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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268080094 Supplementary cementitious materials origin from agricultural wastes – A review ARTICLE in CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS · JANUARY 2015 Impact Factor: 2.3 · DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.10.010 CITATIONS READS 7 203 4 AUTHORS, INCLUDING: Evi Aprianti Payam Shafigh University of Malaya University of Malaya 3 PUBLICATIONS 7 CITATIONS 46 PUBLICATIONS 41
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  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268080094 Supplementary cementitious materials srcinfrom agricultural wastes – A review  ARTICLE   in  CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS · JANUARY 2015 Impact Factor: 2.3 · DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.10.010 CITATIONS 7 READS 203 4 AUTHORS , INCLUDING:Evi ApriantiUniversity of Malaya 3   PUBLICATIONS   7   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Payam ShafighUniversity of Malaya 46   PUBLICATIONS   414   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Javad Nodeh FarahaniUniversity of Malaya 1   PUBLICATION   7   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate,letting you access and read them immediately.Available from: Payam ShafighRetrieved on: 15 March 2016  Review Supplementary cementitious materials srcin from agriculturalwastes – A review Evi Aprianti a, ⇑ , Payam Shafigh b , Syamsul Bahri b , Javad Nodeh Farahani b a Department of Building Surveying, Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Malaysia b Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Malaysia h i g h l i g h t s   Potential uses of agricultural wastes as cementitious material were reviewed.   Ashes from agricultural wastes have high silica content.   The use of RHA is limited due to the porosity nature of RHA particles.   POFA has good potential to be used as cementitious material in cement based materials. a r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Received 25 July 2014Accepted 8 October 2014 Keywords: Supplementary cementitious materialPozzolansConcreteCompressive strengthAgricultural waste a b s t r a c t Concrete is heavily used as a construction material in modern society. With the growth in urbanizationand industrialization, the demand for concrete is increasing day by-days. Therefore, raw materials andnatural resources are required in large quantities for concrete production worldwide. At the same time,aconsiderablequantityof agricultural wasteandothertypesof solidmaterial disposal areposingseriousenvironmental issues. To minimize and reduce the negative impact of the concrete industry through theexplosiveusageofrawmaterials,theuseofagriculturalwastesassupplementarycementitiousmaterials,the source of whichare bothreliable andsuitable for alternative preventive solutions promotes theenvi-ronmental sustainability of the industry. This paper reviews the possible use of agricultural wastes as asupplementarycementitiousmaterialintheproductionofconcrete.Itaimstoexhibittheideaofutilizingthese wastes by elaborating upon their engineering, physical and chemical properties. This provides asummary of the existing knowledge about the successful use of agricultural wastes such as rice huskash, palm oil fuel ash, sugar cane bagasse ash, wood waste ash, bamboo leaf ash, and corn cob ash inthe concrete industry.   2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1772. Supplementary cementitious material (SCM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1772.1. Agricultural wastes as SCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1782.1.1. Rice husk ash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1782.1.2. Palm oil fuel ash (POFA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1802.1.3. Bagasse ash (BA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1832.1.4. Wood waste ash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1842.1.5. Bamboo Leaf ash (BLA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1842.1.6. Corn cob ash (CCA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.10.0100950-0618/   2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 1114247118; fax: +60 379675713. E-mail addresses:  eviaprianti93@siswa.um.edu.my, eviaprianti93@yahoo.com (E. Aprianti). Construction and Building Materials 74 (2015) 176–187 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Construction and Building Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat  3. