New Science Products from APH Monday, April 12, :00-4:00 PM Breakout Session 4 Silverrain Room

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2017 POSB Math and Science Institute Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired Austin, Texas April 3-5, 2017 New Science Products from APH Monday, April 12, :00-4:00 PM Breakout Session 4 Silverrain
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2017 POSB Math and Science Institute Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired Austin, Texas April 3-5, 2017 New Science Products from APH Monday, April 12, :00-4:00 PM Breakout Session 4 Silverrain Room Presented by Dr. Rosanne Hoffman, STEM Project Leader, American Printing House for the Blind Please do not forget to get the session code at the end of this session and use this code when you complete your evaluation. Slide 1 Rosanne Hoffmann STEM Project Leader American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. POSB 2017 Slide 2 New Science Products from APH Protein Synthesis Kit Sister to DNA-RNA Kit SALS Standalone device Android / ios app with BLE connected probe Build-A-Cell (time permitting) Tangible model Animal, plant, bacterial cells Slide 3 DNA-RNA Kit (available since 2013) Interactive set of nucleotides Color-coded Tactile markers Braille & print letters 32 DNA subunits & 32 RNA subunits - some arranged in stacks; four connected to make a single strand of RNA; eight connected to form a double strand of DNA, four base pairs long POSB Math & Science Institute 1 Slide 4 All nucleotides consist of a sugar, phosphate, & base Nucleotides have directionality Sugar-phosphate base Photos of the four different DNA nucleotides identified by shape, texture, print capital letter, and corresponding single braille cell: white A for Adenine; brown T for Thymine; light blue G for Guanine; yellow C for Cytosine POSB Math & Science Institute 2 Slide 5 Single strand of DNA Add nucleotides to the free sugar end of the strand Photo 1 on left: two DNA nucleotides with the sugar of Cytosine lined up with the phosphate of Guanine, but not linked together. Photo 2 on right: four DNA nucleotides linked vertically via the sugar of one to the phosphate of the next in the following order: Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine, Thymine and forming a single vertical strand of DNA nucleotides POSB Math & Science Institute 3 Slide 6 Base pairing rules for DNA C only fits with G G only fits with C A only fits with T T only fits with A Photo 1 on left: Cytosine linked to Guanine and Guanine linked to Cytosine. Photo 2 on right: Adenine linked to Thymine and Thymine linked to Adenine POSB Math & Science Institute 4 Slide 7 Double-stranded DNA Photo 1 on left: A single strand of DNA consisting of the following four vertically connected nucleotides: Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, and Thymine. Photo 2 left of center: The same single strand of DNA in photo 1 with an Adenine base-paired to Thymine, showing the growing double strand. Photo 3 right of center: The same growing double strand of DNA as in photo 2 with a Thymine base-paired to the Adenine. Photo 4 on right: A double strand of DNA showing the original single strand base-paired to complementary nucleotides from top to bottom: Guanine and Cytosine, Cytosine and Guanine, Adenine and Thymine, and Thymine and Adenine POSB Math & Science Institute 5 Slide 8 Semiconservative DNA replication Two template strands Photo 1 on upper left: A double strand of DNA comprising four base pairs: Guanine and Cytosine, Cytosine and Guanine, Adenine and Thymine, and Thymine and Adenine. An arrow points to the next photo. Photo 2 on top right: Two hands separate the double DNA strand between the base pairs forming two template strands. An arrow points to the next slide. Photo 3 on bottom right: The two template strands are shown separated with a gap between them. The left vertically oriented strand consists of Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, and Thymine and the right vertically oriented strand consists of Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, and Adenine, both from top to bottom POSB Math & Science Institute 6 Slide 9 Start adding nucleotides to the free sugar side Semiconservative DNA replication Photo 1 upper left: two growing double strands