The Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Using Energy Storage

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The Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Using Energy Storage by David Connolly A thesis submitted to the University of Limerick in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
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The Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Using Energy Storage by David Connolly A thesis submitted to the University of Limerick in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Charles Parsons Initiative at the Department of Physics and Energy University of Limerick Ireland Supervisors Prof. Martin Leahy, University of Limerick, Ireland Prof. Henrik Lund, Aalborg University, Denmark Dr. Brian Vad Mathiesen, Aalborg University, Denmark Submitted to the Univeristy of Limerick, December 2010 Page ii Abstract Energy storage is often portrayed as an ideal solution for the integration of fluctuating renewable energy (RE) due to the flexibility it creates. However, there is uncertainty surrounding energy storage in terms of the technologies that currently exist, the additional RE it enables, and its role in modern electricity markets. These uncertainties have hampered the deployment of large scale energy storage and hence, this research examined these concerns. This research began by identifying the most feasible energy storage technology available for the integration of fluctuating RE, specifically for Ireland. Due to its technical maturity and large scale capacities, pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) was deemed the most viable technology, but the literature outlined a lack of suitable sites for its construction. Therefore, a new software tool was developed in this study to search for suitable PHES sites, which was then applied to two counties in Ireland. The results indicate that these two counties alone have over 15 sites suitable for freshwater PHES, which in some cases could be twice as large as Ireland s only existing PHES facility. Hence, the next stage of this research assessed the benefits of constructing large scale energy storage in Ireland. To do this, a model of the Irish energy system was needed and so a review of 68 existing energy tools was completed. From this review, EnergyPLAN was chosen and subsequently it was used to simulate various capacities of wind power and PHES on the 2020 Irish energy system. The results reveal that PHES could technically integrate up to 100% penetrations of fluctuating RE if very large capacities were used under certain operating strategies. However, the economic assessment indicates that this would cost more than the reference 2020 scenario. In addition, alternatives were identified which could offer similar savings as PHES, while also being more robust to changes in fuel prices, interest rates, and annual wind generation, but they did consume more fossil fuels. Finally, a new practical operating strategy was created for energy storage while operating in a wholesale electricity market. Results indicate that approximately 97% of the maximum feasible profits are achievable. However, the annual profit could vary by more than 50% and hence, energy storage will need more profit stability to become feasible for investors. To summarise, this work concludes that PHES is the most promising energy storage technology for integrating fluctuating RE. More sites do exist than previously expected and constructing them will enable higher penetrations of fluctuating RE. However, based on predicted 2020 costs, using PHES is more expensive than the reference scenario and alternatives could be more cost effective, which really need further analysis. Finally, if energy storage is required, electricity markets will need to create more certainty surrounding their potential profits. Page iii Page iv Declaration I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the University or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in the text. David Connolly This is to certify that the thesis entitled The Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Using Energy Storage submitted by David Connolly to the University of Limerick for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy is a bona fide record of the research work carried out by him under our supervision and guidance. The contents of the thesis, in full or in parts, have not been submitted to any other Institute or University for the award of any other degree or diploma. Martin Leahy, University of Limerick, Ireland Henrik Lund, Aalborg University, Denmark Brian Vad Mathiesen, Aalborg University, Denmark Copyright 2010 David Connolly. