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ECE/TRANS/XXX 01 July 2013 GLOBAL REGISTRY Created on 24 May 2013, pursuant to Article 6 of the AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND
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ECE/TRANS/XXX 01 July 2013 GLOBAL REGISTRY Created on 24 May 2013, pursuant to Article 6 of the AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHING OF GLOBAL TECHNICAL REGULATIONS FOR WHEELED VEHICLES, EQUIPMENT AND PARTS WHICH CAN BE FITTED AND/OR BE USED ON WHEELED VEHICLES (ECE/TRANS/132 and Corr.1) Done at Geneva on 25 June 1998 Addendum Global technical regulation No. YYY TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS forregarding AUDIBLE VEHICLE ALERTING SYSTEMS FOR QUIET ROAD TRANSPORT VEHICLES with regard to the sound emissions. (Established in the Global Registry on DD.MM.YYYY) UNITED NATIONS The text below is a compilation of specification on sound devices for the purpose of informing pedestrians about the presence of a vehicle. The table shows the documents used for the development of this text. The colours indicate in origin. Source Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles NHTSA 49 CFR Part 571 Docket No. NHTSA RIN 2127-AK93 Guideline on Low-noise Measures for HEV, etc Japan Guideline Kokujigi No. 255 on Japan Study Committee Report on Low Noise Measures for Hybrid Vehicles, etc Proposal for guidelines on measures ensuring the audibility of hybrid and electric vehicles UN-ECE R.E.3 Guideline AVAS Draft Recommendations for a Global Technical Regulation Regarding Audible Vehicle Alerting Systems for Quiet Road Transport Vehicles GRB Informal Group Report ECE-TRANS-WP29-GRB- 55-inf14e Other Sources (EU 2011_0409 (COD) with amendments of Parliament A7-0435_2012 and Council st05832.en13[1] PUBLIC) OICA comments to US NPRM NHTSA OICA additional comments Colour Bold Black Red Red Italic Green Green Italic Blue Pink Pink Italic page 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A. JUSTIFICATION AND TECHNICAL RATIONALE INTRODUCTION PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND EXISTING REGULATIONS, DIRECTIVES, AND INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTARY STANDARDS TECHNICAL RATIONALE, ECONOMIC IMPACTS, ANDANTICIPATED BENEFITS 5. ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS POSSIBLE FUTURE EXTENSIONS OF THE GTR B. TEXT OF THE REGULATION PURPOSE SCOPE DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS DEMONSTRATION REQUIREMENTS TEST PROCEDURES DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS ANNEXES Annex 1 NHTSA Tables page 5 A. JUSTIFICATION AND TECHNICAL RATIONALE 1. INTRODUCTION This global technical regulation (gtr) is setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and motorcycles to produce sounds meeting the requirements of this standard. This proposed standard applies to electric vehicles (EVs) and to those hybrid vehicles (HVs) that are capable of propulsion in any forward or reverse gear without the vehicle s internal combustion engine (ICE) operating. This standard would ensure that blind, visually-impaired, and other pedestrians are able to detect and recognize nearby hybrid and electric vehicles, as required by the PSEA, by requiring that hybrid and electric vehicles emit sound that pedestrians would be able to hear in a range of ambient environments and contain acoustic signal content that pedestrians will recognize as being emitted from a vehicle. Following a decision to promote their widespread use toward the low-carbon society, registrations of hybrid vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV), etc have been rapidly growing in recent years with even further growth projected in years to come. In the meantime, users and groups for the visually-impaired have expressed views that they find those vehicles dangerous due to the mechanism that does not make high noise, while similar points are made by some experts. Therefore, in order to promote effective measures relating to the low noise as reported by the Study Committee on Low Noise Measures for Hybrid Vehicles, etc, requirements have been established as described below for those Devices for Approaching Vehicle Alert to be installed in HEV that can run only on electric motors with the internal combustion engines in shutdown condition, EV and fuel-cell vehicles. It shall be assessed the need to review this Regulation, taking into account, inter alia, whether active safety systems can better serve the objective of improving the safety of vulnerable road users in urban areas, in addition to, or as compared to acoustic vehicle alerting systems and shall, where appropriate, and in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, submit a proposal which makes provision for a maximum sound level for AVAS installed in vehicles. The environmental benefits achieved by hybrid electric and pure electric road transport vehicles (HEV and EV) include near zero air pollution, reduced fossil fuel demands and very quiet vehicle operation at low speeds. While quiet vehicle operation provides the potential for significant public health and welfare benefits to millions of citizens, it has resulted in an unintended consequence - the removal of an important source of audible signals that are used by many pedestrians (e.g. blind, low vision and elderly pedestrians) and road users (e.g. cyclists), to signal the approach, presence and departure of these vehicles. