ASM Handbook
Volume 14AMetalworking: Bulk Forming
Prepared under the direction of theASM International Handbook Committee
S.L. Semiatin
, Volume Editor
Steven R. Lampman
, Project Editor
Bonnie R. Sanders
, Manager of Production
Gayle J. Anton
, Editorial Assistant
Madrid Tramble
, Senior Production Coordinator
Jill Kinson
, Production Editor
Kathryn Muldoon
, Production Assistant
Scott D. Henry
, Senior Manager, Product and Service Development
Editorial Assistance
Elizabeth MarquardHeather LampmanCindy KarcherBeverly MusgroveKathleen DragolichMarc SchaeferMaterials Park, Ohio
© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 14A, Metalworking: Bulk Forming (#06957G)
ASM International
All rights reservedNo part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner.First printing, October 2005This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information fromworldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems.Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES,EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to beaccurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication isintendedforusebypersonshavingtechnicalskill,attheirsolediscretionandrisk.SincetheconditionsofproductormaterialuseareoutsideofASM’s control, ASMassumesno liabilityorobligationin connectionwithany use ofthis information. No claim ofany kind,whether astoproductsorinformation in thispublication, andwhetherornotbasedonnegligence,shallbegreaterin amountthan thepurchasepriceof this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THEEXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL,INDIRECTORCONSEQUENTIALDAMAGESWHETHERORNOTCAUSEDBYORRESULTINGFROMTHENEGLIGENCEOFSUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore,specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, inconnection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, ortrademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright,or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataASM InternationalASM Handbook Includes bibliographical references and indexesContents: v.1. Properties and selection—irons, steels, and high-performance alloys—v.2. Properties and selection—nonferrous alloys andspecial-purpose materials—[etc.]—v.21. Composites1. Metals—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-work—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee. II. MetalsHandbook.TA459.M43 1990 620.1
6 90-115SAN: 204-7586ISBN: 0-87170-708-X
ASM International
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002www.asminternational.orgPrinted in the United States of AmericaMultiple copy reprints of individual articles are available from Technical Department, ASM International.
© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 14A, Metalworking: Bulk Forming (#06957G)
Metalworking is one of the oldest and the most important of manufacturing technologies. Emergingfrom prehistoric times and progressing thru rapid advances during the Industrial Revolution, when large-scale steelmaking and metalworking operations became widespread. The scientific understanding of metallurgy and metalworking continued well into the 20th century, although in many instances the cost-effective manufacturing of parts still required the process of trial-and-error experimentation due to thecomplex material, mechanical, and thermal conditions of metalworking operations such as forging,rolling, and other thermomechanical processes.Today, with the competitive demands of a global economy, the technologies of metalworking opera-tions are being transformed in several ways. First and foremost, computer-aided design and manu-facturing systems are becoming indispensable tools in all facets of metalworking. Computer simulationsnot only reduce or preclude the need for trial-and-error engineering of tooling and process conditions, butcomputer-based modeling also provides a tool for process optimization. Any industry must continuouslyevaluate the costs of competitive materials and the operations necessary for converting each material intocost-effective finished products. Manufacturing economy with no sacrifice in quality is paramount, andmodern statistical and computer-based process design and control techniques are more important thanever. This book serves as an invaluable introduction to this rapidly evolved technology, and also providesastrongfoundationwithregardtomorestandard,well-establishedmetalworkingoperations,ascoveredinthis volume and Volume 14 of the 9th Edition
 Metals Handbook 
seriesisthefirstoftwovolumescoveringthedistinctprocessesandindustries ofbulk working and sheet forming. It covers bulk forming methods(such as forging,extrusion,drawing, and rolling), where three-dimensional deformation produces a new shape with significantchange in the cross-section or thickness of a material. In contrast, Volume 14B covers the technology of the stamping and sheet-forming industry, where flat product is shaped into a new form without a sig-nificant change in the cross-sectional thickness. These two general categories of metalworking methodsare distinct, and a two-volume set also allows for more content in comparison to the Volume 14 of the 9thEdition
 Metals Handbook,
 which covered both bulk forming and sheet forming technologies in onevolume.AsuccessfulHandbookistheculminationofthetimeandeffortsofmanyworldrenownedcontributors.To those individuals listed in the next several pages, we extend our sincere thanks. The Society isespecially indebted to Dr. S.L. Semiatin for his tireless efforts in organizing and editing this volume.Finally, we are grateful for the support and guidance provided by the ASM Handbook Committee and theskill of an experienced editorial staff. As a result of these combined efforts, the tradition of excellenceassociated with the
 ASM Handbook 
 continues.Bhakta B. RathPresidentASM InternationalStanley C. TheobaldManaging DirectorASM International
© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 14A, Metalworking: Bulk Forming (#06957G)
Policy on Units of Measure
By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adoptedthe practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to presentdatainmetricunitsbasedprimarilyonSyste`meInternationald’Unite´s(SI),with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S.units.ThedecisiontouseSIastheprimarysystemofunitswasbasedontheaforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread useof metric units throughout the world.Forthemostpart,numericalengineeringdatainthetextandintablesarepresented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in par-entheses(text)oradjoiningcolumns(tables).Forexample,pressure,stress,and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with asuitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per squareinch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kipsper square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi
1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg
)has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientificdata are presented in SI units only.To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on art-work. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations arepresented inbothSI-based and customary U.S.units. Ongraphsandcharts,grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left andbottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. unitsappear along the top and right edges.Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writinggroup may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dualunits, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yieldstrength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S.units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified inthat specification might be presented only in inches.Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which thestandard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the unitsof that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented.Somestatisticaldatamayalsobepresentedinonlythesrcinalunitsusedinthe analysis.Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEEE/ ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in thesrcinal data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570
F containsthree significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would begiven as 855
C; the exact conversion to 854.44
C would not be appro-priate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precisetemperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate toreport the temperature as 961.93
C or 1763.5
F. In some instances(especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in
C and
F are alternatives rather than conversions.The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains severalexceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance,the exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of theHandbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm
rather than kg/ m
as the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume).SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in unitsformed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the unitspreceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following thevirgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses arerequired to prevent ambiguity.
© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. ASM Handbook, Volume 14A, Metalworking: Bulk Forming (#06957G)
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