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 1. Introduction Today, concrete has become the most commonly used buildingmaterial in the construction industry. The other important charac-teristics of concrete, besides its strength, are its ability to be easilymoulded into any form, it is an engineered material that canmeet almost any desired specification, and it also adaptable,incombustible, affordableandeasilyobtained. Thegreat advantageof concrete is its excellent mechanical and physical characteristics,if properly designed and manufactured. Currently, concrete isextensivelyusedwithmorethan10billiontonsproducedannuallyin modern industrial society [1]. It has been estimated that by2050, the rate of the world’s population will grow substantiallyfrom 1.5 to 9billion, and, thus, will cause an increase in thedemand for energy, housing, food and clothing as well as for con-crete,whichisforecasttoincreasetoapproximately18billiontonsannually by 2050 [2].Unfortunately, a considerable quantity of concrete is being pro-duced, the effect of which is contrary to its benefits. In the last100years, the concrete industry has had an enormous effect onthe environmental appearances. In addition, CO 2  emissions arecaused during the manufacturing process with a large volume of raw materials required to produce the billions of tons of concreteworldwide each year. The cement industry alone is estimated tobe responsible for about 7% of all the CO 2  generated worldwide[3]. It has been found that every ton of Portland cement producedreleases approximately one ton of CO 2  into the atmosphere. Inaddition, duringthe productionof cement and concrete, issues likecarbon dioxide emissions, along with the use of energy and aggre-gate consumption in great amounts, the demolition waste of con-crete, and filler requirements, contribute to the commonenvironmental impact that concrete has making it a non-friendlythat is unsuitable for sustainable development.Several studies have focused on finding alternatives that can beused as replacement to cement, such as, the disposable and lessvaluable wastes from industry and agriculture, whose potentialbenefits can be realized through recycling, reuse and renewingprogrammes. Hence, researchershavebeeninvestigatingtheeffec-tiveness,efficiencyandavailabilityofwastematerialsthatarepoz-zolanic in nature as a cement replacement. The required materialsshould be a by-product from an-srcinal source that is rich in sili-con (Si) and aluminium(Al). The framework for utilizing industrialwaste material for building applications has a successful history,which includes fly ash, slag, and silica fume. Consequently, landfilled waste materials that are normally disposed of and land filledare now deemed to be valuable for enhancing the desired proper-ties of concrete.Previous studies showed that some agro-waste materials couldbe used as a cement replacement in cement based materials. Theutilization of agricultural waste can provide the break-throughneeded to make the industry more environmentally friendly andsustainable. The purpose of this paper is to clearly describe andbriefly introduce waste materials from agricultural commoditiesthat havebeenwell managedandsuccessfullyusedas supplemen-tarycementitiousmaterials(SCM)forthemanufactureofconcrete.Therelationshipsamongconcretemadeusingthesetypes of wastematerials, environmentally friendly concrete, and green buildingrating systems are also discussed. Mutual recognition of thesematerials, and their usage in concrete by both civil engineers andagriculturalengineers,wouldpavethewayforotherpotentialusesofsolidwastematerialsintheconstructionindustry,aswellascer-tain other industries. It will also lead to a more environmentallysustainable concrete industry. 2. Supplementary cementitious material (SCM) A substantial quantity of waste materials are produced globallyas by-products from different sectors, such as industrial, agricul-tural, and wastes from rural and urban society. These waste mate-rials, if not deposited safely, it may be hazardous. The type andamount of sewage produced increases with the growth in popula-tion.Thesewastesremainintheenvironmentforalongerdurationsince they are unused. The waste disposal crisis has arisen due tothe formation of decomposed waste materials. The solution to thiscrisis lies in the recycling of wastes into useful products. Researchintotheinnovativeusesofwastematerialsiscontinuouslyadvanc-ing. Waste and by-product materials, such as fly ash, silica fume,ground granulated blast slag, rice husk ash, and palm oil fuel ashhavebeensuccessfullyusedinconcretefordecades[4–8].Thesuc- cessfulusageasapartialorwholereplacementofPortlandcement,contributes to the resolution of the landfill problem and reductionin the cost of building materials, provides a satisfactory solutiontothe environmental issues and problems associated with wastemanagement, saves energy, and helps to protect the environmentfrom pollution. Agricultural wastes, such as rice husk ash, wheatstraw ash, and sugarcane bagasse ash, hazel nutshell