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission from the author. Page v Page vi Dedication To Kieran For your unwavering support... Til Danmark For alt Page vii Page viii Preface My first interaction with energy storage came during a module I completed as part of my undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering in the winter semester of 2006 called Energy Management. I can still remember the day when our lecturer, Tony Kay, explained the concept of energy storage. We discussed Ireland s enormous and freely available wind resource, which could, if harnessed, transform Ireland into a renewable energy goldmine. However, not long after this thought had sparked a few big ideas in my head, I was brought back to reality by the sound of that frightful word: intermittency. Unfortunately, we cannot rely on wind power to meet our energy demands because there are times when it doesn t blow. We subsequently discussed a range of potential energy storage devices that could solve this problem, focusing primarily on Ireland s only existing pumped hydroelectric energy storage facility, Turlough Hill. As a naive student, the concept seemed so simple. When there is too much wind, store it; when there isn t enough, use the stored energy. However, as we proceeded through the details of the problem, the complexity of the challenge became all too apparent. Energy storage is difficult to construct, expensive, and limited. Even so, it was from that day onwards that my fascination with energy storage began, and so I investigated how I might gain a greater understanding of this area. After completing my undergraduate degree, I began my PhD in October 2007 under the Charles Parsons Initiative at the Department of Physics, University of Limerick. This thesis documents over three years of investigation into the role of energy storage, focusing specifically on the integration of renewable energy. The thesis structure reflects my learning process throughout the PhD, thus taking the reader along the same path I have also followed. I hope that it informs the debate surrounding energy storage and renewable energy, particularly in Ireland. This work would never have been possible without the help and inspiration of many people along the way. I wouldn t have the space to thank them all, but there are a few people I would like to mention in particular. Firstly, I would like to thank my father, Kieran, for being a constant source of encouragement throughout my time as a PhD student. Also, thanks to Anna, and my sister Maria, for all your help and support over the last three years. To Martin Leahy, the staff in CPI/Department of Physics, and my PhD colleagues for all your help during my time at the University of Limerick. A special thanks to Henrik Lund and Brian Vad Mathiesen for your hospitality, patience, guidance, and inspiration, and also to the staff at Aalborg University, particularly in the Department of Development and Planning, for my Page ix Preface wonderful stay during this work. I would also like to thank Shane MacLaughlin from Atlas Computers Ltd, Amanda Barriscale from the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, and Margaret McCarthy from EirGrid. Thanks to the Irish Research Council of Science, Engineering, and Technology (IRCSET) for funding my PhD over the last three years. Last, but not least, thanks to all my friends, especially the lads in number 1 The Birches and those from AAU! Finally, thank you to anyone I may have omitted and I hope you enjoy reading my thesis. David Page x Table of Contents Section Title Page Abstract... iii Declaration... v Dedication... vii Preface... ix Table of Contents... xi List of Appendices... xiv List of Figures... xv List of Tables... xxii Nomenclature... xxiv 1. Introduction Contextual Framework Global Energy Renewable Energy Role of Energy Storage Objective Ireland as a Case Study Ireland s Energy System Ireland s Renewable Energy Consumption and Potential Ireland s Energy Targets Wind Energy Research in Ireland Wind Resource in Ireland Impact of Wind Energy on the Power System Electricity System Analysis in Ireland Demand Side Management Energy Storage Conclusions Page xi Table of Contents Section Title Page 5. Review of Energy Storage Technologies Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Overview of Technology Review of Existing Research PHES and Wind Energy PHES and Electricity Markets Conclusions The Potential for Additional PHES in Ireland Methodology Capacity and Cost Calculator Results and Discussion Conclusions The Implications of Additional PHES in Ireland Methodology Review of Energy Tools EnergyPLAN Modelling the Irish Energy System The Technical Implications of PHES Operation Size Impact on Power Plant Operation Summary The Economic Implications of PHES Costs for One PHES Capacity Costs for Various PHES Capacities Sensitivity Analysis Comparing PHES to Alternatives Page xii Table of Contents Section Title Page 8.5. Conclusions The Dispatch of PHES on Electricity Markets Electricity Markets Methodology Results and Discussion Conclusions Conclusions Future Work % Renewable Alternatives Conclusions References Appendices Page xiii List of Appendices A. Connolly D, Leahy M. