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NOSTOI INDIGENOUS CULTURE, MIGRATION + INTEGRATION IN THE AEGEAN ISLANDS + WESTERN ANATOLIA DURING THE LATE BRONZE + EARLY IRON AGES Koç University Press: 58 Archaeology NOSTOI: INDIGENOUS CULTURE, MIGRATION + INTEGRATION IN THE AEGEAN ISLANDS + WESTERN ANATOLIA DURING THE LATE BRONZE + EARLY IRON AGES Edited by Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis, Çiğdem Maner, Konstantinos Kopanias Project editor: Defne Karakaya Proofreader: Kate Mottolla Page design: Sinan Kılıç Cover design: Gökçen Ergüven Inside cover and section illustrations: Suzan Aral Printed by (certificate no: 13779) Sanayi Mah. Libadiye Sok. No: 3 4. Levent İstanbul, Turkey P: Koç University Press, st print: Istanbul, May 2015 Koç University Press (certificate no: 18318) Istiklal Caddesi No: 181 Istanbul, Turkey P: Koç University Suna Kıraç Library Cataloging in Publication Data Nostoi: indigenous culture, migration + integration in the Aegean Islands + Western Anatolia during the late bronze +early iron ages / Edited by Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis, Çiğdem Maner, Konstantinos Kopanias pages ; 16.5 x 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN Turkey, Western. 2. Aegean Sea Region--Antiquities. 3. Bronze age--aegean Sea Region. 4. Historic sites--aegean Sea Region. 5. Excavations (Archaeology)--Aegean Sea Region. 6. Aegean Sea Region--History. 7. Historic sites--turkey. 8. Turkey--Antiquities. 9. Turkey--Civilization. I. Stampolidēs, Nikolaos Chr. II. Maner, Çiğdem. III. Kopanias, Konstantions. DF261.A177 N NOSTOI INDIGENOUS CULTURE, MIGRATION + INTEGRATION IN THE AEGEAN ISLANDS + WESTERN ANATOLIA DURING THE LATE BRONZE + EARLY IRON AGES Edited by Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis Çiğdem Maner Konstantinos Kopanias Contents Introduction 11 Part 1: GENERAL 1 The Political Geography of Arzawa (Western Anatolia) 15 J. DAVID HAWKINS 2 The East Aegean-West Anatolian Interface in the 12th Century BC: Some Aspects Arising from the Mycenaean Pottery 37 PENELOPE A. MOUNTJOY 3 Between the Aegeans and the Hittites: Western Anatolia in the 2nd Millennium BC 81 PETER PAVÚK 4 Settlement Patterns and Socio-Political Landscape of Western Anatolian in the Middle and Late Bronze Age: A Geoarchaeological View 115 RALF BECKS 5 The History of the Arzawan State during the Hittite Period 131 METIN ALPARSLAN Part 2: MIGRATION 6 Migrations in Anatolian Narrative Traditions 145 MARY R. BACHVAROVA 7 Migration and Integration at Troy from the End of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age 185 CAROLYN CHABOT ASLAN PAVOL HNILA 8 The Mushki/Phrygian Problem from the Near Eastern Point of View 211 KONSTANTINOS KOPANIAS 9 Ionian Migration: Certainties and Underlying Uncertainties 227 FLORENTIA FRAGKOPOULOU 10 Violence and the Ionian Migration: Representation and Reality 239 NAOÍSE MAC SWEENEY Part 3A: FIELDWORK: AEGEAN 11 Bridging North and South: The Dodecanese Islands and the Eastern Insular Arc between Crete and Anatolia during the Late Bronze Age 263 FANI K. SEROGLOU DIMITRIS SFAKIANAKIS 12 The Mycenaeans in the Southeast Aegean Revisited: An Inter-Regional Comparison 289 JACOB EERBEEK 13 The Koan Tradition during the Mycenaean Age: A Contextual and Functional Analysis of Local Ceramics from the Serraglio, Eleona, and Langada 311 SALVATORE VITALE ARIANNA TRECARICHI 14 The Cyclades and the Dodecanese during the Post Palatial Period: Heterogeneous Developments of a Homogeneous Culture 337 ANDREAS VLACHOPOULOS MERCOURIOS GEORGIADIS 15 Mycenaeanization on Melos: A View from the Phylakopi Pantries 369 JASON W. EARLE 16 Minoanisation, Acculturation, Hybridisation: The Evidence of the Minoan Presence in the North East Aegean between the Middle and Late Bronze Age 387 LUCA GIRELLA PETER PAVÚK 17 Greek Ethnics in ηνος and the Name of Mytilene 421 ALEXANDER DALE 18 Hephaestia: New Data on the Mycenaean Presence on Lemnos during the Late Bronze Age 445 LUIGI COLUCCIA 19 The Indigenous Culture of Hephaestia (Lemnos) at the beginning of the Iron Age: Ancient Sources, Mythical Tradition, and Archaeological Data 461 LAURA DANILE Part 3B: FIELDWORK: ANATOLIA 20 A Monumental Middle Bronze Age Apsidal Building at Alalakh 485 K. ASLIHAN YENER 21 Kizzuwatna in the Bronze Age and in Later Periods: Continuity and/or Discontinuity? 