MONGOLS. Floating Boundaries, Pastoralism and City Life in the Mongol Lands FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Edited by Ole Bruun and Li Narangoa - PDF

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MONGOLS FROM COUNTRY TO CITY Floating Boundaries, Pastoralism and City Life in the Mongol Lands Edited by Ole Bruun and Li Narangoa MONGOLS FROM COUNTRY TO CITY Nordic Institute of Asian Studies NIAS Studies
MONGOLS FROM COUNTRY TO CITY Floating Boundaries, Pastoralism and City Life in the Mongol Lands Edited by Ole Bruun and Li Narangoa MONGOLS FROM COUNTRY TO CITY Nordic Institute of Asian Studies NIAS Studies in Asian Topics 18. Asian Perceptions of Nature Ole Bruun and Arne Kalland (eds) 19. Imperial Policy and Southeast Asian Nationalism Hans Antlöv and Stein Tønnesson (eds) 20. The Village Concept in the Transformation of Rural Southeast Asia Mason C. Hoadley and Christer Gunnarsson (eds) 21. Identity in Asian Literature Lisbeth Littrup (ed.) 22. Mongolia in Transition Ole Bruun and Ole Odgaard (eds) 23. Asian Forms of the Nation Stein Tønnesson and Hans Antlöv (eds) 24. The Eternal Storyteller Vibeke Børdahl (ed.) 25. Japanese Influences and Presences in Asia Marie Söderberg and Ian Reader (eds) 26. Muslim Diversity Leif Manger (ed.) 27. Women and Households in Indonesia Juliette Koning, Marleen Nolten, Janet Rodenburg and Ratna Saptari (eds) 28. 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Beyond the Green Myth: Borneo s Hunter-Gatherers in the 21st Century Bernard Sellato and Peter Sercombe (eds) 38. Kinship and Food in Southeast Asia Monica Janowski and Fiona Kerlogue (eds) MONGOLS FROM COUNTRY TO CITY Floating Boundaries, Pastoralism and City Life in the Mongol Lands Edited by Ole Bruun and Li Narangoa Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Studies in Asian Topics, no. 34 First published in 2006 by NIAS Press Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Leifsgade 33, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark tel: (+45) fax: (+45) E mail: Website: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies 2006 All rights reserved. While copyright in the volume as a whole is vested in the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, copyright in the individual papers belongs to their authors. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Mongols from country to city : floating boundaries, pastoralism and city life in the Mongol lands. - (NIAS Studies in Asian Topics ; 34) 1. Social change - Mongolia 2. Nomads - Mongolia 3. Rural-urban migration - Mongolia 4. Mongolia - Social policy I. Bruun, Ole II. Narangoa, Li isbn Layout by Donald B. Wagner Produced by Bookchase and printed in China Contents Preface Li Narangoa and Ole Bruun vii Notes on Contributors ix 1. A New Moment in Mongol History: The Rise of the Cosmopolitan City Ole Bruun and Li Narangoa 1 2. The Rise of Cities in Nomadic Mongolia Alicia Campi Municipalization and Ethnopolitics in Inner Mongolia Uradyn E. Bulag Where is the Centre? The Spatial Distribution of Power in Post-Socialist Rural Mongolia Morten A. Pedersen Facing Gender Challenges in Post-Socialist Mongolia Ann Fenger Benwell The Rural and the Urban in Pastoral Mongolia David Sneath Nomadic Herders and the Urban Attraction Ole Bruun Namkhainyambuu and the Changes in the Herding Economy of Mongolia Mary and Morris Rossabi A Preliminary Study of Buddhism in Present-Day Mongolia Agata Bareja-Starzynska and Hanna Havnevik From Shamanist Healing to Scientific Medicine: Bonesetters in Inner Mongolia Li Narangoa and Li Altanjula Shamanism in Transition: From the Shadow to the Light Laetitia Merli Buddhism in Buryatia: Past and Present Tsymzhit Vanchikova Beyond the Soviet Houses of Culture: Rural Responses to Urban Cultural Policies in Contemporary Mongolia Peter K. Marsh 290 Index 305 v Preface Ole Bruun and Li Narangoa In this volume we tried to present the movement of Mongol people between country and city, and between periphery and centre, while at the same time examining the shift of Mongol identity between past and present, and between pastoralism and sedentary culture in Mongol lands during the last two centuries (the 20 th century in particular). What then are the Mongol lands? If we talk about Mongols and Mongolia today, many people would think that Mongols are those people found in the independent state of Mongolia, which is a landlocked territory wedged between China and Russia. However, there are many Mongols living outside this state of Mongolia that you may not find on a political map. There are more than 5 million Mongols living in China and in the Republics of Buryatia and Kalmykia in the Russian Federation. Their numbers indeed are altogether more than double the population of the state of Mongolia. Therefore, in