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Specification GCE Biology Edexcel Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Biology (8BI01) First examination 2009 Edexcel Advanced GCE in Biology (9BI01) First examination 2010 Issue 3 pecificatio is s an by s supported
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Specification GCE Biology Edexcel Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Biology (8BI01) First examination 2009 Edexcel Advanced GCE in Biology (9BI01) First examination 2010 Issue 3 pecificatio is s an by s supported ni Th Edexcel GCE in Biology e-spec This publication is supported by e-spec, Edexcel s electronic version of the specification. From August 2008 you can download the Issue 3 e-spec from here: com/gce2008/biology/pages/overview.aspx. Everything you need The e-spec provides a range of useful resources including: A Senior Examiner explaining the changes to the new specification A customisable student guide to help recruit students A course planner to make it easy to plan delivery Links to sample assessment materials so you can see what is expected Student exemplars to show the standards required Information on the products and services provided by Edexcel to support the specification. Issue 3 This version of the specification has been revised to reflect the fact that teachers now have the option of asking Edexcel to mark externally the student s work for Units 3 and 6. Edexcel GCE in Biology Foreword Edexcel is delighted that this specification has been developed in collaboration with the Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology project, which leads the field in innovative approaches to teaching and learning in biology at A level. Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a collaboration between two major forces for innovation in science education: the University of York Science Education Group and the Nuffield Foundation. Both have a long and distinguished history of seminal curriculum projects in science and have combined their experience to develop a biology course which meets the needs of today s students. The Salters-Nuffield project has extensively piloted its new approach over a number of years. Many key elements of this approach, such as studying the contemporary social and ethical context of the biological sciences, are now part of the How Science Works strand required in all A level Science specifications. Edexcel GCE in biology has benefited enormously from the expertise built up by the Salters-Nuffield project in incorporating effectively this important new aspect of A level biology in this specification. The Salters-Nuffield project supports students and teachers with INSET and resources in addition to the support offered by the Edexcel team. The project retains the contemporary topicality of the course by a website which is kept up to date with news of new discoveries, applications and controversies for use by teachers and students. This enables students and teachers to not only adopt a course which is innovative in all respects but also fully up to date and always forward looking. Edexcel Nuffield Foundation University of York About this specification The Edexcel GCE in Biology is designed for use in schools and colleges. It is a part of a suite of GCE qualifications offered by Edexcel. Flexible and inspiring The Edexcel GCE Biology specification has been designed to engage and inspire students by showing how an understanding of many contemporary issues requires a grasp of fundamental biological ideas. It offers centres a choice of two well-proven teaching and learning styles within one common assessment structure. The two approaches to the content of the specification are: a concept-led approach. This approach begins with a study of the laws, theories and models of biology and finishes with an exploration of their practical applications a context-led topic approach. This approach begins with the consideration of an application that draws on many different areas of biology, and then moves on to the biological concepts underlying this application. The design of this approach is based on the Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology Project. Both approaches enable the use of motivating, up-to-date, contemporary contexts. Centres may offer courses based completely on either or both approaches, or mix and match the approaches to different topics within one course. This aims both to attract and retain more students by matching their own learning needs and to make teaching more enjoyable for teachers. Manageable and well supported This specification has a realistic, manageable level of content and assessment. One unit in each of AS and A2 is an internally assessed practical unit and extensive support for the practical assessment is available. Both teaching approaches are well resourced with customised published materials including course texts and online support. In addition, the Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology project team at the University of York organises courses for teachers and