499 REMZİ YAĞCI 22 Late Bronze Early Iron Age Painted Pottery from the Northeast Mediterranean Settlements 517 ELİF ÜNLÜ 23 Notes on Cultural Interaction in Northwest Pisidia in the Iron Age 531 BİLGE HÜRMÜZLÜ PAUL IVERSEN 24 Lycia Before Lycians: The Elusive Second Millennium BC in Southwest Turkey and the Çaltılar Archaeological Project 539 NICOLETTA MOMIGLIANO BELGIN AKSOY 25 Late Bronze Age Miletus: The Anatolian Face 557 IVONNE KAISER JULIEN ZURBACH 26 Geometric Miletus 581 MICHAEL KRUMME 27 Çeşme Bağlararası: A Western Anatolian Harbour Settlement at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age 593 VASIF ŞAHOĞLU 28 Bademgediği Tepe (Puranda) Near Metropolis 609 RECEP MERIÇ ALİ KAZIM ÖZ 29 Çine Tepecik: New Contributions on Late Bronze Age Cultures in Western Anatolia 627 SEVİNÇ GÜNEL 30 Liman Tepe during the Late Bronze Age 647 SILA MANGALOĞLU VOTRUBA Part 4: TRADE 31 Profit Oriented Traders in the Aegean and Anatolia in the 2nd Millennium BC: Inter-Cultural Concepts of Measurement and Value 671 ANNA MICHAILIDOU 32 Study of Imports in Late Bronze Age Anatolia: Identification, Definition, Chronological, and Spatial Analysis 693 EKİN KOZAL Part 5: CULT, SOCIAL, AND INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS 33 Songs by Land and Sea Descending: Anatolian and Aegean Poetic Traditions 709 ANNETTE TEFFETELLER 34 Arzawan Rituals and Greek Religion 737 ALICE MOUTON IAN RUTHERFORD 35 The Aegean Type Sword Found at Hattuša and the Written Sources about the Exchange of Technology at the Late Bronze Age 749 KONSTANTINOS GIANNAKOS 36 From Western to Eastern Anatolia: Reconsidering the Aegean Presence in the Peripheries of the Hittite World 767 GIOIA ZENONI 37 Against the Identification of Karkiša with Carians 791 ZSOLT SIMON 38 The Ionian Migration and Ceramic Dynamics in Ionia at the End of the Second Millennium BC: Some Preliminary Thoughts 811 RIK VAESSEN 39 When East Meets West: The Social Identity of Western Anatolia 835 ÇİĞDEM MANER 40 Cross-Cultural Interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early Iron Age: A View from Seal Engraving, with Special Reference to the Lyre-Player Group 849 MANOLIS MIKRAKIS 41 At the Crossroads: Dress and Body Ornaments in the Northeastern Aegean 871 MAGDA PIENIĄŻEK 42 Something Old, Something New: Non local Brides as Catalysts for Cultural Exchange at Ayia Irini, Kea? 889 EVI GOROGIANNI JOANNE CUTLER RODNEY D.FITZSIMONS 43 Klazomenaeans of Three Continents: Emphasis on the 7th c. BC 923 ANAGNOSTIS PAN. AGELARAKIS Editors 983 Contributors 985 Index 989 Minoanisation, Acculturation, Hybridisation: the Evidence of the Minoan Presence Part 3A Chapter 16 in the North East Aegean between the Middle and Late Bronze Age LUCA GIRELLA PETER PAVÚK Abstract The identification of Minoan presence in the Eastern Aegean increased in the recent years thanks to accumulation of fresh bits of archaeological information. The evidence encouraged scholars to formulate several interpretive models encompassing different frameworks often unified under the recently label of Minoanisation. More recently, it has been proposed to investigate this phenomenon in a more multivariate terms (Broodbank 2004), as well as to evaluate the possibility that intraregional contacts would have fostered the assimilation of Minoan cultural traits with the result of building a more globalized setting defined as new environment (Davis Gorogianni 2008). The paper will discuss the evidence from the NE Aegean (with special regards to the islands and Troy), less rich in Minoan cultural traits compared to the southern Aegean, but still very stimulating. Particular attention will be paid to Mikro Vouni (Samothrace), thanks to an ongoing program focused on publishing the ceramic material. The evidence collected will allow us to explore the different degrees of cultural contacts with Minoan world and to investigate the validity of other interpretative models, such as the acculturation and hybridisation. