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When do Plants Require Nutrients Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE Guiding Producers Today to Feed the World Tomorrow Building a Solid Foundation Topics Nutrient uptake during
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When do Plants Require Nutrients Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE Guiding Producers Today to Feed the World Tomorrow Building a Solid Foundation Topics Nutrient uptake during crop growth Total amount of nutrient mined out of the soil Mobile and Immobile soil nutrients What is the best soil test level Corn Growth Stages Stage Vegetative Silking Blister Milk Dough Dent Black Layer Description VE through VT Pollination Ear Development Maturity Building a Solid Foundation Summary of Growth and Nutrient Uptake Stage DM % N % P % K V V V R R R R Building a Solid Foundation Wheat Growth Stages Description Crown is visible, tillers develop Leaf sheaths elongate and form a false stem Stem elongation. First internode visible Tip of flag leaf visible (boot stage) Heading Flowering Grain filling begins, lower leaves turn color Building a Solid Foundation Summary of Growth and Nutrient Uptake Stage DM % N % P % K Leaf sheath Jointing Flag leaf Heading Flowering Grain filling Building a Solid Foundation Nutrient Mining, lbs/bu WHEAT Nutrient lb/bu 60 bu/a Nitrogen, N Phosphorus, P2O Potassium, K2O Sulfur, S Zinc, Zn Nutrient Mining, lbs/bu WHEAT Nutrient lb/bu 60 bu/a Chloride Manganese Copper Boron Molybdenum Zinc, Zn Nutrient Mining, lbs/bu CORN utrient lb/bu 200 bu/a itrogen, N hosphorus, P2O otassium, K2O ulfur, S inc, Zn Nutrient Mining, lbs/bu CORN Nutrient lb/bu 200 bu/a Chloride Manganese Iron Copper Boron Molybdenum Crop Nutrient Mining, lbs/bu SOYBEAN Nutrient lb/bu 60 bu/a Nitrogen, N Phosphorus, P2O Potassium, K2O Sulfur, S Zinc, Zn Crop Nutrient Mining, lbs/bu SOYBEAN Nutrient lb/bu 60 bu/a Chloride Iron Manganese Copper Boron Molybdenum Soil Nutrients Mobile Nutrients Nutrients that are soluble in the soil Nitrate, Sulfate, and Chloride Immobile Nutrients Nutrients that are attached to soil particles CEC and other surfaces Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Boron, and Molybdenum Building a Solid Foundation Timing of Fertilizer Application Mobile Nutrients If excess rainfall, the mobile nutrients can move below the root zone. Improve efficiency of the mobile nutrients Best to split apply nitrogen and sulfate. Apply some with the pre-plant/pre-emerge herbicide, apply some with the starter, and side-dress/top-dress rest of it. Building a Solid Foundation Sulfur Deficiency - Corn Chloride Deficiency Timing of Fertilizer Application Immobile Nutrients Apply before planting Apply at seeding Applications after crop emergence may be helpful, but are more likely be used next year. Building a Solid Foundation Phosphorus deficiency Phosphorus Deficiency Potassium Deficiency Zinc Deficiency Iron Chlorosis Which Interpretation is Correct? Depends on the Plant Nutrient Mobile Nutrients like nitrate have to be managed annually Immobile nutrients like phosphate and potash can be built up and maintained Depends on Land Tenure Short term land leases dictate using the sufficiency approach Limited Resources Cannot afford to build soil tests or fertilizer prices are high MAKE THE CONNECTION Where are the Biggest Yields? Observations over the years I have concluded the best yields come from high-testing soils. Research in Canada with small grains has shown higher yields planted into high-testing soils than annual applications of fertilizer on low testing soils. Rothamsted Experiment station has demonstrated that yields were higher on high testing soils. Crops and Soils, ASA MAKE THE CONNECTION University of Minnesota, Corn Application Three-year Corn Yield, bu/a Method Lb P2O5/acre Low-P Soil High-P Soil None Pop-up 25 (low) 20 (high) Deep Band Broadcast Deep and Pop-up Pop-up Deep Band Broadcast Crops and Soils, ASA MAKE THE CONNECTION Best Soil Test Level Mobile Nutrients Nitrate: Less than 5 ppm NO3-N in the soil at the end of the growing season. Sulfate: Like to have in the ppm SO4-S at the end of the season. Chloride: Greater than 6 ppm Cl at the end of the growing season. Best Soil Test Level Immobile soil nutrients Phosphorus: 25 to 35 ppm P at the end of the growing season. Potassium: greater than 200 ppm K. Zinc: greater than 1.0 ppm Zn. Copper: greater than 0.20 ppm Cu. Boron: greater than 0.50 ppm B. The Best Placement Method Minimizing Fertilizer reaction with soil Balance Maximizing contact with roots
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