technicians who support this specification, and also provides an advice service to help with questions concerning the teaching of the course. Supporting you Edexcel aims to provide the most comprehensive support for our qualifications. We have therefore published our own dedicated suite of resources for teachers and students written by qualification experts. We also endorse a wide range of materials from other publishers to give you a choice of approach. For more information on our wide range of support and services for this GCE in Biology qualification, visit our GCE website: Specification updates This specification is Issue 3 and is valid for Advanced Subsidiary (AS) examination from 2009 and A2 examination from If there are any significant changes to the specification Edexcel will write to centres to let them know. Changes will also be posted on our website. For more information please visit or Edexcel GCE in Biology Edexcel Limited 2008 Introduction Contents A Specification at a glance 4 B Specification overview 8 Summary of assessment requirements 8 Assessment objectives and weightings 10 Relationship of assessment objectives to units 10 Qualification summary 10 How Science Works 13 C Biology unit content 15 Course structure 16 Introduction to the context and concept approaches 17 Introduction to the recommended core practicals 17 Concept-led approach 19 Unit 1 Lifestyle, Transport, Genes and Health 21 Unit 2 Development, Plants and the Environment 27 Unit 4 The Natural Environment and Species Survival 33 Unit 5 Energy, Exercise and Coordination 39 Context-led approach based on the Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology Project 45 Unit 1 Lifestyle, Transport, Genes and Health 47 Unit 2 Development, Plants and the Environment 55 Unit 4 The Natural Environment and Species Survival 61 Unit 5 Energy, Exercise and Coordination 67 2 Contents Edexcel Limited 2008 Edexcel GCE in Biology Contents Generic unit (Concept and Context) 75 Unit 3 Practical Biology and Research Skills 77 Unit 6 Practical Biology and Investigative Skills 85 D Assessment and additional information 97 Assessment information 97 Additional information 101 E Resources, support and training 105 Resources to support the specification 105 Edexcel s own published resources 105 Edexcel publications 106 Additional resources endorsed by Edexcel 106 Support 108 Training 109 F Appendices 111 Appendix 1 Performance descriptions 113 Appendix 2 Glossary of terms used 119 Appendix 3 How Science Works mapping 123 Appendix 4 Key skills mapping 131 Appendix 5 Key skills development 133 Appendix 6 Wider curriculum 147 Appendix 7 Codes 149 Appendix 8 Further resources and support 151 Appendix 9 Disability Discrimination Act 153 Appendix 10 Mathematical requirements 155 Edexcel GCE in Biology Edexcel Limited 2008 Contents A Specification at a glance AS Unit 1: Lifestyle, Transport, Genes and Health *Unit code 6BI01 Externally assessed Availability: January and June First assessment: January 2009 Content summary: 40% of the total AS marks 20% of the total GCE marks structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; enzyme action structure and properties of cell membranes; passive and active transport structure and role of DNA and RNA replication; protein synthesis monohybrid inheritance gene mutations principles of gene therapy; social and ethical issues. Assessment: This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 15 minutes. Section A Edexcel Limited 2008 Edexcel GCE in Biology Specification at a glance A AS Unit 2: Development, Plants and the Environment *Unit code 6BI02 Externally assessed Availability: January and June First assessment: January 2009 Content summary: 40% of the total AS marks 20% of the total GCE marks cell structure and ultrastructure of eukaryote and prokaryote cells: cell specialisation the role of meiosis genotype and environmental influence stem cell research and its implications biodiversity, adaptations and natural selection principles of taxonomy plant cell structure transport of water in plants uses of plant products. Assessment: This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 15 minutes. Edexcel GCE in Biology Edexcel Limited 2008 Section A A Specification at a glance AS Unit 3: Practical Biology and Research Skills *Unit code 6BI03 Internally assessed Availability: June First assessment: June 2009 Summary: 20% of the total AS marks 10% of the total GCE marks Students write a report of between 1500 and 2000 words, either a record of a visit to a site of biological interest or a report of research into a biological topic. Students practical skills will be assessed by the teacher against criteria provided in the specification. Please see Unit 3 Section 9.1 Part 1: Practical biology skills on page 77. Assessment: Teachers have the option of marking the report and having it moderated by Edexcel, or having it externally marked by Edexcel. The work must reflect the standard at Advanced Subsidiary level. A2 Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival *Unit code 6BI04 Externally assessed