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Spring 2017. Vol 12. Num 1
*
 Corresponding Author:
Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh, PhD StudentAddress:
 
Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, School of Management and Medical Informacs, Student Research Commiee,
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Tel:
 +98 (918) 3582737
E-mail:
 miladahmadimarzaleh@yahoo.com
Research Paper
Assessing Shiraz Pharmacies According to Senior-Friendly Criteria
1. Health Human Resources Research Center, School of Management and Medical Informacs, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. 2. Student Research Commiee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.3. Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, School of Management and Medical Informacs,
 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Peivand Bastani
1
, Mina Dehghani
2
, Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh
3
*
Citation
:
 Bastani P, Dehghani M, Ahmadi Marzaleh M. [Assessing Shiraz Pharmacies According to Senior-Friendly Criteria (Per-sian)]. Iranian Journal of Ageing; 2017; 12(1):116-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/sija-1201116
 :
:
Use your device to scan
and read the arcle online
Objectves
 With regard to the changes in the Iranian populaon structure, especially the rise of the el
-
derly populaon, and the increase in pharmacy clients, this study aimed to evaluate the senior-friendly
pharmacies of Shiraz.
Methods & Materials
 This was a cross-seconal study conducted in 2016. The study populaon com
-prised all 33 hospital pharmacies in Shiraz. Data were collected by a researcher-made checklist with
the aim of evaluang the potenal of the pharmacy to transform into a senior-friendly one. Reliability (r=0.85) and validity of the checklist were conrmed. Data were analyzed by χ 
2
, Mann-Whitney, and
Kruskal-Wallis tests through SPSS 23.
 
Results
 The average score of pharmacies’ potenal was 50.52, which indicated a moderate ability of the pharmacies to transform into senior-friendly ones. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test did not show any signicant relaonship with pharmacy type and ownership.
Conclusion
 Increase in the number of aging populaon, average level of senior-friendly pharmacies throughout Shiraz City, and the potenal of hospital pharmacies to provide geriatric services can be considered as challenging issues. However, these new challenges can be managed through appropriate
planning and policy making.
A B S T R A C T
Key words:
Pharmacy, Senior-
friendly pharmacy, Aging
Received: 06 Oct. 2016Accepted: 25 Jan. 2017
Extended Abstract
1. Objectives
ising life expectancy has led to the emergence of the “aging” phenomenon in communities [1]. The Iranian elderly  population is expected to increase from 8% at present to 22% in 2046 [2, 3]. Pharmacies are vital service centers, and their acces-sibility is very important [4]. The elderly population’s attitude toward pharmacies could affect the health sta-
tus of the population [5]. The World Health Organiza-tion proposed the concepts of senior-friendly environ-ment [6], communities [7], and cities in 2004. Planning for the elderly is an important part of health policies. With regard to the physical and emotional problems of the elderly, special attention should be paid to their soothing measures. The rising aging population of Iran and the subsequent need for drugs as well as increased number of visits to pharmacies were some of the im- portant reasons as why Shiraz City pharmacies were evaluated with respect to the senior-friendly criteria.
 