order to talk about the rest of the Mongols, what we mean with the term Mongol lands is a territory broader than the territory of the state of Mongolia. Our main focus in the project is, however, the state of Mongolia and the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in China because not only ate there concentrated most Mongols in these two regions but also they have a common border and reflect each other s political and social changes. Their relation to each other provides much more interesting aspects to look at in terms of the changes in Mongol socio-political and cultural identity. We would like to thank NIAS in Copenhagen for supporting us throughout this project and especially for providing Li Narangoa with a one-month scholarship that enabled us to get together and to write the first draft of the introduction. We would also like to thank the Asia Committee of the European Science Foundation for providing generous financial assistance for initiating this project. The last but not least, we would like to thank the contributors to the volume for their patience and cooperation. vii Notes on Contributors Agata Bareja-Starzynska (PhD), Head of the Department of Turcology and Inner Asian Peoples at the Institute of Oriental Studies, University of Warsaw. Her recent publications include a Brief Study of the Mongolian Transmission of the Buddhist Treatise Ses bya rab gsal by Phags pa bla ma Blo gros rgyal mtshan, Tractata Tibetica et Mongolica. Festschrift für Klaus Sagaster zum 65. Geburtstag, Karenina Kollmar-Paulenz and Christien Peter (eds) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002, pp ) and (with Marek Mejor) Klasyczny jezyk tybetamski [Classical Tibetan Language] (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Dialog, 2002). Ann Benwell is a PhD candidate at the Institute of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, and is currently affiliated to the NGO, Gender Centre for Sustainable Development in Ulaanbaatar. Alicia Campi (PhD) was a diplomat with the US Department of State for 13 years serving in Asian posts. She is an active speaker on Mongolian issues and has authored over 40 book chapters and articles on contemporary Mongolian nomadism, Mongolian Chinese relations, US Mongolian relations, Mongolian Tibetan history, and Mongolian economic and security affairs. Recent publications include Mongolia in Northeast Asia The New Realities (Taipei 2004), Contemporary Mongolian Chinese Relations (Ulaanbaatar 2004), and The Foreign Donor and NGO Community s Policies toward Pastoral Nomadism in Mongolia in the Post-Socialist Era (Ulaanbaatar 2004). David Sneath (PhD) is the Director of the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at Cambridge University and a lecturer in Social Anthropology. His publications include Changing Inner Mongolia: Pastoral Mongolian Society and the Chinese State (Oxford University Press, 2000) and The End of Nomadism? Society, State and the Environment in Inner Asia (with Caroline Humphrey and David Sneath) (Duke University Press, 1999). ix x Mongols from Country to City Hanna Havnevik (PhD) is an associate professor at the Department of Culture Studies and Oriental Languages, University of Oslo. She is the author of Tibetan Buddhist Nuns: History, Cultural Norms and Social Reality (Oslo 1989) and The Life of Jetsun Lochen Rinpoche ( ) as Told in Her Autobiography (D.phil. dissertation, Oslo University 1999). One of her ongoing research projects is the revitalization of Buddhism in Mongolia after 1990 with Agata Bareja-Starzynska, University of Warsaw. Laetitia Merli (PhD) is a temporary lecturer at the Granada Centre for Visual Anthropology, University of Manchester, UK. She has carried out research on the revival of shamanism in post-socialist Mongolia. Her film Call for Grace about a shamanic centre in Ulaanbaatar has been screened in many different festivals and seminars. She recently published Chinggis Khan and the New Shamans (in Inner Asia, vol. 6, no. 1, 2004). Li Altanjula is a PhD candidate at Department of Anthropology, Chiba University, Japan. Her research field is in medical anthropology and main research interests are Shamanic healings, healing ceremonies, Mongol traditional medicine and Chinese Qigong. Li Narangoa (PhD) is Reader at the Faculty of Asian Studies, the Australian National University. She is author of Japanische Religionspolitik in der Mongolei : Reformbestrebungen und Dialog zwishen japanischem und mongolischem Buddhismus (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998) and coeditor of Imperial Japan and National Identity in Asia (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003). Mary Rossabi (PhD) is an independent scholar based in New York. Morris Rossabi (PhD) is Professor at City University