Availability: January and June First assessment: January 2010 Content summary: photosynthesis; energy transfer within ecosystems evidence for global warming evolution through natural selection and speciation nutrient recycling DNA profiling and PCR structure of bacteria and viruses infectious diseases (eg AIDS and TB) and immunology. Assessment: 40% of the total A2 marks 20% of the total GCE marks This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 30 minutes. Section A Edexcel Limited 2008 Edexcel GCE in Biology Specification at a glance A A2 Unit 5: Energy, Exercise and Coordination *Unit code 6BI05 Externally assessed Availability: January and June First assessment: June 2010 Content summary: ATP, glycolysis, anaerobic/aerobic respiration control and functioning of heart; ventilation and cardiac output homeostasis the nervous system impact of exercise on body, and improving performance hormonal coordination brain structure and development imbalances in brain chemicals Human Genome Project. 40% of the total A2 marks 20% of the total GCE marks Assessment: This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 30 minutes. A2 Unit 6: Practical Biology and Investigative Skills *Unit code 6BI06 Internally assessed Availability: June First assessment: June % of the total A2 marks 10% of the total GCE marks Summary: Students will complete a written report of an experimental investigation, which they have devised and carried out. Assessment: Teachers have the option of marking the report or having it externally marked by Edexcel. The work must reflect the standard expected at Advanced GCE level. * See Appendix 7 for description of this code and all other codes relevant to this qualification. Edexcel GCE in Biology Edexcel Limited 2008 Section A B Specification overview Summary of assessment requirements Unit number and unit title Level Assessment information Number of marks allocated in the unit Unit 1: Lifestyle, Transport, Genes and Health AS This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 15 minutes and will include: 80 marks objective questions structured questions short-answer questions and will also cover: How Science Works practical-related questions. Unit 2: Development, Plants and the Environment AS This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 15 minutes and will include: 80 marks objective questions structured questions short-answer questions and will also cover: How Science Works practical-related questions. Unit 3: Practical Biology and Research Skills AS Students will submit a written report of between 1500 and 2000 words which will be marked by the teacher and moderated by Edexcel or externally marked by Edexcel. The report may be either a record of a visit to a site of biological interest or a report of research into a biological topic. 40 marks During the course of teaching Units 1 and 2 teachers will observe students carrying out practical work and will be required to submit a verification of practical skills record based on the recommended core practicals see page 17. There is no separate content for this unit. Unit 4: The Natural Environment and Species Survival A2 This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 30 minutes and will include: 90 marks practical related questions structured questions short-answer questions and will also cover: How Science Works practical-related questions. 8 Section B Edexcel Limited 2008 Edexcel GCE in Biology Specification overview B Unit number and unit title Level Assessment information Number of marks allocated in the unit Unit 5: Energy, Exercise and Coordination A2 This unit is assessed by means of a written examination paper, which lasts 1 hour 30 minutes and will include: objective questions 90 marks structured questions short-answer questions and will also cover: How Science Works practical-related questions. A third of the marks is related to specified prereleased reading. Unit 6: Practical Biology and Investigative Skills A2 Students will complete an individual investigation. This is a written report of an experimental investigation, which they have devised and carried out and includes synoptic assessment. This piece of work will be marked by the teacher and moderated by Edexcel or externally marked by Edexcel. 45 marks During the course of teaching Units 4 and 5 teachers will observe students carrying out practical work and will be required to submit a verification of practical skills record based on the recommended core practicals and the individual investigation. There is no separate content for this unit. Information for international centres A 100 per cent examination option is available ONLY to international centres wishing to take GCE Biology. This will take the form of alternative written papers for Units 3 and 6. This option is not available for home centres. International private centres, including all centres entering candidates via the British Council, are not permitted to enter candidates for internal assessment and therefore must take the alternative written papers. For further details please refer to