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank Dimitris Matsas for inviting them to study and publish the MBA material from Mikro Vouni, and to the IN- STAP for the generous support of the project over the years. A special thanks is also due to Christos Boulotis for numerous discussions on the site of Koukonisi. In addition, Peter Pavúk would like to thank the British School at Athens for granting permission to study and republish the 2nd millennium finds from Thermi and Emporio and the K Ephoria for facilitating the study. The text of this paper was prepared partly while holding a post doctoral fellowship of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at the University of Heidelberg, and finished with the help of Slovak Grant Agency, Project VEGA 1/0331/11. The English has kindly been corrected by Emily Egan and Natalie Abell. Fieldwork 387 388 Luca Girella Peter Pavúk The paper aims to address the varying perspectives upon, and problems related to the Minoan presence in the northeast Aegean. This work, which naturally builds upon previous scholarship, is enriched by our field and museum research on Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios, and at Troy, and received further impetus through working on publication of the Middle and early LBA pottery from the site of Mikró Vouní on Samothrace. The Debate on Minoanisation The majority of the Southern Aegean islands, some of the Northern ones, and parts of the adjacent mainland coast on both sides of the Aegean, witnessed during the MBA and in the beginning of the LBA, a cultural process, which has come to be termed Minoanisation; a process, wherein many sites across Aegean started sharing a whole set of specific cultural traits, individually or in combination, within the context of a growing scale of interaction. 1 Since many of these traits originate on Crete, the island itself, and especially its palatial site of Knossos, were considered a driving force behind such a process. The debate on the Minoan presence outside Crete is an old one that started already with Arthur Evans but received a particular impulse during the 1980s, oscillating over the years between various interpretative models, ranging from forceful colonisation to a more active role of the local cultures. 2 The first model tried to identify Cretan colonial activity all over Aegean: with a clear colonialist background and a top down approach. 3 When not directly speaking of colonisation, one spoke of acculturation, a term open to many interpretations, 4 but one which usually assumed that less complex societies tend to lose their cultural traits once their members become acculturated to dominant society s structures. However, both concepts basically implied a rather passive role of the receiving population. On the other hand, a second group of papers, represented mainly by the analyses conducted by Jack Davis and Elizabeth Schofield on the Cyclades, has tried to go beyond the passive acculturation model and focused on the active role of local communities, and principally on the cumulative increase of Minoan traits through the time. 5 Such perspectives have recently addressed how areas interacting with Crete in the Neopalatial period functioned as new 1 Broodbank Evans 1935, 283, 754 5; Furumark 1950; Rutter and Rutter 1976; Branigan 1981; 1984; Cherry 1981; Davis 1979, 1980; 1984; Schofield 1984; Wiener Branigan 1981; 1984; Niemeier 1998; Attoura Davis 1979; 1980; 1984; Schofield 1984. Minoanisation, Acculturation, Hybridisation 389 environments, a sort of more globalized setting in which competition between communities or groups within communities encouraged emulation of Minoan material and non material culture. 6 New approaches to analysis of technologies, production traditions and their transmission, have explored yet other paths, especially in terms of emerging elites. 