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the QRTV / IWG with regard to the future development of a globally harmonized regulation that would specify the applicability and performance of an 'Audible Vehicle Alerting System' (AVAS). The AVAS would provide pedestrians and other road users with information regarding the operation of quiet vehicles at speeds below 20 to 30 kilometres per hour (12 to 20 miles per hour) that is essential to safe page 6 movement decisions while also protecting the public from unnecessary increases in environmental noise and the vehicle operator from adverse noise impact. Particular attention should be given to those countries that have programs directed at the reduction of community noise impact. While an in-depth assessment of the potential growth of the quiet vehicle fleet was beyond the scope of the QRTV terms of reference, there is substantial evidence to support a conclusion that any resulting UN/ECE regulation regarding AVAS must be harmonized as a Global Technical Regulation (GTR) to reduce pedestrian confusion(comment to be updated) and to minimize diverse regulatory burdens on powered road vehicle manufacturers Discussions were held from the perspectives described below concerning (i) EV run -enabled HEV and EV (including fuel-cell vehicles), (ii) non-ev run HEV, (iii) vehicles with idle stop engines and (iv) ordinary vehicles with engines making low noise, for which measures may be needed. Formatiert: Schriftartfarbe: Dunkelblau TRANS/WP.29/GRPE/2003/8 page 6 Kommentar [DG1]: Japan comments moved from section 3. (i): It has been reported that difference in sound volume from vehicles reaches 20dB at maximum compared with ordinary vehicles with engines from starting to vehicle speed of about 20km/h; hence, measures are required. (See Diagram C.) (ii): With engines always fired up during starting, it was confirmed at the Study Committee s experience session that these vehicles are equally noticeable compared with ordinary vehicles with engines; hence, measures are not needed. (iii): As with the above (ii), with engines always fired up during starting, these vehicles are considered equally noticeable compared with ordinary vehicles with engines; hence, measures are not needed. (iv): As a result of comparison between luxury models with quiet engines and ordinary models in the surveys conducted so far, the gap is not huge at about 2dB; hence, measures are not needed. (See Diagram C.) 2. PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND During the one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth session of WP.29 on March 2012, the Executive Committee (AC.3) of the 1998 Global Agreement (1998 Agreement) adopted a two stage approach for developing the UN GTR, including in a first phase electric and hybrid vehicles and, in a second phase, quiet vehicle with internal combustion engines and possible inclusion of safety related matters. Informal working groups the GRB Informal Group on Quiet Road Transport Vehicles (QRTV) from March 2009 to September 2012 and the GRB GTR development group on QRTV from March 2012 to XXX were established develop a proposal for this GTR. The working group was instructed to - Identify, review and assess the status of various researches being carried out by various EV run refers to run on the electric motor only with the engine stopped. page 7 governments, universities and non-governmental organizations on audible warning and signalling technologies for quiet vehicles. - Invite, consult with and consider the input of safety experts from GRSP, GRRF, and GRSG. - Determine potential audible sound characteristics and mechanisms that convey desired vehicle performance information to the human receiver. - Develop harmonized test procedures for evaluating the conformity of potential audible sound characteristics and mechanisms. - Determine the costs and benefits associated with a QRTV gtr including potential adverse impact on the public at large or existing vehicle noise emission standards and regulations. Note that the analysis is not intended to address specific countries or regions, but rather general considerations each Contracting Party (to WP.29) should consider when implementing the potential gtr. US and Japan may wish to add some elements of their national studies. 