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Spring 2017. Vol 12. Num 1
2. Methods & Materials
This cross-sectional study had a descriptive-analyti-cal approach. The study population comprised all hos- pital pharmacies in Shiraz. Thus, 33 pharmacies were included in the study through the census sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made checklist with the aim of evaluating the potential of the pharmacy to transform into a senior-friendly one. In order to determine the research tool components, the viewpoints of 10 health and pharmaceutical ex- perts were taken into account using the brainstorming method. They studied the checklist and considered it acceptable to measure the potential of pharmacies to transform into senior-friendly ones. During this step, the questions were evaluated in terms of simplicity, relevance, and understandability. Most questions ob-tained 100% for each criterion. The percentages in-dicate very high content validity of the research tool. Ultimately, the checklist included four domains with a few questions allocated to each: physical (7 questions), healthcare (16 questions), drug supply and logistics (4 questions), and emotional (1 question), which totaled to 28 questions rated on a 3-point Likert-type scale (1=No, 2=Somewhat, 3=Yes). Also, two questions were asked about the type of  pharmacy (public or private) and its ownership (edu-cational, transfer, proprietary, rental, proprietary edu-cational, rental transfer and proprietary transfer). In-
traclass correlation coefcient was obtained as 0.850 and Cronbach α as 0.9. The questionnaire scoring was
as follows: those pharmacies which scored between 28 and 42 were poor in terms of senior-friendliness, a score ranging between 43 and 56 was moderate, a score between 57 and 70 was good, and a score be-tween 71 and 84 was considered very good. The check-lists were completed by researchers after obtaining the  pharmacists’ viewpoints. Data analysis was conducted  by performing Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Chi-square tests. All tests were done by SPSS 23.
3. Results
A total of 33 hospital pharmacies completed the checklist among which 19 pharmacies were public and 14 were private. The frequency and ownership of  public pharmacies were as follows: 10 (52.6%) phar-macies, educational; 2 (10.5%) pharmacies, transfer; 2 (10.5%) pharmacies, proprietary; 1 (5.3%) pharmacy, rental; 2 (10.5%) pharmacies, proprietary education-al; 1 (5.3%) pharmacy, rental transfer; and 1 (5.3%)  pharmacy proprietary transfer. Also, the frequency and ownership of private pharmacies were as follows: 6 (42.9%) pharmacies, transfer; and 8 (57.1%) pharma-cies, proprietary. The mean and standard deviation for each domain of senior-friendly pharmacies are shown in Table 1. In public pharmacies, emotional area had the highest mean and the healthcare the lowest mean in terms of senior-friendliness. In private pharmacies, emotional area had the highest mean and drug servic-es’ supply and logistics the lowest mean value. Since the older adults are emotionally and psychologically more vulnerable, the pharmacies should pay more at-tention to these aspects. The state of public pharmacies in terms of senior-friendliness was as follows: 26.3% (5 pharmacies) were at weak level, 47.4% (9 pharma-cies) at average level, 21.2% (4 pharmacies) at good
Table 1.
The mean and standard deviation of different domains of senior-friendly pharmacies
Type of PharmacyArea(Mean±SD)
PublicPhysical(0.423±1.977)
Health care
(0.368±1.628)Drug services supply and logiscs(0.727±1.842)Emoonal(0.63±0.789)PrivatePhysical(0.395±0.122)
Health care
(0.383±1.674)Drug services supply and logiscs(0.61±1.625)Emoonal(0.484±2.878)
Bastani P, et al. Assessing Shiraz Pharmacies According to Senior-Friendly Criteria. Iranian Journal of Ageing; 2017; 12(1):116-125.
 
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Spring 2017. Vol 12. Num 1
level, and 5.3% (1 pharmacy) was at very good level. The results of private pharmacies were as follows: 14.3% (2 pharmacies) were at weak level, 64.3% (9  pharmacies) at average level, 21.4% (3 pharmacies) at good level and no pharmacy was at a very good level. The average score of convertibility of pharmacies in Shiraz to senior-friendly ones was 50.52, which indi-cates an average level in terms of senior-friendliness. The results of examining the relationship between the
type of pharmacy and the nal score of convertibility to senior-friendly ones showed no signicant correlation
(P=0.9). The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test to deter-
mine the relationship between the nal score of senior-
friendly pharmacies and the type of ownership showed
no signicant correlation between these two variables
(P=0.84). This could be due to the fact that public hospitals, irrespective of having public or transferring  pharmacy, have not considered the topic of older adults and their requirements as a serious concern yet.
4. Conclusion
It seems that the present research tool can be useful for evaluating the pharmacies in terms of their potential to transform into senior-friendly ones. Further studies in this area at the national level can help health policy-makers in the proper and rational planning for the el-derly and thus prevent the increasing burden of disease among them. Due to the increasing population of older adults and the aging society, the readiness of pharma-cies in Shiraz to provide services to the elderly is one of the most challenging issues in the long term. The prob-lems of the elderly in the future can be reduced with  proper policymaking on healthcare systems, especially  pharmacies. Also, taking steps toward senior-friendly  pharmacies, communities and associations can prepare society for the future when we will encounter a very large population of elderly people.
Acknowledgments
This research did not receive any specic grant from
funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-
 prot sectors.
Conict of Interest
The authors declared no conicts of interest.
Bastani P, et al. Assessing Shiraz Pharmacies According to Senior-Friendly Criteria. Iranian Journal of Ageing; 2017; 12(1):116-125.
 
