles concerned with the effects of logging on stream temperature indicates: (a) removal of streamside vegetation increases maximum water temperatures by exposing streams to increased direct solar radiation; (b) stream temperature (At in OF) is directly proportional to surface area exposure (A in ft2l9 the solar energy input (H in B.t.u./ft2/minute) and inversely proportional to the flow (D in c.f.s.): A x H At = D (77); (c) warmed water reaching shade does not normally cool unless there is an inflow of cool water; and (d) winter minimum water temperatures can be lowered through removal of streamside vegetation (84). Any change in the temperature regime of small streams may be deemed detrimental by some, but moderate increases in temperatures have been suggested by others as a means of improving salmonid habitat. However, care must be taken to prevent eutrophication and the destruction of salmonid habitats. Future research should determine: (a) the effects of streamside vegetation removal on winter stream temperatures in the Western United States, and (b) the different effects of various cutting practices on water temperature. ChemicaZ and PhysScaZ Properties The chemical and physical properties of stream water under natural conditions vary with the geology of the watershed through which it flows. Degradation of water quality can occur naturally due to leaching of mineral elements and humic acid compounds but often is induced by man's activities. Water quality can be affected by logging through accelerated leaching of nutrients from soil and wood and through the introduction of silvicultural chemicals. 9 Nutz6ents--Aquatic organisms require organic and inorganic nutrients which originate primarily from the terrestrial forest system. It has been shown that there is relatively little elemental loss from undisturbed forest soils in the temperate regions. Timber harvesting and silviculture can, however, increase the leaching rates. A summary of 15 relevant articles discloses: (a) increased loss of chemical nutrients from the soil follows logging and slash burning; however, these nutrient additions to the streams are only temporary and dissipate with stream dilution, flushing, and removal by aquatic organisms; (b) leaching rates of nutrients can be affected by topographic and meteorological features of the watersheds, by soil textures, and by the degree of clearcutting; (c) leachates from stored logs vary with the volume and flushing rate of th
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