Plan 3 Advice | Negotiating | Negotiation

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Advice for plan 3
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  1 MGMT 3721 Negotiation Skills Some reminders for Plan 3, semester 2, 2014   On the whole, the quality of the Plans 2 (Job Terms) that you handed in were the best we have ever seen in this course. (Yes!!) There was a lot of really excellent work and the general standard showed most of you are really thinking through things well, both in planning and explaining your planning. The Worksheet The biggest single weakness in Plan 2 was that some of you did not respond to all of the criteria in the Evaluation Sheet we provided to you. If there is an item on that table, we expect you to respond. As a result, we have modified the evaluation form by adding an additional column, after “poor” for each criterion. It’s called “missing” Some people still need to work much harder on how to lay out their worksheet  (plan) to make it focused, explicit, comprehensive and concrete – and hence more usable. Do not explain things here. Leave that to the Explanation. Do not use full sentences – except for chit-chat and other questions. Use dot points. As this negotiation is much more complex, using a Landscape layout should work  better than Portrait. In Landscape, a Worksheet might take about 4 to 6 pages. Some students are trying to squeeze too much into tight spaces. In your Worksheet, try to leave spaces to help with quick and easier re-reading while negotiating. There is no need to try and push it all into 1 or 2 pages. In evaluating your own Worksheet (plan), you should be able to answer “yes” to the simple question: “Can I use this plan to help me negotiate better?” Any other answer means you need to revise your plan. In answering the question, you should consider content and layout of the plan. It should also help you go into and stay “in role” . Carefully proofread and edit your writing. Presentation is your responsibility and says something about you. Electronic spell/grammar checks help but are not sufficient. You  are answerable for the quality of your work, not Microsoft. As with previous plans, include the following: State your role   upfront on the worksheet. Identify your    interests. P  rioritise  them and indicate that they are listed in priority order. Include tangible and intangible interests. Try to do the same for the other party. (This involves estimation based on careful reading of briefs.) Interests are not the same as goals. They are broad preferences about needs. For example, for Leslie Lee, interests included passion to do more scientific research, a strong preference for security of employment and income, and the desire for interesting, challenging work. These then shaped his/her goals (and then objectives and targets) for the negotiation with Frances Reclutamento.  2 For Goals ã   List them in priority order ã   Set specific goals (that lead to precise objectives) ã   Who is your constituency?   ã   What are you responsible to them for?   ã   This responsibility should be evident in your overall goals and how you  prioritise them clearly … including intangible ones. ã   Are there goals for you as a team ? Which ones?   ã   What about for you individually ?   If possible, you should “weight” them – for example out of 10 – to help your planning and decision making and negotiation. From that weighting, you might try to develop a  points schedule to guide your concessions. If you have a points schedule, you will still need to work out your resistance point and target (in points) as well as your opening offer. Try to estimate (and in priority order too) the goals of the other side. Identify your BATNA. Too many students still do not understand what this is. If in doubt, check up in lecture notes and/or textbook. Also identify whether it is strong or weak. Use it set your resistance point. State this in an easy-to-read format e.g. in a table format or line diagram in your worksheet . Think about its implications and what you might do to strengthen it. Try to identify the other side’s BATNA (and implications). Strategies and tactics Whichever strategy or combination of strategies you choose, your chosen tactics must match each strategy. List those tactics and give very brief examples of how/where you would use them. For example: “bogey” on issue x; open questions and active listening for …” Whatever you do, once you choose your strategy and tactics, go back and check if they match your interests and goals (particularly the intangible ones). And if you think that there is integrative potential in this negotiation, think which integrative tactics you might need to use. Too many students say they plan to use a mixed motive approach and only explicitly plan distributive tactics. Team dynamics You should briefly list the sorts of teamwork issues you wish to address in your Week 10 team discussion. Think team roles, team processes, team dynamics in terms of  personalities, strengths and weaknesses. Frames and framing statements or questions How will you frame your arguments? How will you persuade the other party to see things your way? At the same time, for this negotiation to be successful, you need to put yourself in their shoes .  