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نا
 
ت
 
نا
 

 

 
وراد
 
هیو
 

 
رد
 
و
 
ا
 
ا
 

 

 

 

 
و
 :
 
 
هژ وک
 
وراد
 
وراد
 

 
راود
 
:
تفایرد
 
خیرا 
:
شیذپ
 
خیرا
مم
 
گز
 

 
ا
 
و
 

 
ل
 
یاا
 
و
 
گز
 
یا
 
د
 
هیپ
 
یا
 .
ا
 
ه
 
ا
 
رد
 

 
هیپ
 
ر
 

 

 
ا
 
و
 
ا
 
دا
 

 
چ
 
ی
 

 
زا
 
ی
 .
 
ا
 
رد
 
و
 
ا
 
ت
 
نگ
 
ئارا
 
ا
 

 

 
ق
 
د
 
رد
 

 
ر
 
خ
 
ی
 
ض
 
ل
 
رد
 
دور
 

 
را
 .
ا
 )

 
و
 
ل
 60

(
نا
 
هوگ
 
د
 2000
ل
 
ا
 

 2050
ل
 

 
د
 
نا
 

 
ر
 
ی
 
نا
 

 

 
نایا
 .
 

 

 
در
 
ود
 

 
و
 1360
د
 

 
ط
 

 
ر
 
د
 

 

 
ل
 
رد
 .
ا
 
ور
 
ور
 
هیآ
 
رد
 
نا
 
را
 

 
زا
 

 

 

 22

 

 
رد
 8
زا
 
نایا
 
نا
 

 
دور
 

 
را
 

 
نا
 
یا
 .

 
اپ
 
یاا
 1425
ل
 
رد
 
رد
 .
 
د
 
ا
 
دیا
 
ار
 
نایا
 
نا
 

 
هیپ
 
ر
 
د
 
ت
 
رد
 

 

 
یاا
 
أ
 

 
رد
 
نا
 
دا
 
یر
 
یاا
 

 .
 
 
ا
 
ه
 
ل
 
یا
 

 .
د
 

 
هدوا
 

 

 
نآ
 
رد
 
و
 
ا
 
ز
 

 
هیپ
 

 
یوریور
 
ا
 
مز
 
گدآ
 
ا
 
زا
 
ر
 
یا
 .
 
را
 
ار
 
نآ
 
دا
 
و
 
ا
 
ا
 
پ
 
و
 

 
گ
 

 
ا
 

 
ها
 

 

 

 
تا
 

 

 

 
ر
 

 

 

 

 
رد
 

 
ر
 

 
وراد
 
ص
 

 
رد
 
ت
 
و
 
تا
 
ض
 

 
ا
 
ه
 .
د
 
ا
 

 
ت
 

 
نا
 

 

 
و
 
روض
 

 
ا
 

 
زا
 

 
وراد
 
هدا
 .
دراد
 
دیز
 
ا
 

 
نآ
 

 
نار
 
د
 

.
نایا
 
زا
 
زا
 
پ
 
م
 
هاد
 
پ
 
ر
 
عا
 
و
 
یی
 
هاد
 
ا
 

 
و
 

 
یی
 
ت
 

 -1.
نایا
 
زا
 
زا
 
پ
 
م
 
هاد
 
یاد
 
ت
 

 -2.
نایا
 
زا
 
زا
 
پ
 
م
 
هاد
 
پ
 
ر
 
عا
 
و
 
یی
 
هاد
 

 
یر
 
و
 
ی
 
رد
 

 
هوگ
 -3
ل س
 
ر سود
 
 خور د
 
ر م
 
ب
 
ز 
 

 
 سر ب
 
 
 خور د
 
ب یزر
3
از
 
حا
 
د
*
 
2
د
 

 
1

 
پ
 
120
1
هر مش
 .12
هرود
 .1396
ر 
ف
 
و
 
ا
 
ر
 
نرد
 

 

 
ز
 
زا
 
ی
 
وراد
 
زا
 
ر
 
د
 

 
درا
 
زا
 
ر
 
رد
 
وراد
 
ا
 
و
 
رد
 
یضر
 
نا
 
دروآ
 
راا
 
ی
 

 
زا
 
ی
 .
 
