The Impact of In-Kind Food Assistance on Pastoralist Livelihoods in Humanitarian Crises

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Pastoralists rely on coping and adaptation strategies that have historically allowed them to achieve high levels of productivity, manage the hazards and unpredictability of life in the marginal areas that they occupy and moderate the impacts of shocks (Butt et al., 2009
  Evidence Synthesis Humanitarian Evidence Programme JANUARY 2017 THE IMPACT OF IN-KIND FOOD ASSISTANCE ON PASTORALIST LIVELIHOODS IN HUMANITARIAN CRISES  About this evidence synthesis This is an independent evidence synthesis commissioned by the Humanitarian Evidence Programme  –  a partnership between Oxfam GB and Feinstein International Center at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University. It was funded by aid from the United Kingdom government through the Humanitarian Innovation and Evidence Programme at the Department for International Development. The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Oxfam, the Feinstein International Center or the UK government. About the research team This report was written by:    Karol Czuba, PhD Candidate, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto (Principal Investigator)  –  corresponding author,    Tyler J. O’Neill, Clinician Scientist, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto     Ana Patricia Ayala, Instruction and Faculty Liaison Librarian, Gerstein Library, University of Toronto. The initial database and website searches took place during June 2016. Citation Czuba, K., O’Neill, T.J. and Ayala, A.P. (2017). The impact of food assistance on pastoralist livelihoods in humanitarian crises: An evidence synthesis . Humanitarian Evidence Programme. Oxford: Oxfam GB. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the HEP, Oxfam GB, Feinstein International Center and DFID for the opportunity and funding to conduct this research project. Special thanks go to Eleanor Ott at Oxfam and Roxanne Krystalli at Feinstein for their support over the course of the project. Series editors These report forms part of a series of humanitarian evidence syntheses and systematic reviews covering child protection, market support, mental health, nutrition, pastoralist livelihoods, shelter, urban contexts, and water, sanitation and hygiene. The reports and corresponding protocols can be found at:    The series editors are: Roxanne Krystalli, Eleanor Ott and Lisa Walmsley. Photo credit  Andy Hall/Oxfam 2011.  © Copyright Oxfam GB 2017 This publication is subject to copyright but the text may be used free of charge for the purposes of advocacy, campaigning, education and research, provided that the source is acknowledged in full. The copyright holder requests that all such use be registered with them for impact assessment purposes. For copying in any other circumstances, or for re-use in other publications, or for translation or adaptation, permission must be secured and a fee may be charged. Email:  CONTENTS 0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I   1 INTRODUCTION 1   1.1 Background 1   1.2 Rationale and purpose 2   1.3 Research questions 3   2 METHODOLOGY 6   2.1 Protocol development 6   2.2 Implementation of the search strategy 6   2.3 Document screening 7   2.4 Evidence assessment 8   2.5 Data extraction and evidence synthesis 9   3 RESULTS 10   3.1 Summary of reviewed publications 10   3.2 Included publications 11   3.3 Outcomes reported by included publications 12   3.4 Assessment of the strength of evidence and causal claims 12   3.5 Narrative synthesis of results 13   4 CONCLUSION 19   4.1 Limitations 20   APPENDIX 1: DATABASE SEARCH STRATEGY STRINGS 30   APPENDIX 2: INCLUDED PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTED INTERVENTIONS AND IMPACTS 40   REFERENCES 42   Included publications 42   Other 43    0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This evidence synthesis, commissioned by the Humanitarian Evidence Programme (HEP) and carried out by a research team from the University of Toronto, represents the first ever attempt to identify, synthesize and evaluate existing evidence on both the short- and long-term impacts of in-kind food assistance on pastoralist populations and their livelihoods in humanitarian crises. 1  The synthesis is based on a rigorous methodology and follows an adapted scoping study approach. It aims to:    verify the quality of existing evidence relating to this key type of humanitarian intervention    help researchers identify the strengths and weaknesses in such evidence, and thus to recognize potential improvements and opportunities in future research    assist practitioners and policy makers in evaluating the impact of past choices and investments. Definitions This review uses the term ‘ pastoralists ’ to refer to p eople who depend on livestock for a significant proportion of their food and income, including those who might also cultivate crops and/or carry out other economic activities. T he term ‘ livelihoods ’ is used to refer to the ‘capabilities, assets (including material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living’ (Scoones, 1998:  5). The review covers a wide range of livelihood systems, based on a list derived from Hesse and MacGregor (2006: 5). For further detail on the definitions used, see the box ‘Definition of common terms included in this review’ on p p.1-2 of the full report.   What are the impacts of in-kind food assistance in humanitarian crises on pastoralists and their livelihoods? The research team looked at 12 key questions that mapped on to six thematic outcome areas (see Figure 0.1). 1  The Humanitarian Evidence Programme (HEP) is a partnership between Oxfam GB and the Feinstein International Center at Tufts University. It is funded by the UK government’s Department for International Development (DFID) through the Humanitarian Innovation and Evidence Programme (HIEP).
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