3 Idle chit-chat in role Too many students are not meeting this requirement fully: ã   five questions you ask the other side PLUS ã   five questions you would prefer the other side NOT to ask PLUS ã   responses to those five unwelcome questions. Plan your chit-chat in role. In Plan 2, too many students asked chit-chat questions suitable for Used Car (how long did it take you to get here? Did you drive or take  public transport?) in their Plan 2 (Job Terms Interview). And too many just asked generic questions like “How has your day been?” which do not count for “idle chit-chat in role” questions. For better marks , we would like to see a follow-up question   or two  to the ones you ask in chit-chat; e.g. for Frances: Leslie, how are you planning to wind down after you finish your final exams? …Oh, you are planning to travel? …Really, where are you guys going to go? … How long do you plan to stay away? You must also anticipate and plan for some of the more uncomfortable questions and answers from your opponent. Plan for the 5 worst questions you can think of (in that role) and plan answers that are plausible and maintain your frame. Many of you still get caught off-guard by your opponents. In general, plan to start with broad, open questions and do NOT focus in on the substantive issues to be negotiated. Plan to take the opportunity to learn something more (in role) about the people you are negotiating with . This comes through  planning for this and using your questions. Your negotiation with the other side goes over 2 weeks. Time spent early clarifying issues by asking good questions (and good follow-up questions ) is time invested well in terms of outcomes and relationships. Identification of the important negotiation ‘numbers’: ã   Target, ã   Opening Offer and ã   Resistance Points. Your bargaining mix (with issues listed by priority) -> concession plan. Some students are reducing the number of issues they negotiate compared to those  presented in the briefs. This is VERY BAD  practice. You should be widening the  bargaining mix as much as possible. This involves careful reading of general and role  briefs.  Negotiation agenda. What should you include under this? Audiences and constituencies Who are your audiences and constituencies? Do they have an impact on your plan? How many negotiations have you been involved in over this matter? Question formulation is important. What questions will you ask, and what questions will the other party?  4 Points to consider: This negotiation is different from others as hints about each side’s BATNA are public knowledge (in the general brief). Therefore you must have a good understanding of your own BATNA and make an effort to understand the other party's BATNA. The Board (really its financial controller under Board supervision) created the budget and its projected budget . What does projected mean in this situation?   Remember: You and the other side do not  have equal information. Some of it is common, some not. Read your specific role brief   very carefully and try to think about what it is telling you and the various options or opportunities it seems to present. Are they all  pointing in the same direction? Is your role brief trying to frame you  in a particular direction? How might you suspect this? The general brief contains very important information as well. Read it thoroughly. Think carefully about why that information is common to both sides , why some matters are repeated . Assume that ever word has a purpose – either literal or by inference. Information in the smaller font - including in the footnotes - also requires careful attention and consideration. There are a lot of numbers in the budget. Set aside extra time to understand the budget figures.  If you aren’t good with numbers, find someone who can help you. However, it isn’t hard to do the basic additions and subtractions. Assume that all the numbers provided have a purpose – either literal or by inference. The Explanation . This is where you answer the question “why did I choose to plan this way?” regarding each of the things you put in the Worksheet. For example, why are these interests listed in this order; or why have I chosen this strategy; why have I chosen this frame? Better answers also explain the rationale behind each planning point – e.g.   why have I set my resistance point on this issue at point “x”? Students get fewer marks for not providing reasoning for their choices. You must provide references as specified in the course outline. Failure to do so will bring a marks penalty. And you must reference carefully and with consistent style. Good marks reflect how you apply negotiation theory in planning for your role , not how many theories you cite or how well you can summarise role play information. ** Please include, at the end of your Explanation, your expectations of  consequences if this negotiation is not successful. What will it mean for you  personally, your side, the other party and the community?**  Peter Sheldon 30 September 2014.
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