of New York and Columbia University. He is author of Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times (Berkeley : University of California Press, 1987) and his Governing China s Multi-Ethnic Frontiers (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004). Morten Pedersen (PhD), is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Publications include Totemism, animism and North Asian indigenous ontologies, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 7 (3), 2001: ; Talismans of thought: Shamanist ontology and extended cognition in Northern Mongolia, in Thinking Through Things: Artefacts in Ethnographic Notes on Contributors xi Perspective, A. Henare, M. Holbraad & S. Wastell (eds) (London: University College London Press). Ole Bruun, PhD in Anthropology, is associate professor in International Development Studies at Roskilde University, Denmark. Peter K. Marsh (PhD) is director of the American Center for Mongolian Studies in Ulaanbaatar. A graduate of Indiana University, he is an ethnomusicologist with a specialty in Mongolian Studies. His book, The Horse-head Fiddle and the Cosmopolitan Reimagination of Tradition in Mongolia will be published by Routledge in Uradyn E. Bulag (PhD) is an associate professor at Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, City University of New York. He is author of The Mongols at China s edge: history and the politics of national unity (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002) and Nationalism and hybridity in Mongolia (New York: Clarendon Press, 1998). Vanchikova (Purbueva) Tsymzhit (PhD) is Professor at the Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan studies of the SB Russian Academy of Sciences. She carries out research on religious and historical literature in classical Mongolian script; biographies of Mongolian and Buryat monks; and the history of Buddhism in Mongolia and Buryatia. At the same time, she is working on compiling catalogues of Mongolian collections of the Institute. Sungari R. Amur R. Urga Karakorum Khiagt Tsetseqar Kerulen R. Orkhon R. Selenge R. Hohhot Kalgan Huanghe R. Khovd Uliastai K ö k ö Nuur Lake Baikal Angara R. Onon R. T Sainshand D E S E R B I G O Yenesei R. Lake Balkhash Yellow Sea BURYAT A I SHISHGED TUVA KHALKHA CHAHAR ORDOS XINJIANG TIBET AMDO Map 1: The Mongol lands with towns before 1900 Khan-baligh LN/RC Novosibirsk Khovd Renchinlhümbe Ulaan Ude Irkutsk Chita Tsetseqar Kyakta (Qiqihar) Erdenet Darkhan Uliastai Khotont Ulaanbaatar Tsetserleg Karakorum Erdene Zuu Chifeng Tariat Wuhai Kalgan (Zhangjiakou) Baotou Hohhot Beijing Dongsheng Map 2: Some cities mentioned in the text. Vladivostok LN/RC I A N F E O N D E R A T I R U S S B U R Y A T I A T U V A BAYANÖGEI KHOVD UVS GOV ALTAI K HÖ VSG Ö L ARKHANGAI BAYAN- HONGOR BULGAN SELENGE ÖVÖR- KHANGAI ÖMÖNGOV TÖV DUNDGOV KHENTII DORNO- GOV DORNOD SÜKHBAATAR HÜLÜNBUR X I SHILINGOL CHIFENG HINGAN TONGLIAO N J I G A N N ALAGSHAN BAYANNUUR BAOTOU ULAAN- CHAB WUHAI ORDOS HOHHOT LN/RC Map 3: Administrative divisions in Outer and Inner Mongolia: aimag (leagues) and hot (municipalities, shi). 1 A New Moment in Mongol History: The Rise of the Cosmopolitan City Ole Bruun and Li Narangoa The radical changes in the general circumstances of life and the shift from a rural to an urban orientation in a nation of previously, and still partly, pastoral people in Central Asia make up the theme of this book. From mainly historical and anthropological perspectives it examines the complex relationship between rural and urban Mongol people, settlements and identities, generated over the last century. Few other nations have experienced changes as rapid and radical as the Mongols: from little sedentary life in 1900 to cosmopolitan city life in the 2000s; from scattered settlements to intense urbanization and demographic concentration; from nomadic pastoralism to Chinese and Soviet plan economics to market liberalism; from Buddhist monastic learning to modern education; and from imperial domination to separate autonomous and independent polities. During the same period Mongols experienced a series of political revolutions: the overthrow of Manchu rule in 1911, the Communist revolution of 1921 in Outer Mongolia, the Communist revolution of 1949 in Inner Mongolia, the Chinese Cultural Revolution of 1966, the Chinese shift to market socialism, the break-up of the Soviet Union and the political shift to democracy and private ownership at the establishment of the Mongolian republic in Even so, the short intervals between revolutions apparently brought more significant changes than the revolutions themselves. The anti Buddhist purges of the 1930s and the collectivization drives of the 1950s to 1970s both changed the texture of society, while the shifting international alliances in the same period dramatically changed the political power balance in the region. Above all, living spaces, material circumstances of life and social structures have been revolutionized within the span of a few generations. The entire Mongol lands have seen exceptional changes within a single century, demanding creative cultural and political responses as well as new economic strategies on the part of its inhabitants. 