د
 

 
نار
 
و
 
نگ
 

 
اؤ
 44

 
پ
 

 
وراد
 
زا
 

 
ی
 .
 
ا
 
س
 10
اراد
 

 
ا
 )1989( 
ش
 

 
نازوراد
 
ا
 

 
رر
 

 
داد
 
ن
 
نار
 
و
 

 

 
داا
 
رر
 

 
آ
 
زا
 .
 
دراد
 

 
ا
 
نار
 

 
رد
 

 
ر
 

 
نازوراد
 
و
 

 
نآ
 

 
ش
 
أ
 

 
نا
 

 
ش
 

 

 
یا
 

 

 

 
ضو
 

 
ا
 

 
زوراد
 
و
 
وراد
 

 
نا
 
ص
 .
 

 
راگا
 

 

 

 

 
راود
 

 
وراد
 
هررد
 
ا
 

 
ن
 
رپ
 
و
 

 

 

 

 
وپ
 
ا
 
و
 
ا
 
ه
 

 
وراد
 
رد
 
ا
 
زا
 
یضر
 
نا
 
و
 
نا
 
زا
 
نز
 .
ا
 
ادپ
 

 
راود
 
ا
 
و
 

 
نر
 
کد
 
راود
 
نر
 

 (WHO)
 

 
ا
 
و
 
 
ا
 
 

 
راود
 
یز
 

 

 
ل
 
رد
 
1
ا
 
و
 
کرپ
 

 
ار
 

 
راود
 
نر
 2004
ل
 
رد
 
2

 
و
 
کرپ
 

 

 
و
 
 1999 
ار
 
چرچ
 
 
3
چ
 
و
 
چ
 2009
ل
 
رد
 .
د
 
ئارا
 
 
رد
 
ه
 

 
نا
 
ر
 
و
 
ا
 

 
را
 
ا
 
راود
 

 
هژوپ
 2005
ل
 
رد
 .
د
 
ئارا
 
نر
 

 

 
ی
 
ی
 
زا
 .

 
زآ
 
د
 
رد
 

 33
رد
 

.
ر
 
پ
 

 

 
راود
 

 
وراد
 

 
راگ
 

 

 
و
 
نا
 
ا
 
یر
 

 
ناوا
 
ور
 
و
 

 
ت
 
دو
 

 

 

 .
ا
 

 
هیو
 

 
ت
 
یا
 
ه
 
تاا
 

 
ی
 
نا
 
رد
 
ل
 
رد
 

 
وراد
 

 
ه
 
ا
 
داا
 
دا
 
زور
 
زور
 .
د
 

 
نوازور
 
یاا
 

 

 

 

 .
ا
 
یاا
 
و
 
وراد
 

 
ز
 
یاا
 
نآ
 

 
و
 
نایا
 
ر
 

 

 

 
یا
 

 
وراد
 

 

 
داا
 

 
ا
 

 
راود
 
وراد
 
ر
 

 
زا
 

 

 
وراد
 
یزرا
 
ف
.

 
ما
 

ل طم
 
شور
 
ه
 
ما
 

 

 

 
تر
 

 

 
یا
 

 
ر
 

 
وراد
 

 

 
در
 

 .
ا
 .

 

 
دراو
 
وراد
 33
ر
 
تر
 

 

 
د
 
زا
 
دورو
 
ا
 

 
نآ
 
یضر
 
تر
 
رد
 
و
 

 
وراد
 
با
 
زا
 
پ
 

 
وراد
 
ی
 

«

 
ق
 

 
چ
 
زا
 

 

1.
 Parke and Stevenson
2.
 Parke and Brand
3.
 Chiou and Chen
 

 
ا
 .

