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    Oracle® Database Net Services Administrator's Guide 11 g   Release 2 (11.2) E10836-07 July 2011  Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide, 11  g  Release 2 (11.2) E10836-07Copyright © 2002, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Contributors: Robert Achacoso, Lance Ashdown, Matt Cassady, Abhishek Dadhich, Santanu Datta, Steve Ding, Caroline Johnston, Feroz Khan, Bhaskar Mathur, Scot McKinley, Ed Miner, Sweta Mogra, Srinivas Pamu, Kant Patel, Murali Purayathu, Karthik Rajan, Saravanakumar Ramasubramanian, Kevin Reardon, Sudeep Reguna, James Spiller, Richard Strohm, Norman WooThis software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable:U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government customers are commercial computer software or commercial technical data pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, the use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation shall be subject to the restrictions and license terms set forth in the applicable Government contract, and, to the extent applicable by the terms of the Government contract, the additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software License (December 2007). Oracle America, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications that may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure its safe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this software or hardware in dangerous applications.Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD, Opteron, the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information on content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services.  iii Contents Preface .............................................................................................................................................................. xvii Audience.................................................................................................................................................... xvii Documentation Accessibility................................................................................................................. xviii Related Documentation.......................................................................................................................... xviii Conventions............................................................................................................................................... xix What's New in Oracle Net Services? ............................................................................................... xxi Oracle Database 11  g  Release 2 New Features in Oracle Net Services............................................... xxi Oracle Database 11  g  Release 1 New Features in Oracle Net Services.............................................. xxii Part I Understanding Oracle Net Services1 Introducing Oracle Net Services About Oracle Net Services ...................................................................................................................... 1-1 Understanding Connectivity............................................................................................................ 1-1 Client/Server Application Connections.................................................................................. 1-1  Java Client Application Connections................................................................................ 1-2 Web Client Application Connections....................................................................................... 1-3 Web Client Connections Through Java Application Web Server................................. 1-3 Web Client Connections Without an Application Web Server..................................... 1-4 Understanding Manageability......................................................................................................... 1-5 Location Transparency............................................................................................................... 1-5 Centralized Configuration and Management......................................................................... 1-6 Quick Installation and Configuration...................................................................................... 1-6 Understanding Shared Server Architecture................................................................................... 1-6 Connection Pooling.................................................................................................................... 1-8 Session Multiplexing.................................................................................................................. 1-8 Understanding Performance ........................................................................................................ 1-10 Listener Queue Size................................................................................................................. 1-11 Session Data Unit Size for Data Transfer Optimization..................................................... 1-11 Persistent Buffer Flushing for TCP/IP.................................................................................. 1-11 Sockets Direct Protocol............................................................................................................ 1-12 Availability................................................................................................................................ 1-12 Understanding Network Security................................................................................................ 1-12 Firewall Access Control.......................................................................................................... 1-12  iv Oracle Net Services Components ....................................................................................................... 1-14 About Oracle Net ........................................................................................................................... 1-14 Oracle Net Foundation Layer................................................................................................. 1-14 Oracle Protocol Support.......................................................................................................... 1-15 About Oracle Net Listener............................................................................................................. 1-15 About Oracle Connection Manager.............................................................................................. 1-16 About Networking Tools............................................................................................................... 1-16 About Oracle Advanced Security................................................................................................. 1-17 2 Identifying and Accessing the Database Understanding Database Instances ...................................................................................................... 2-1 Understanding Database Services ........................................................................................................ 2-3 Connecting to a Database Service ......................................................................................................... 2-4 About Connect Descriptors.............................................................................................................. 2-5 About IPv6 Addresses in Connect Descriptors...................................................................... 2-6 About the Protocol Address............................................................................................................. 2-6 About Service Registration............................................................................................................... 2-7 Specifying an Instance Name.................................................................................................... 2-7 Specifying a Service Handler.................................................................................................... 2-7 Understanding Service Handlers .......................................................................................................... 2-8 About Dispatchers............................................................................................................................. 2-8 About Dedicated Server Processes.................................................................................................. 2-9 About Database Resident Connection Pooling........................................................................... 2-11 Understanding Naming Methods ...................................................................................................... 2-12 Choosing a Naming Method......................................................................................................... 2-13 Establishing a Client Session using a Naming Method............................................................. 2-15 Entering a Connect String ............................................................................................................. 2-15 Connect Identifier and Connect Descriptor Syntax Characteristics................................. 2-15 Enhancing Service Accessibility using Multiple Listeners .......................................................... 2-16 About Connect-time Failover........................................................................................................ 2-16 About Transparent Application Failover.................................................................................... 2-16 About Client Load Balancing........................................................................................................ 2-16 About Connection Load Balancing............................................................................................... 2-17 3 Managing Network Address Information Using Localized Management ............................................................................................................... 3-1 Using a Directory Server for Centralized Management ................................................................... 3-2 Understanding the Directory Information Tree............................................................................ 3-3 Fully-qualified Names for Domain Component Namespaces............................................. 3-5 Fully-qualified Names for X.500 Namespaces........................................................................ 3-6 Using an Entry's Relative Name............................................................................................... 3-7 Using an Entry's Fully-qualified Name................................................................................... 3-7 Understanding Oracle Context........................................................................................................ 3-8 Understanding Net Service Alias Entries....................................................................................... 3-9 Who Can Add or Modify Entries in the Directory Server........................................................ 3-10 Client Connections Using Directory Naming............................................................................. 3-10 Considerations When Using Directory Servers.......................................................................... 3-11

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