Near- and Onshore Tsunami Effects: Ongoing and Planned Research in Sri Lanka

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Near- and Onshore Tsunami Effects: Ongoing and Planned Research in Sri Lanka Janaka Wijetunge Faculty of Engineering University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Landslides -
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Near- and Onshore Tsunami Effects: Ongoing and Planned Research in Sri Lanka Janaka Wijetunge Faculty of Engineering University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Landslides - 29 Floods - 6 No. of Deaths Deaths due to Natural Disasters in Sri Lanka Year Landslides - 15 Floods - 4 Landslides - 5 Floods - 1 Source: Dept. of Social Services, Sri Lanka Tsunami Disaster in Sri Lanka Human Aspects Death toll: 35,322 Injured: 21,441 Homeless: 516,150 No. of Houses Damaged - 89,000 Destruction Coastal Settlements No. of Lost Livelihoods 150,000 Destruction Coastal Settlements Destruction Roads, Railways & Bridges 800 km of national and 1500 km of provincial & local government roads damaged Destruction Roads, Railways & Bridges Sections of track, bridges, communication systems, buildings and some rolling stock were severely damaged on the 160 km long southern line. Destruction Fisheries Sector 75% of the country s fishing fleet destroyed Destruction Tourism related infrastructure Where Yala Safari Beach Hotel was. Large hotels: 53 out of 242 Small hotels: 248 Nilawali Beach Hotel Post-tsunami How wide? Government of Sri Lanka declared m wide buffer zones Living with Tsunami. An Integrated Strategy for Disaster Reduction on Coasts consisting of: In General: Education/Awareness Early Warning Systems & Evacuation Hazard/ Risk Mapping Legislative Initiatives + But, at specific locations, where such non-structural measures alone would not be sufficient, for example, where critical facilities are to be located or to protect commercially important locations such as large coastal cities, we may have to include some structural measures as well: - Tsunami Breakwaters, - Tsunami Walls/Dikes, and - Other energy dissipation measures Post-Tsunami Revise/ Update Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (1990). Four priority areas in ICZM Plan: Erosion management and land use, Cessation of coral mining and control of sand mining, Prevention of loss and degradation of coastal natural habitats, Protection of scenic areas and cultural, religious and historical sites. Add Protection against coastal natural hazards due to tsunamis & storm surges ICZM with necessary revisions is a good tool because it can control development patterns, and combine coastal natural hazards mitigation with natural resource conservation. Some of the tsunami related research/projects being carried out in Sri Lanka Numerical modeling of tsunami propagation and inundation Planning and design of countermeasures against tsunami and other coastal hazards Investigating the performance of natural barriers against wave attack simulation of coral reefs Effect of the 2004 tsunami on the nearshore coastal morphology National and local level tsunami warning systems Impact of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka Paleotsunami deposits in coastal lagoons Development of disaster resistant build environments; tsunami resilient/resistant structures; structural resistance against sliding, overturning and scouring caused by tsunamis Role of coastal vegetation in tsunami energy dissipation Effect of surface roughness on tsunami run-up Living with Tsunami. An Integrated Strategy for Disaster Reduction on Coasts consisting of: In General: Education/Awareness Early Warning Systems & Evacuation Hazard/ Risk Mapping Legislative Initiatives + But, at specific locations, where such non-structural measures alone would not be sufficient, for example, where critical facilities are located or for commercially important locations such as large coastal cities, we may have to include some structural measures as well: - Tsunami Breakwaters, - Tsunami Walls/Dikes, and - Other energy dissipation measures Capacity Building in Disaster Risk Management Master s Degree Programme in Disaster Management Conducted jointly by the Faculty of Engineering and the Postgraduate Institute of Science (PGIS) of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Collaborating Institutions: Emergency Management, Australia (EMA); Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC), Thailand; ITC, The Netherlands;, Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, USA Tsunami Hazard Mapping for the Coastal Belt of Sri Lanka Inundation Distance - How far inland? Kalutara ~400m Inundation Limit ~1000m Detailed Inundation Measurements: Coastal Sectors Covered Detailed inundation measurements at m intervals How high and How far Inland? East Coast Elevation below 10 m Nilaveli Trincomalee Vakarai Kalkudah Akkaraipattu Potuvil Panama Batticaloa E (m) Inundation Distance (m) Tsunami Height (m) Population Density South Coast Yala Bundala Galle Hambantota Matara Tangalle Elevation below 10 m Inundation Distance (m) Inundation Distance (m) Tsunami Height (m) 5 10 Tsunami Height (m) Population Density Population Density West Coast Elevation below 10 m Negombo Colombo N (m) Inundation Tsunami Distance Height (m) Tsunami Height (m) Inundation Distance (m) (b) (a) Moratuwa Wadduwa Kalutara Beruwala Bentota Balapitiya Ambalangoda Akurala Peraliya Galle (b) Inundation Tsunami Distance Height (m) Tsunami Height (m) Inundation Distance (m) Kalutara Beruwala Bentota Balapitiya Ambalangoda Akurala Peraliya Galle Tsunami Inundation Distance with Ground Slope Inundation Distance (m) y = x R 2 = Average Ground Slope Sand Dunes on the South & South East Coasts of Sri Lanka Shore-connected water bodies Extent of Tsunami Inundation Galle SRI LANKA Extent of Inundation City of Beruwala, West On the Coast West Coast HARBOUR ~ 3 km 175 m Development of Tsunami Hazard Zonation Maps for the Coastal Belt of Sri Lanka Tsunami hazards maps are developed for these five coastal cities severely affected by the tsunami in Sri Lanka Carried out by Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka in collaboration with Cornell University School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, and funded by Topo & Bathy Data for Modeling Topo Data: LIDAR DGM - Resolution: Horizontal = 1 m; Vertical 0.3 m DGM Bathy Data: - bare ground surface % of vegetation and manmade elevated features removed DSM - Elevation from the first-return LIDAR pulse - No segregation as to whether surface is man-made or natural UK Admiralty Charts Scale: 1:10,000; 1:25,000; 1:50,000; 1:300,000 Modelling Tsunami Inundation Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) The COMCOT tsunami model is a dynamically coupled combination of the following three components: a) source model which creates the initial water surface disturbance given the earthquake parameters, b) tsunami propagation from its origin to the nearshore coast, c) tsunami run-up and inundation with a moving boundary. Source, Propagation and Inundation Models Inundation Source Tsunami propagation It solves the linear/non-linear shallow-water equations. Layer 2: 250 m grid Nested Grids for COMCOT Model Layer 4:10 m grids Layer 3: 50 m grid Layer41: Galle Layer43: Hambantota Layer42: Matara Layer 1:Δx=Δy= min Source Model of Chen Ji Layer No. Grid Spacing Coordinate System Linear/ Non-linear Equations min (~1250 m) Spherical Linear min (~250 m) Spherical Linear 3 50 m Cartesian Linear 4 10 m Cartesian Non-Linear Preliminary Model Results: Extent of Inundation Matara Hambantota Galle No bottom friction Preliminary Model Results: Comparison with Field Measurements Area Inundated Model Results (No Bottom Friction) Field measurements of inundation Preliminary Model Results: Comparison with Field Measurements Saltern-3 Saltern-2 Saltern-1 Simulation of Roughness, Effect of Obstructions & Vegetation, etc?? LIDAR DGM: - bare ground surface % of vegetation and man-made elevated features removed City of Galle (part of) City map of roads, buildings, etc
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