ash whichconstitute pozzolanic materials can be used as a replacement forcement.Today, supplementary cementing materials are widely used aspozzolanic materials (create extra strengthby pozzolanic reaction)in high-strength concrete, reduce permeability and improve thedurability of the concrete. Many types of pozzolans are used glob-ally, and are commonly used as an addition or replacement forPortland cement in concrete. It is well known that pozzolanic con-crete contributes to the compressive strength in two ways: as thefillereffectandthepozzolanicreaction.Thus,thepozzolanicmate-rial will reducethedemandorusageofcementat thattime. Apoz-zolan comprises siliceous materials, and when combined withcalcium hydroxide, exhibits cementitious properties dependingon the constituents of the pozzolan. On the other hand, the ‘‘highearlystrength’’concretecanbeproducedbythehighlyreactivesil-ica in pozzolans. The basis of the pozzolanic reaction is a simpleacid-based reaction between calcium hydroxide, also known asPortlandite(Ca(OH) 2 )andsilicicacid(Si(OH) 4 ).Thisreactionisrep-resented as follows: Ca ð OH Þ 2  þ ð Si ð OH Þ 4 Þ !  Ca 2  þ þ H 2 SiO 2  4  þ 2H 2 O !  CaH 2 SiO 4   2H 2 O And is the same as the abbreviated notation below: CH þ SH  !  CSH ~ C—S—H As the density of CSH is lower than that of Portlandite and puresilica, a consequence of this reaction is a swelling of the reactionproducts. This reaction, which is also known as alkali–silica reac-tion may occur over time in concrete between the alkaline cementpore water and poorly-crystalline silica aggregates. E. Aprianti et al./Construction and Building Materials 74 (2015) 176–187   177  Basically, concrete is a combination of cement, water, fine andcoarse aggregate. As consequence of the greenhouse gas emissions(GHG), most concrete mixtures utilize supplementary cementi-tious materials (SCMs) either in blended cements or added sepa-rately in the mixer. The utilization of SCMs, such as rice huskash, which is a by-product from agriculture, represents a viablesolution to the partial cement substitution. Which is divided intonatural and artificial materials. The usage of SCMs without theadditional process causes a significant decrease in CO 2  emissionsper ton in the atmosphere. These materials are also referred to asmineral admixtures or pozzolans, and when used in concrete andcombinedwithPortlandcement formcementitiousparticles, how-ever by themselves, they do not possess any cementitious com-pounds. They should meet the requirements of the establishedstandards.The structural advantage of SCMs is that they enable the pro-ducer to modify the mixture and calculate the proper design of the desired application. In addition, it can be used to improve theperformance of concrete, either in fresh or hardened mixtures. Ineconomic terms, using alternative waste materials can reduce thecostofconstructionwhileprovidingcomparableperformance.Thiscost includes the source and transportation of the alternativematerial, controlled combustion process, and savings throughdiversion, such as disposal management. Subsequently, the envi-ronmental benefits will decrease the sizeable needs and demandsof Portland cement per unit volume of concrete as well as theimpact on the enormous deflation range of GHG emissions.  2.1. Agricultural wastes as SCM  Nowadays, global environmental warming is considered to bethe most important worldwide issue. Solid waste materials arefound everywhere, such as in the urban and rural society, industryand agriculture. As agricultural wastes affect of the environment,the use of these waste materials in construction will realize themany benefits previously mentioned. Research has determinedthat concrete that produced using agricultural wastes presentsimproved thermal properties [13,27,36–49], which can result insignificant points being gained in the atmosphere and energy cat-egory of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)rating system. Moreover, due to the high cost constraints and lim-ited availability of the main material in concrete, particularly indevelopingcountries, agricultural wastes usedas SCMs in concreteproduction can contribute to the environmental friendliness andeconomic effectiveness of structures worldwide.  