Paper Presentation on Computer Networks

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This End Term Paper Presentation after the end of 1st year was completed by me on the topic "Types of Computer Networks". The objective was to take a proactive and hands on approach wherever possible to discover the field of computer networking. The contents of the paper can be found on the link as attached here. After the project I could truly say that the field of networking is a truly remarkable one and that I enjoyed my research completely. It covers the following topics: 1) Introduction To Computer Networking 2) Relevance Of Computer Networks 3) Network Design Criteria 4) Computer Network Configurations 5) Types Of Internet Connections 6) Classification Of Computer Networks 7) Classification Of Computer Networks By Range 8) Network Classification By Functional Relationships 9) Network Classification By Network Topology 10) Network Classification By Specialised Functions 11) Switching Techniques 12) Computer Networks: Transmission Media 13) Guided Transmission Media 14) Unguided Transmission Media 15) Networking Hardware
  • 1. Types of Computer Networks End Term Paper Presentation
  • 2. Introduction • A Computer Network is a group of computers and devices interconnected by communication channels that facilitate communications among users and allows users to share resources and information. • In the 1960s, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) started funding the design of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defense. It was the first computer network in the World. • Computer networks support applications such as access to the World Wide Web, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications.
  • 3. Why should you know about computer networks? • Help consolidate storage. • Allows the sharing of multiple peripheral devices with ease over the complete network. • Helps in creating a secure environment for communications to pass through. • The ability to email, call, share documents, and video conference increases productivity and collaboration within the organization.
  • 4. Evolution of Computer Networks • In 1965, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN). This was the immediate precursor to ARPANET. • In 1969, the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 Kbit/s circuits. • In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet was increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as quickly adapting to support new fiber optic cable speeds) is a contributing factor to its continued use today.
  • 5. Network Criteria • Performance: defined as the rate of transferring error free data • Consistency: Consistency is the predictability of response time and accuracy of data. • Reliability: Reliability is the measure of how often a network is useable. • Recovery: Recovery is the Network's ability to return to a prescribed level of operation after a network failure. • Security: Security is the protection of Hardware, Software and Data from unauthorized access.
  • 6. Types of Network Connections A Point-to-Point connection is a direct link between two devices such as a computer and a printer. A Multipoint connection is a link between three or more devices, also known as Multi-drop configuration.
  • 7. Types of Internet Connections • Dial-Up Connections • Cable Connections • DSL Connections • Leased Line Connections • Optical Carrier Connections • Internet over Satellite Connections
  • 8. Network Classification • By Range:  PAN  LAN  WLAN  MAN  WAN • By Functional Relationship:  Client-Server Networks  Peer-to-Peer Networks • By Network Topology:  Bus Network, Star Network  Ring Network  Mesh Network  Tree Network • By Specialized Function:  Storage Area Networks (SAN)  Value Added Networks (VAN)  Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) Network,  Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  • 9. Classification of Computer Networks by Range • Computer Networks can be divided into the following types on the basis of the area which they cover or in words, on the basis of the range they have:  Personal Area Network (PAN)  Local Area Network (LAN)  Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)  Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)  Wide Area Network (WAN) A Group of Computers connected together form a Personal Area Network (PAN), If connected using wireless technologies, Its called a Wireless PAN (WPAN) A Group of PANs connected together form a Local Area Network (LAN) A Group of LANs connected together form a Metropolitan Area Network(MAN) A Group of MANs connected together form a Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • 10. Classification of Computer Networks by Functional Relationship • Networks can also be classified according to their respective functions and structure hierarchy. The classification that forms hence is: ▫ Client Server Networks ▫ Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • 11. Classification of Computer Networks by Network Topology • Computer Networks can be arranged in a variety of ways, each way presenting its own advantages and disadvantages. These arrangements form the basis of classification of networks on the basis of topology as below:  Bus Network  Star Network  Ring Network  Mesh Network  Tree Network
  • 12. Bus Network
  • 13. Star Network
  • 14. Ring Network
  • 15. Mesh Network
  • 16. Tree Network
  • 17. Classification of Computer Networks by Specialized Functions • Diverse types of networks have come up with advancements in technology which are so diverse in features and so important in today's world, that it is almost imperative that we must study about them. They perform a variety of roles in a variety of fields serving a variety of people with a variety of interests. We can hence classify networks based on specialized functions in the following manner:  Storage Area Network (SAN)  Value Added Network (VAN)  Small Office/ Home Office Network (SOHO)  Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  • 18. A Storage Area Network (SAN)
  • 19. Switching Techniques • In large networks there might be multiple paths linking sender and receiver. Information may be switched as it travels through various communication channels. Hence for transmitting data across networks, Switching Techniques are used. These are:  Circuit Switching  Message Switching  Packet Switching
  • 20. Circuit Switching
  • 21. Message Switching
  • 22. Packet Switching
  • 23. Transmission Media • Transmission media carries the information or data from sender to receiver. When choosing the transmission media, the factors to be considered are:  Transmission Rate  Distances  Cost and Ease of Installation  Resistance to Environmental Conditions  Transmission Media can be generally classified as:  Wired or Guided Media or Bound Transmission Media: like Copper and Fiber cable  Wireless or Unguided Media or Unbound Transmission Media: like Wireless Radio Transmissions
  • 24. Wired Transmission Media
  • 25. Twisted Pair Cable • They are of two types ▫ Voice Grade Medium (VGM) ▫ Data Grade Medium (DGM) • They all have two things in common: ▫ The wires come in pairs. ▫ The pair of wires are twisted around each other. • The twisting of wires reduces crosstalk.
  • 26. Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable Shielded Twisted Pair Cable
  • 27. Coaxial Cable
  • 28. Thicknet Coaxial Cable Thinnet Coaxial Cable
  • 29. Optical Fiber
  • 30. Summing Up the Guided Transmission Media…
  • 31. Wireless/ Unguided Transmission Media
  • 32. Radio Waves • Any radio setup has two parts: ▫ Transmitter: encodes and transmits ▫ Receiver: receives and decodes
  • 33. Satellite Microwave
  • 34. Terrestrial Microwave
  • 35. Infrared (IR)
  • 36. Network Hardware Devices
  • 37. Modem (Modulator Demodulator) External MODEM Internal MODEM
  • 38. RJ-45
  • 39. Network Interface Card Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC) with RJ-45 slot (TOP), AUI slot (MIDDLE) and BNC slot (BOTTOM)
  • 40. Hub • Are of two types: ▫ Passive: Allow the signal to pass from one computer to another without any change. ▫ Active: Electrically amplify the signal as it moves from one connected device to another. Active concentrators are used like repeaters to extend the length of a network.
  • 41. Switch
  • 42. Repeater Are of two Types: Amplifier: It merely amplifies all incoming signals over the network. However it amplifies both the signal and any concurrent noise. Signal Repeater: It collects the inbound packet and then retransmits the packet as if it were starting from the source station.
  • 43. Bridge
  • 44. Router
  • 45. Gateway
  • 46. Thank You Shubham Mehta A2305213211 3CSE3’Y’
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