of DNA: on the left side of the photo a vertically oriented strand comprising unpaired Guanine, Cytosine, and Adenine connected to Thymine base-paired with Adenine, and on the right side of the photo a vertically oriented strand with Guanine base-paired with Cytosine at the top connected to unpaired Guanine, Thymine, and Adenine (moving from top to bottom of each vertical strand). Photo 2 on upper right: the two DNA double strands continue to grow: the left strand comprises from top to bottom unpaired Guanine and Cytosine connected to Adenine base paired to Thymine and Thymine base paired to Adenine. The right strand comprises from top to bottom Cytosine base paired with Guanine, Guanine base paired with Cytosine and connected to unpaired Thymine and Adenine. Photo 3 on bottom right: Two complete double strands of DNA with the following base pairings: Guanine and Cytosine, Cytosine and Guanine, Adenine and Thymine, and Thymine and Adenine from top to bottom POSB Math & Science Institute 7 Slide 10 Gene expression DNA RNA Protein DNA RNA o Transcription RNA Protein o Translation Slide 11 DNA template (left-hand strand) Photo 1 on left: A vertically oriented double strand of DNA with the following base pairs: three Guanine and Cytosine, Cytosine and Guanine, Adenine and Thymine, and Thymine and Adenine. Photo 2 on right: Two hands separate the same double strand of DNA in Photo 1 between the base pairs POSB Math & Science Institute 8 Slide 12 DNA & RNA nucleotides are different Ribose (not Deoxyribose) o Raised circle = tactile indicator o White foam = visual indicator Photo 1 on left: A sequence of DNA nucleotides base-paired with RNA nucleotides: DNA Guanine linked to RNA Cytosine and DNA Cytosine linked to RNA Guanine. An arrow points to the tactile markers on RNA nucleotides indicating the sugar is Ribose and not Deoxyribose present in DNA. An arrow points to the tactile indicator (raised circle) on RNA cytosine which stands for ribose, present in RNA, but not DNA. Uracil (not Thymine) o T pairs with A o A pairs with U Photo Description Photo 2 on right: A sequence of DNA nucleotides base-paired with RNA nucleotides: DNA Adenine linked to RNA Uracil, and DNA Thymine linked to RNA Adenine. An arrow points to the RNA Uracil nucleotide which is not present in DNA POSB Math & Science Institute 9 Slide 13 DNA template strand Read from sugar to phosphate Transcription of complementary mrna strand Photo 1 at top: A sequence of DNA nucleotides oriented horizontally, the first three of which are base-paired with RNA nucleotides: DNA Thymine and RNA Adenine, DNA Adenine and RNA Uracil, DNA Cytosine and RNA Guanine; the DNA Cytosine is linked to three unpaired DNA Guanines. Photo 2 in middle: A sequence of DNA nucleotides oriented horizontally and base-paired with RNA nucleotides: DNA Thymine and RNA Adenine, DNA Adenine and RNA Uracil, DNA Cytosine and RNA Guanine, three DNA Guanines paired with three RNA Cytosines. Photo 3 at bottom: the sequence of single stranded messenger RNA separated from the DNA Template oriented horizontally: RNA Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and three Cytosines POSB Math & Science Institute 10 Slide 14 mrna consists of codons: Read in one direction Phosphate side to sugar side AUG and CCC Photo at the bottom of the slide: the same single stranded RNA sequence oriented horizontally from the previous slide: RNA Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and three Cytosines. Slide 15 Decode mrna codons Genetic Code Identifies amino acids o Each amino acid has at least one RNA codon Assemble amino acids in correct order DNA RNA Protein o Translation 2017 POSB Math & Science Institute 11 Slide 16 Genetic code interprets codons This slide shows a table depicting the genetic code and the 20 amino acids for which it codes. All 64 three-letter combinations (codons) of the RNA nucleotides Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, and Guanine are matched with the amino acids for which they code. Arrows point to two codons and the amino acids for which they code: AUG codes for Methionine; and CCC codes for Proline POSB Math & Science Institute 12 Slide 17 Genetic Code Large Print Braille (Available from APH - 10 sets for $15.00) This photo shows the APH product Genetic Code Large Print Braille. It consists of