2.1.1. Rice husk ash Rice husk is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains dur-ing their growth. It is widely available in rice-producing countries,andconsideredtobeanagriculturalsolidwastematerial.Ricehuskhas no commercial value when removed during the refining pro-cess. The rice milling industry is one of the most important sectorsin some countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia andBangladesh, and worldwide by the end of 2013, the rice husk har-vest produced approximately 742million metric tons of rice pad-dies annually [9]. Of this, more than 20% comprised the husk.India produces around 160 million tons of rice husk (widely avail-able waste) of which, during the milling process, about 78% of theweight is rice, broken rice and bran, while the rest, 22% of theweight of the paddy, is the husk [10]. Malaysia alone producesapproximately 3 million tons of rice paddies each year [9]. Table 1 shows the top 10 highest countries that produced rice paddy in2013 [9]. Asia is still expected to sustain growth in the world riceproduction in 2013.The advantage of rice is that it produces a high volume of ricehusk,whichisalow-densityresidueoftheprocess[11].Atpresent, the rice-producing countries are hindered by the landfill problemof the rice husk, which they are attempting to utilize to benefitthe economy. When dumped, this waste covers a large area andcan self-incinerate, thereby spreading its ash over a wide areaand causing significant environmental problems. Unless used, thislarge quantity of rice husk goes to waste and becomes a majorchallenge to the environment by destroying the land and the areassurrounding its dumping ground. A huge amount of RHA is pro-ducedgloballyand has been estimated to be growing at more than7.5million tons, or, approximately 1.1% each year [9].  2.1.1.1. Properties of rice husk ash (RHA).  Rice husk ash (RHA) is acarbon neutral green product gained from raw rice husk that ischangedtoashusingthecombustionprocess.Thecolourofthericehusk ash (RHA) ranges from white grey to black, depending on thesource of the rawmaterial, method of incineration, time and burn-ing temperature. Many ways of disposal have been consideredincluding the commercial method of RHA. Rice husk is burnt in afurnace/incinerator with a controlled laboratory atmosphere of 600–800  C. After the firing process, the produced ash is cooled,either rapidly or slowly. The rapid cooling method is performedby uniformly distributing the ash in trays at a laboratory ambienttemperature of 21±1  C after reaching the required temperatureof 800  C. The slow cooling method involves, leaving the ash inthe incinerator. It can be used in large amounts to make specialsupplementary concrete mixes. This RHA, in turn, contains around85–90% of amorphous silica [13–15].Zain et al. [15] reported a new method for producing RHA. Therice husk, as displayedin Fig. 1(a), is the rawformafter the millingprocess,whichisfiredinagasfurnaceatarateof 10  Cperminuteup to 700  C, and maintained at this temperature for 6h. Thereaf-ter, it is left to cool at room temperature, as shown in Fig. 1(b).There are various chemical compositions of rice husk ash due tothe type of paddy, differences in the type of land, harvest year,combustion temperature, cooling method and geographicalconditions.RHA is a very fine material. The average particle size of RHArangesfrom5to10 l m[14].Table2showsthephysicalandchem- ical properties of RHA, Portland cement and some cementitiousmaterials.RHAshouldmeettherequirementsofthechemicalcom-positionofpozzolantobeusedincementandconcrete,asstatedinASTM C618. The amount of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), iron oxide(Fe 2 O 3 ) and aluminiumoxide (A1 2 O 3 ) in the ash should not be lessthan 70%, and the loss of ignition (LOI) must be up to 12%, as men-tionedin the ASTMrequirements. Inaddition, ChauhanandKumar[75] clearly explained the importance physical properties of mate-rial used that control the flow of micro-systemin concrete such assurface area, fineness, incineration system and porosity.Fig.3showstheSEMmorphologyoftheRHApowder.Asshownin this figure, RHA grains are in different shapes and have porosityon the surface. Thus causing the mixing water to be absorbed, andreducingtheslumpvalueandworkability. Inaddition,Fig.2showsthat the cellular shape of rice husk ash gets broken due to thelonger period of the grinding process. After the grinding processwithin 15, 60 and 120min, the average diameter of the rice huskash particle was 49.0 l m (Fig. 2a), 41.0 l m (Fig. 2b) and 16.6 l m(Fig. 2c), respectively. As described in Fig. 2a, the cellular shape of RHA could be clearly seen. The transformation occurs for120min (Fig. 2c), the cellular particles become smaller and disap-pear. This observation determines that the RHA sample is com-posed of irregular shaped particles with micro-pores, whichcould significantly affect the properties of the final product.Researchers [8,13–16] agree that finer pozzolanic ash is better.The fineness of the RHA is important because it influences the rateof reaction and gains in concrete strength. The fineness also influ-ences the water-cement ratio, workability, shrinkage and creep of  178  E. Aprianti et al./Construction and Building Materials 74 (2015) 176–187 
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