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies: For the integration of fluctuating renewable energy, Version 4. University of Limerick, Available from: Version 3 of same published as: Leahy MJ, Connolly D, Buckley DN, Chapter 21: Wind Energy storage Technologies, in: W Tong (Ed.) Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design, WIT Press, 2010, pp B. Connolly D, MacLaughlin S, Leahy M. Development of a computer program to locate potential sites for pumped hydroelectric energy storage. Energy 2010;35(1): C. Connolly D, MacLaughlin S. The Potential for Freshwater Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage in County Clare. Limerick Clare Energy Agency, D. Connolly D, Lund H, Mathiesen BV, Leahy M. A review of computer tools for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy systems. Applied Energy 2010;87(4): E. Connolly D, Lund H, Mathiesen BV. A User s Guide to EnergyPLAN. Aalborg University, University of Limerick, Available from: F. Connolly D, Lund H, Mathiesen BV, Leahy M. Modelling the existing Irish energy system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible. Energy 2010;35(5): G. Connolly D, Lund H, Mathiesen BV, Pican E, Leahy M. The technical and economical implications of integrating fluctuating renewable energy using energy storage. Submitted to the Journal of Renewable Energy. H. Connolly D, Lund H, Mathiesen BV, Finn P, Leahy M. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price. Submitted to the Journal of Energy Policy. I. Connolly D, Lund H, Mathiesen BV, Leahy M. The first step towards a 100% renewable energy system for Ireland. Applied Energy 2011;88(2): Page xiv List of Figures Figure Description Page Figure 2 1: Estimate of the earth s annual and global mean solar radiation balance [2] Figure 2 2: World anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions quantified by CO 2 equivalent and divided by source for the year 2005 [4] Figure 2 3: World s energy supply by fuel from historical data in 2007 and projected for 2030 [5] Figure 2 4: Historical price of crude oil corresponding to major global events [6]... 9 Figure 2 5: Renewable energy RD&D budgets within the IEA from 1974 to 2008 [8] Figure 2 6: Current cost of renewable and fossil fuel based electricity generation along with projected costs for 2015 and 2030 [9 11] Figure 2 7: Predicted hourly output from a 1 MW wind, wave, tidal, and solar electricity generator in Ireland during week 1 of January Figure 2 8: Electricity demand, actual wind energy produced (900 MW), and hypothetical scaled (5400 MW) wind energy output in Ireland on the 17 th of April 2008 [22] Figure 4 1: Ireland s total primary energy requirement by fuel from 1990 to 2008 [24] Figure 4 2: Ireland s energy related CO 2 emissions by sector from 1990 to 2008 [24] Figure 4 3: Ireland s growth in electricity, heat, and transport from 1990 to 2008 [24] Figure 4 4: Ireland s imported energy by fuel and dependency from 1990 to 2006 [24, 26, 27] Figure 4 5: Value of imported fuel to Ireland from 1990 to 2008 [28] Figure 4 6: Energy indexes for the world, individual countries, the OECD region, and Ireland in 2008 [29] Figure 4 7: Ireland s rank out of 137 countries under various energy indexes in 2008 [29] Figure 4 8: Renewable energy utilised in Ireland as a percentage of a total final consumption and divided by source [24]. Note that hydro is normalised to reflect the average hydro generation of the last 15 years and wind is normalised over the latest five years as per Directive 2009/28/EC Figure 4 9: Onshore and offshore wind speeds in Europe [36, 37] Figure 4 10: Average theoretical wave power potential (kw) in Europe [40] Figure 4 11: Accessible tidal energy resource around the island of Ireland [42] Figure 4 12: Energy feasible from miscanthus energy crops in Ireland compared to Ireland s actual 2008 and forecasted 2020 primary energy supply [24, 35, 43] Page xv List of Figures Figure Description Page Figure 4 13: Accessible intermittent renewable energy resource in Ireland relative to forecasted 2020 electricity demand [33 35, 39, 42] Figure 4 14: Actual and targeted renewable energy contribution in Ireland as a percentage of a total final consumption by sector [24] Figure 4 15: Renewable energy targets for individual EU member states for the electricity sector along with the corresponding wind penetration proposed [50] Figure 6 1: Layout of a pumped hydroelectric energy storage facility [104] Figure 6 2: Photograph of a pumped hydroelectric storage facility using seawater [92] Figure 6 3: Flow chart of the computer simulation used by Bakos to analyse the potential of a PHES facility on Ikaria island in Greece [98] Figure 7 1: Area and parameters utilised by the SCC computer program to search for PHES. 58 Figure 7 2: Earth moving procedure within the program to make the investigated area flat for PHES Figure 7 3: A 1 km 2 artificially created terrain for testing the PHES module in the SCC software Figure 7 4: Results obtained (b, c) when the new program was tested on an existing PHES facility: Turlough Hill in Ireland (a) Figure 7 5: User interface of the Energy Capacity and Cost Calculator Figure 7 6: PHES upper reservoir (of Taum Sauk PHES in the USA) with a man made reservoir wall [159] Figure 7 7: Black area was searched for the initial analysis completed with the software and County Clare is highlighted in blue, which was also searched afterwards Figure 7 8: Potential PHES sites identified after the initial analysis using the parameters displayed in Table 7 4. The green site was found in the first search and the red sites in the second search Figure 7 9: Division of County Clare for the PHES search Figure 7 10: Potential freshwater PHES sites found within acceptable areas of County Clare.. 