7 The introduction of potter s wheel at Phylakopi on Melos, for instance, is a valuable case study investigated by Ina Berg to demonstrate how it was only its introduction that permitted participation in Minoan style drinking and feasting habits by increasing the output of drinking vessels, mostly conical cups. This cultural dimension of technology has turned out to be quite useful to explore affiliation networks in the Cyclades at the very end of MBA. Carl Knappett and Irini Nikolakopoulou have noted that local production and imitation of Cretan shapes and decorations during Middle Cycladic III at Akrotiri (Thera) are very selective and fully integrated with local traditions. Therefore, they argue that Akrotiri is gradually culturally colonialized, without postulating colonists per se. A significant contribution to the study of interaction among islands came also from scientific analyses. 8 Based mostly on petrography, these contributions have given a new direction to the study on material culture, most clearly ceramic products, moving from the stylistic analysis (not always trustable alone) to the characterisation of their substance. Finally, past and recent studies made also use of a network analysis, focusing mainly on the southern Aegean, to explain the growth of certain sites in terms of their interaction. 9 The Problem of the Northeastern Aegean The aforementioned network analysis has not been applied to the northern Aegean so far. Once it does, it will have to take into consideration not only the interaction between the individual islands, but also within them, and between the islands and the littoral mainland. Unlike the southern Aegean, with proper archipelagos such as Cyclades and Dodecanese, the northern Aegean is geographically composed of 6 Davis and Gorogianni 2008, 379. See also Vitale and Hancock Vitale (2010) for similar ideas concerning the SW Aegean. 7 Berg 2007a; 2007b; Knappett and Nikolakopoulou 2005; But even this does not seem to be the final word, since the term colonisation is still being declined by some researchers: Niemeier 2009, Marthari 1993; Marthari et al. 1990; Kiriatzi 2003; Marketou et al. 2006; Broodbank and Kiriatzi 2007; Knappett et al Already Davis (1979) and Berg (1999), although the explanatory model does not make use of nodes and links. Knappett et al 390 Luca Girella Peter Pavúk few big islands, most of them having several contemporary settlements (Fig. 1). 10 Noteworthy is also the distance from the miniature continent of Crete and the relative vicinity of coastal Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thracia, as well as their Balkan background. As for the Minoan influence on Eastern Aegean, two explanatory models have been developed, each placing the NE Aegean in a subordinate role. Within the first one, the already existing colonial model was enriched through an attempt at measuring the grade of Minoanisation by means of check lists, used for the first time at Miletus by Wolf Dietrich Niemeier. 11 Such an approach implies that higher scores for a given site or region indicate more complex Minoanisation, linked almost by definition to the actual presence of Minoan people. A similar checklist applied by Marta Guzowska to the Northern Aegean, led her to conclude that the identified behavioural patterns create a strong argument for at least short lived Minoan settlement somewhere in the area. 12 We feel a bit uneasy about this approach, since both studies produced a rather heterogeneous picture. Only few sites showed a high score, with most showing one or two Minoan traits. But how do we explain such variation in the archaeological record? Can it be understood as representing a site s hierarchical position within a given network? More importantly, such variability must be measured also in time and space, in order to take account of more complex scenarios involving movements of people and networks of power. To use an example: are we getting a true picture through the tale of conical cups? Why should the superabundance of this type of vessel be automatically considered the better evidence for the actual presence of significant numbers of Minoans or descendant of Minoans, 13 or to be essential to the well being of any Minoan society? 