 
هدا
 »

 
راود
 

 
وراد
 

 
یا
 

 

 
هدا
 
را
 
شر
 
شور
 
زا
 
وپ
 
راا
 

 
ؤ
 
با
 
زوراد
 
و
 

 

 

 10

 
تر
 

 
جاا
 

 
ؤ
 
یا
 

 

 
راگ
 
زا
 
پ
 
و
 )
لاؤ
 7(
ی
 

 
رچ
 

 

 
پ
 
ی
 
رد
 

 )
لاؤ
 4(
یوراد
 
ت
 
ترا
 
و
 
أ
 )
لاؤ
 16(
ا
 

 

 

 
رد
 
لاؤ
 28
ع
 
رد
 

 )
لاؤ
 1(

 
و
 
ود
 

 .
آ
 
د
 

 )3=

 2=
دو
 

 1=

(
ت
 
زآ
(

 
ع
 
و
 )

 
ی
 
ود
(
وراد
 
ع
 
لاؤ
 
را
 
راگاو
 

 
زآ
 
را
 

 
راگاو
.

 
ح
 

 )

 
راگاو
 
و
 

 

 10

 
ر
 
راا
 
ر
 
یاور
 

 
ا
 

 
زا
 

 

 
نآ
 .

 
هداد
 
زوراد
 
و
 

 

 

 

 
وراد
 
ی
 

«

 
ا
 
ار
 
نآ
 

 
چ
 
یا
 
رد
 .
د
 
یزرا
 
ل
 

 »

 
راود
 

 
وراد
 
ند
 

 
ند
 
هد
 

 
زا
 
ر
 
در
 
تاؤ
 

 
ی
 

 
ا
 
تاؤ
 

 .

 
یزرا
 
ند
 

 

 
و
 

 

 

 .
داد
 
صا
 
د
 

 
ار
 100
رد
 
ر
 
زا
 
راا
 

 
ر
 
یا
 
یاور
 

 
هآ
 
د
 

 
رد
 
ا
 
ه
 

 )
ICC
 
(
وگ
 
نورد
 

 
یض
 .
ا
 .
آ
 
د
 

 0/85
نزآ
 
ز
 
و
 
نزآ
 
رد
 

 
پ
 

 
رچ
 

 

 

 
ار
 
نزآ
 

 
دیز
 

 

 
نا
 
یا
 

 
ا
 
نزآ
 
ی
 
تاؤ
 

 

 
اد
 
ییپ
 .
 

 
خو
 
آ
 

 
یض
 
نآ
 

 
ا
 
ا
 
د
 

 0/9
خو
 
آ
 
یض
 

 
داد
 
ن
 
ی
 .
د
 

 
اد
 
ییپ
 
اراد
 

 
راا
 

 
د
 

 
ن
 
د
 
یا
 
آ
.
ا
 
ب
 

 

 
ی
 
وراد
 

 
د
 
تر
 
یا
 

 

 
پ
 
د
 

 
رد
 

 
راود
 
وراد
 
ظ
 
زا
 
گ
 42

 28
ه
 71
و
 
ب
 70

 57
ه
 

 56

 43
ه
 
ض
 

 

 
ن
 
زا
 
ا
 

 
ن
 .
د
 
ب
 

 84

 

 
داد
 

 
ار
 
رد
 .
د
 

 
ار
 

 
چ
 

 
وراد
 
راا
 
م
 
زا
 
وپ
 

 
لاؤ
 

 
پ
 
و
 

 
ض
 
ندزآ
 
و
 

 
او
 
لو
 
رآ
 

 
نزآ
 
و
 23

 
SPSS
 
رآ
.

 
هدا
 
ود
 

 
و
 
یو
 
 
 ی
 
ر
 

 
چ
 

 
ا
 
وراد
 33
ع
 
رد
 
وراد
 14
و
 
ود
 
وراد
 19

 
نآ
 

 
زا
 

 
د
 
ر
 

 
وراد
 

 
و
 
ع
 
اوا
 .
د
 

.
ا
 
ه
 
هداد
 
ن
 
رد
 

 

 

 
زا
 
ما
 
ر
 
فاا
 
و
 

 2
 
رد
 

 
راود
 

 
وراد
 

 
چ
»
ل س
 
ر سود
 
 خور د
 
ر م
 
ب
 
ز 
 

 
 سر ب
 
 
 
 خور د
 
ب یزر
.
ن ر 
 
و
 
 س ب
 
پ
«
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