four large print and braille sheets, one sheet for each RNA nucleotide: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil. All codons that start with each of these nucleotides are listed on each page respectively along with the amino acids for which they code Slide 18 How are proteins made from mrna? Translation A codon translator is needed transfer RNA (trna) trna consists of RNA, anticodon, & corresponding amino acid mrna codons base-pair with anticodons in trna o mrna codon AGA o trna anticodon UCU Coordinated by ribosome & enzymes in the cell 2017 POSB Math & Science Institute 13 Slide 19 Translation - Protein Synthesis Kit This diagram is an illustration that shows the process of messenger RNA translation to a sequence of amino acids it is a more compact diagram and does not include subunits of the DNA-RNA Kit or the Protein Synthesis Kit. A strand of messenger RNA arises from a cell nucleus in the top part of the diagram. In the bottom part of the diagram, the same messenger RNA strand is associated with a ribosome and several transfer RNA molecules with attached amino acids. The anticodon part of each transfer RNA molecule is matched to the corresponding messenger RNA codon in order to bring the correct amino acid in the proper sequence. For example, the AUG codon in the messenger RNA is matched to the UAC transfer RNA anticodon carrying a methionine amino acid. A UUC messenger RNA codon follows this which is matched to the AAG transfer RNA anticodon carrying phenylalanine to be linked to methionine. The AAA messenger RNA codon is ready to be matched with the UUU transfer RNA anticodon bringing Lysine to be linked to phenylalanine. Slide 20 The Protein Synthesis Kit includes All twenty amino acids Transfer RNA nucleotide subunits o Translates mrna & delivers amino acid Genetic Code Large Print Braille Use with DNA-RNA Kit 2017 POSB Math & Science Institute 14 Slide 21 Messenger RNA (mrna) (Read from phosphate end to sugar end) Transfer RNA (trna) & Release factor Photo 1 at top: A single strand of messenger RNA oriented horizontally and consisting of the following nucleotides: AUGCCCUGA reading from the free phosphate to the free sugar end. Photo 2 at bottom: The same strand of messenger RNA oriented horizontally is aligned with but not connected to transfer RNA subunits carrying amino acids. Reading from the free phosphate side of the messenger RNA strand, the messenger RNA codon AUG aligns with transfer RNA anticodon UAC-Methionine; messenger RNA codon CCC aligns with transfer RNA anticodon GGG-Proline; and messenger RNA codon UGA aligns with a Stop Release factor POSB Math & Science Institute 15 Slide 22 mrna attached to trna Linked amino acids Photo 1 at the top: The same sequence of messenger RNA and transfer RNA as described in the previous slide, but codons of messenger RNA are linked to the anticodons of transfer RNA, and the two amino acids, Methionine and Proline are linked together as well. The Stop Release factor has been removed. Photo 2 at the bottom: All Transfer RNA and Messenger RNA nucleotides have been removed leaving the two amino acids, Methionine linked to Proline POSB Math & Science Institute 16 Slide 23 STEM Corner APH News Explainer videos How to use the DNA Twist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwj3krpvl2q DNA-RNA Kit Video 1 introduces the DNA-RNA Kit and shows how to make single and double strands of DNA: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6rek5yfp8a DNA-RNA Kit Video 2 describes how one double strand of DNA becomes two: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kgmkzfgfzxi More videos to come Slide 24 Submersible Audible Light Sensor (SALS) Original design standalone device Now ios and Android App o BLE connected light detecting probe o Continuous tone or Hertz o Save tones o Toggle between current and saved tone o Variable tone range Slide 25 Build-A-Cell Templates for three cell types o Bacterial o Animal o Plant Array of organelles Build a cell type with the correct organelles Great for teaching & assessment 2017 POSB Math & Science Institute 17 Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired Outreach Programs Figure 1 TSBVI logo. Figure 2 IDEAs that Work logo and OSEP disclaimer POSB Math & Science Institute 18
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