the Edexcel international website Edexcel GCE in Biology Edexcel Limited 2008 Section B B Specification overview Assessment objectives and weightings % in AS % in A2 % in GCE AO1 AO2 Knowledge and understanding of science and of How Science Works Application of knowledge and understanding of science and of How Science Works 30 34% 26 30% 30 34% 34 40% 42 48% 38 44% AO3 How Science Works 28% 26% 27% Total 100% 100% 100% Relationship of assessment objectives to units Unit number Assessment objective AO1 AO2 AO3 Total for AO1, AO2 AO3 Unit 1 8-9% 8 9% 3% Unit 2 8-9% 8 9% 3% Unit 3 1% 1 2% 8% Unit 4 7 8% 10 11% 2% Unit 5 6 7% 10 12% 2% Unit 6 1% 9% 10 Total for Advanced GCE 30-34% 38 44% 27% 100 Qualification summary Subject criteria The General Certificate of Education is part of the Level 3 provision. This specification is based on the Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE subject criteria for Science, which is prescribed by the regulatory authorities and is mandatory for all awarding bodies. 10 Section B Edexcel Limited 2008 Edexcel GCE in Biology Specification overview B Aims The aims of the GCE in Biology are to enable students to: a develop their interest in, and enthusiasm for, biology including developing an interest in further study and careers in the subject b appreciate how society makes decisions about biology-related issues and how biology contributes to the success of the economy and society c develop and demonstrate a deeper appreciation of the skills, knowledge and understanding of How Science Works d develop essential knowledge and understanding of different areas of biology and how they relate to each other. AS/A2 Knowledge and understanding This Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced GCE specification requires students to: recognise, recall and show understanding of scientific knowledge select, organise and communicate relevant information in a variety of forms analyse and evaluate scientific knowledge and processes apply scientific knowledge and processes to unfamiliar situations assess the validity, reliability and credibility of scientific information. Edexcel GCE in Biology Edexcel Limited 2008 Section B 11 B Specification overview AS/A2 Practical biology and investigative skills This Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced GCE specification requires students to: use theories, models and ideas to develop and modify scientific explanations use knowledge and understanding to pose scientific questions, define scientific problems, present scientific arguments and scientific ideas use appropriate methodology, including ICT, to answer scientific questions and solve scientific problems carry out experimental and investigative activities, including appropriate risk management, in a range of contexts analyse and interpret data to provide evidence, recognising correlations and casual relationships evaluate methodology, evidence and data, and resolve conflicting evidence appreciate the tentative nature of scientific knowledge communicate information and ideas in appropriate ways using appropriate terminology consider applications and implications of science and appreciate their associated benefits and risks consider ethical issues in the treatment of humans, other organisms and the environment appreciate the role of the scientific community in validating new knowledge and ensuring integrity appreciate the ways in which science is used to inform decision making about issues to benefit society. 12 Section B Edexcel Limited 2008 Edexcel GCE in Biology Specification overview B How Science Works How Science Works is a newly introduced section of the GCE Science criteria, that builds on from the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study for science. The table below takes the statements from the criteria and gives guidance on how these statements will be assessed in terms of what we expect the student to know, understand or be able to do. This table is referred to in each of the units. How Science Works will be assessed in the context of the unit content. How Science Works is mapped to the learning outcomes in Appendix 3 on page 123. Criteria 1 Use theories, models and ideas to develop and modify scientific explanations 2 Use knowledge and understanding to pose scientific questions, define scientific problems, present scientific arguments and scientific ideas 3 Use appropriate methodology, including ICT, to answer scientific questions and solve scientific problems 4 Carry out experimental and investigative activities, including appropriate risk management, in a range of contexts 5 Analyse and interpret data to provide evidence, recognising correlations and causal relationships 6 Evaluate methodology, evidence and data, and resolve conflicting evidence 7 Appreciate the tentative nature of scientific knowledge 8 Communicate information and ideas in appropriate ways using appropriate terminology Learning outcome a) Explain how the development of scientific theories involves hypothesising, collecting an
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