68 Figure 7 11: Potential PHES sites found within acceptable areas of County Clare with a head greater than 250 m Figure 8 1: The structure of the EnergyPLAN tool Figure 8 2: One sample distribution being modified by the total electricity demand required over the 30 day period (based on the Irish electricity demand in January 2007 [22]). This illustrates how data is manipulated in EnergyPLAN Page xvi List of Figures Figure Description Page Figure 8 3: One PHES facility with (A) a single penstock system and (B) a double penstock system Figure 8 4: CEEP when a 2500 MW / 25 GWh single PHES and a 2500 MW / 25 GWh double PHES is added to the 2020 Irish energy system for wind penetrations of 0% to 100% (0 30 TWh) of electricity demand. The 5% of wind limitation displayed is used to define a maximum feasible wind penetration Figure 8 5: Primary energy supply and CO 2 emissions when a 2500 MW / 25 GWh single and double penstock system is added to the 2020 Irish energy system, for wind penetrations of 0% to 100% (0 30 TWh) of electricity demand Figure 8 6: Consequences of using a single and double penstock system for PHES facilities when integrating wind power Figure 8 7: Maximum feasible wind penetration on the 2020 Irish energy system when various single PHES storage capacities are added to the system with infinite power capacities. Also outlined are the corresponding pump and turbine capacities required to achieve these maximum feasible wind penetrations identified at each storage capacity Figure 8 8: Maximum feasible wind penetration on the 2020 Irish energy system when various double PHES storage capacities are added to the system with infinite power capacities. Also outlined are the corresponding pump and turbine capacities required to achieve these maximum feasible wind penetrations identified at each storage capacity Figure 8 9: Maximum feasible wind penetration with various single PHES storage capacities on the 2020 Irish energy system based on different maximum allowable CEEP as a percentage of total wind power generated Figure 8 10: Maximum feasible wind penetration with various single PHES storage capacities on the 2020 Irish energy system based on different maximum allowable CEEP as a percentage of total electricity generated Figure 8 11: Maximum feasible wind penetration with various double PHES storage capacities on the 2020 Irish energy system based on different maximum allowable CEEP as a percentage of total wind power generated Figure 8 12: Maximum feasible wind penetration with various double PHES storage capacities on the 2020 Irish energy system based on different maximum allowable CEEP as a percentage of total electricity generated Page xvii List of Figures Figure Description Page Figure 8 13: Maximum feasible wind penetration with various single PHES storage capacities on the 2020 Irish energy system based on the COMP coefficient developed in Appendix F Figure 8 14: Maximum feasible wind penetration with various double PHES storage capacities on the 2020 Irish energy system based on the COMP coefficient developed in Appendix F Figure 8 15: Scale and frequency of ramp up demands placed on power plants for the MFWP identified at each storage capacity, when using either a single or a double penstock system: data provided in Table Figure 8 16: Cost of operating the Irish energy system in 2020 for the reference scenario, a 2500 MW / 25 GWh single PHES scenario, and a 2500 MW / 25 GWh double PHES scenario, for wind penetrations of 0% to 100% (0 30 TWh) of electricity demand, assuming fuel prices based on an oil price of $100/bbl and an interest rate of 6% Figure 8 17: Change in energy system costs when various single PHES capacities from Table 8 18 are added to the 2020 Irish energy system compared to the reference, assuming fuel prices corresponding to $100/bbl and using an interest rate of 6% Figure 8 18: Change in energy system costs when various double PHES capacities from Table 8 18 are added to the 2020 Irish energy system compared to the reference, assuming fuel prices corresponding to $100/bbl and using an interest rate of 6% Figure 8 19: The investment and savings for the single and double PHES capacities which provided the largest reduct
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