14 The second model was suggested by Penelope Mountjoy. Using largely the occurrence of Mycenaean decorated pottery, she defined the so called Upper and Lower Interface. 15 Whereas the Lower interface is characterised by a high proportion of Mycenaean pottery, the Upper Interface consists largely of local wares. This model viewed Mycenaean culture in the eastern Aegean as a peculiar entity, producing a hybrid culture by gradually adopting Mycenaean burial customs and pottery. Subsequent research on local cultures has shown that Mountjoy managed, in fact, to grasp a much broader phenomenon, and there was definitely a 10 On the concepts and meanings of Greek island worlds, see Kopaka Niemeier Guzowska 2002, Wiener Coldstream and Huxley 1972, Mountjoy 1998. Minoanisation, Acculturation, Hybridisation 391 Fig. 1 Map of the NE Aegean with sites discussed in the text. 392 Luca Girella Peter Pavúk cultural border somewhere around Ephesos. 16 She spoke mainly of acculturation, as opposed to direct colonisation, but also introduced the term hybrid, which we will discuss in a moment. From Minoanisation to Acculturation and Hybridisation The process of acculturation, however, often implies a distinct unidirectional and top down replacement of material traits. The definition of the term acculturation is far from being uniform but the one dimensional characterization of the interaction between dominant and less complex societies, and especially the passive role of the receiving side, seems to prevail. For this reason, it is important to register isolated voices, such as Michael Dietler, who has stressed the importance of the consumption context, which will play a role in our discussion. 17 Regarding the role of foreign objects, in particular, Dietler shifts the attention from their society of origin to the new context of consumption, when objects from site A gain a different meaning in site B. The transformative process of this operation is the basic ingredient of a parallel branch of research, one that explores the effects of cultural and social mixture. The need to stress the more active role of the receiving culture has led proponents of post colonial theory to coin a whole range of terms such as creolisation, pidginisation or hybridisation, which have become prominent in material culture studies. 18 Although hybridisation is basically derived from biological and evolutionary debates, it has also been applied to archaeology. 19 The concept implies creation of new trans cultural forms after the interaction of two or more cultures. As a material, cultural, or social mixture, hybridisation does not fuse colonial and indigenous cultures, but represents a transformative process whereby new creations (either material or social) gain their own coherence. As Robert Young noted, hybridity works in different ways at the same time, according to the cultural, economic, and political demands of specific situations. It involves processes of interaction that create new social spaces to which new meanings are given. 20 This concept, and its application to prehistoric societies, also has its limits, such as defining the relationship between the object itself and its meaning. 21 Following this vein, the study of 16 For Ephesos see Kerschner 2006, 367 8, Büyükkolancı 2007, as well as Pavúk in this volume. For Kaystros valley in the Ephesos hinterland, see Schachner and Meriç 2000, as well as Meriç Dietler Hannerz 1987; Burke Antonaccio 2003; Voskos and Knapp 2008; Stockhammer Young 2003, Thomas 1991, 7 34. Minoanisation, Acculturation, Hybridisation 393 Nicholas Thomas on the introduction of European material into tribal societies of Pacific is a remarkable example on how, when dealing with exchange, manipulation and transformation of objects
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