3. EXISTING REGULATIONS, DIRECTIVES, AND INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTARY STANDARDS 3.1. Those pertaining to minimum sound requirements for motorized road vehicles In the United States of America: 49 CFR Part 571, Docket No. NHTSA , RIN 2127-AK93, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles In Europe: Draft Regulation 2011/0409 (COD) with amendments of the European Parliament listed in A7-0435_2012 and changes by the European Council published in st05832.en13[1] PUBLIC and subsequent amendments. further info to be provided by EC. In Japan: Guideline on Low-noise Measures for HEV, etc ADD: Japanese proposal from 4th meeting excluded sounds(proposal for QRTV-GTR on performance requirements for AVAS) To be updated In China: To be updated WP29 UNECE: To be updated 4. TECHNICAL RATIONALE, ECONOMIC IMPACTS, AND ANTICIPATED BENEFITS page Technical rationale (complete this section after targets have been agreed) The requirements of this proposal apply only to those HVs that are capable of propulsion in any forward or reverse gear without the vehicle s ICE operating because these were the vehicles that the agency believes fall under the definition of hybrid vehicle contained in the PSEA. A crossover speed of 30 km/h was chosen because this was the speed at which the sound levels of the hybrid and electric vehicles measured by the agency approximated the sound levels produced by similar ICE vehicles. This proposal contains minimum sound requirements for the activated but stationary operating condition because the definition of alert sound in the PSEA, as explained in Section III of this NPRM, requires the agency to issue minimum sound requirements to allow pedestrians to detect hybrid and electric vehicles. We have tentatively determined that this requirement can be best met by requiring vehicles to emit sound in this operating condition. TRANS/WP.29/GRPE/2003/8 page 8 At lower speeds, hybrid and electric vehicles produce less sound than vehicles propelled by an ICE. At higher speeds, tire and wind noise are the main contributors to vehicles noise output so at higher speeds the sounds produced by hybrid and electric vehicles and ICE vehicles are similar. Because hybrid and electric vehicles do not produce as much sound as ICE vehicles when operating at lower speeds, pedestrians and other road users may not be aware of the presence of a nearby hybrid or electric vehicle. If a hybrid vehicle is involved in a low speed maneuver (defined as making a turn, slowing or stopping, backing up, entering or leaving a parking space, or starting in traffic), it is 1.38 times more likely than an ICE vehicle to be involved in a collision with a pedestrian and 1.33 times more likely to be involved in a collision with a pedalcyclist. We believe that this difference in accident rates is mostly attributable to the pedestrians inability to detect these vehicles by hearing them during these maneuvers. (further comments expected by NHTSA) Discussions were held from the perspectives described below concerning (i) EV run -enabled HEV and EV (including fuel-cell vehicles), (ii) non-ev run HEV, (iii) vehicles with idle stop engines and (iv) ordinary vehicles with engines making low noise, for which measures may be needed. (i): It has been reported that difference in sound volume from vehicles reaches 20dB at maximum compared with ordinary vehicles with engines from starting to vehicle speed of about 20km/h; hence, measures are required. (See Diagram C.) (ii): With engines always fired up during starting, it was confirmed at the Study Committee s experience session that these vehicles are equally noticeable compared with ordinary vehicles with engines; hence, measures are not needed. (iii): As with the above (ii), with engines always fired up during starting, these vehicles are considered equally noticeable compared with ordinary vehicles with engines; hence, measures are not needed. (iv): As a result of comparison between luxury models with quiet engines and ordinary models in the surveys conducted so far, the gap is not huge at about 2dB; hence, measures are not needed. (See Diagram C.) 2. Scenes in which measures are required Proposed measure: page 9 Applicable in a range from starting to vehicle speed of 20km/h and when moving backward. [Concept] Based on the experience by the visually-impaired, etc, low noise measures are most needed when a vehicle is starting from a stopped state (Diagram A) and when it is running at low speed (Diagram B), in which case it will be required to notify approaching vehicles to pedestrians, etc, including the visually-impaired. A.Exit from alley, etc Main road B. Pedestriansand cars mixed Moving forward/backward Pedestrian Alley Sidewalk Car Car Pedestrian The surveys conducted so far revealed that, since tire noise increases under the vehicle speed of 20km/h, even EV run-capable HEV is equally noticeable compared with ordinary vehicles with engines. (See Diagram C.) Diagram C: Comparison of sound volume (Microphone was placed at 2 meters to the left form the centerline of running vehicles and 1.2 meters from the ground. When stopped, it was place at a position immediately next to the front edge of vehicles.): EV run-capable HEV vs. ordinary vehicles with engines page 10 Ordinary I Ordinary II Hybrid (EV run) Background noise TRANS/WP.29/GRPE/2003/8 page 10 Japan may wish to update this chart Some are calling for measures even when a vehicle is stopped; however, since it is the same state as ordinary vehicles with engines parked or stopped with engines off, specific measures for hybrid vehicles, etc are not needed Economic impacts To be added (test time, money, employees) 4.3. Anticipated benefits To be added 5. ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS To be added; Considerations about: Vehicle testing, component testing; other ways for pedestrian protection in terms of quiet vehicles; type approval vs-self certification, etc. Small volume manufacturers. (May need to be adapted to UN-ECE specs) Vehicles manufactured during any of the three years of the September 1, 2015 through August 31, 2018 phase-in by a manufacturer that produces fewer than 5,000 vehicles for sale in the United States during that year are not subject to the requirements of S9.1, S9.2,S9.3 and S Final-stage manufacturers and alterers. Vehicles that are manufactured in two or more stages or that are altered (within the meaning of 49 CFR 567.7) after page 11 having previously been certified in accordance with Part 567 of this chapter are not subject to the requirements of S9.1 through S9.5. Instead, all vehicles produced by these manufacturers on or after September 1, 2018 must comply with this standard. Formatiert: Schriftart: Nicht Fett, Nicht Kursiv 6. POSSIBLE FUTURE EXTENSIONS OF THE GTR The need to review this Regulation shall be assessed, taking into account, inter alia, whether active safety systems can better serve the objective of improving the safety of vulnerable road users in urban areas, in addition to, or as compared to acoustic vehicle alerting systems. Add NHTSA future plans including ICE (NPRM comments) B. TEXT OF REGULATION 1. PURPOSE The purpose of this standard GTR is to reduce the number of deaths and injuries that result from electric and hybrid [electric] vehicles low speed crashes with pedestrians (and others like but not limited to cyclists) by providing a sound level and sound characteristics necessary for these vehicles to be detected, [located] and recognized by pedestrians. 2. SCOPE This standard establishes performance for pedestrian alert sounds from motor vehicles. This standard applies to Electric vehicles of category xxx (to be drafted) with either electric or hybrid [electric] drive for which the vehicle s propulsion system can propel the vehicle in the normal travel mode in reverse or at least one forward drive gear without the internal combustion engine operating. passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, and low-speed vehicles; Passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, and low-speed vehicles with more than one means of propulsion for which the vehicle s propulsion system can propel the vehicle in the normal travel mode in reverse and at least one forward drive gear without the internal combustion engine operating and; Motorcycles with more than one means of propulsion for which the vehicle s propulsion system can propel the vehicle in the normal travel mode in at least one forward drive gear without the internal combustion engine operating. page Small volume manufacturers. (May need to be adapted to UN-ECE specs) Vehicles manufactured during any of the three years of the September 1, 2015 through August 31, 2018 phase-in by a manufacturer that produces fewer than 5,000 vehicles for sale in the United States during that year are not subject to the requirements of S9.1, S9.2,S9.3 and S Final-stage manufacturers and alterers. Vehicles that are manufactured in two or more stages or that are altered (within the meaning of 49 CFR 567.7) after having previously been certified in accordance with Part 567 of this chapter are not subject to the requirements of S9.1 through S9.5. Instead, all vehicles produced by these manufacturers on or after September 1, 2018 must comply with this standard Discussions were held from the perspectives described below concerning (i) EV run -enabled HEV and EV (including fuel-cell vehicles), (ii) non-ev run HEV, (iii) vehicles with idle stop engines and (iv) ordinary vehicles with engines making low noise, for which measures may be needed. TRANS/WP.29/GRPE/2003/8 page 12 Kommentar [DG2]: Moved to ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS (SECTION 5.) Formatiert: Durchgestrichen Formatiert: Durchgestrichen Formatiert: Keine Aufzählungen oder Nummerierungen, Leerraum zwischen asiatischem und westlichem Text nicht anpassen Formatiert: Durchgestrichen Formatiert: Durchgestrichen (i): It has been reported that difference in sound volume from vehicles reaches 20dB at maximum compared with ordinary vehicles with engines from starting to vehicle speed of about 20km/h; hence, measures are required. (See Diagram C.) (ii): With engines always fired up during starting, it was confirmed at the Study Committee s experience session that these vehicles are equally noticeable compared with ordinary vehicles with engines; hence, measures are not needed. (iii): As with the above (ii), with engines always fired up during starting, these vehicles are considered equally no
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