1 Mongols from Country to City Mongolia conjures up images of open space, grassy steppe stretching into the horizon, mounted herders and isolated clusters of tents. In the imagination Mongolia may appear the land of vast physical space, perhaps accompanied by a narrower mental space, by virtue of the vast distances which impede communication and travel as contrasted to the simple means of transport available mainly horses and camels. Especially for those familiar with the history of Mongol conquests of the 14th century when city after city was razed by horse-borne warriors, the idea of urban settlement seems thoroughly alien to the Mongol culture. Yet towns and even cities have been a part of Mongolian civilization since early times. Towns first appeared in the Mongolian steppe along the caravan routes which linked China with the West through Central Asia. Karakorum [Kharakhorum], the capital city of the Mongol empire in 13th century, for example, was firmly connected with other big cities of the world by the Silk Road. The most significant town centres existing today were developed during the Qing dynasty ( ). In the twenty-first century Mongolia has become highly urbanized. For a great many Mongols, nomadic life has given way to a settled life in apartment blocks or ger (yurt) settlements on the fringes of a few larger cities. With the fall of communism in Russia and Outer Mongolia and the market reforms in Inner Mongolia the collective institutions which tied people to the land have disintegrated. At the same time the relative attraction of towns and cities as spaces for modern and alternative lifestyles and new avenues for social mobility has increased. The populations of urban centres like Ulaanbaatar and Hohhot have begun to swell. These dramatic changes in Mongol lands at the same time provide rich opportunities for the study of transformation processes in a pastoral society. In particular, this volume examines those processes entailed in modernization, collectivization and decollectivization, secularization and desecularization, democratization and identity formation. A key issue is the extent to which pastoral society retains its special characteristics through these changes as compared to ordinary sedentary society. A further issue of the greatest importance relates to the fact that Mongols now face cultural disintegration. Some 5 million Mongols remain under Chinese domination in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and several other parts of China, 1 about a million live in the Russian Federation, mainly in Buryatia and Kalmykia, 2 while 2.5 million Mongols in the newly independent Mongolian Republic have embarked upon their own nation-building. Images of Pastoralism To better appreciate the nature of these changes, we must set aside the conventional and somewhat romantic view of Mongol nomads as isolated livestock herders A New Moment in Mongol History living in yurts far away from civilization. In sedentary society industrialization brought unprecedented human mobility, urbanization and modernization. In Mongol nomadic society, by contrast, human mobility was not the result of modernization; it was inherent. Pre-modern Mongol society was based on longdistance trade, travel and communication. Constant movement formed part of the herding lifestyle. Long-distance communication was needed to exchange animal products with other forms of wealth, and to acquire information. People were the vital actors in driving packtrains back and forth, and Mongol men customarily engaged in these activities. There were post stations, camps and monasteries along the caravan roads. Trade took place in trade centres, built around monasteries and the palaces of Mongol princes (see chapter 2 by Alicia Campi). If horizons in sedentary agricultural societies were sometimes narrow, they were distant in Mongol nomadic society, both literally and metaphorically. After the rise of modern technology the idea of people being physically distant yet deeply engaged in global lines of communication is perhaps easier to imagine. This model serves better the understanding of traditional Mongol society than the idea of isolated tribesmen. European travellers visiting Mongol lands before the twentieth century repeatedly described the Mongols as more open and dynamic in character than their sedentary neighbours. There is an ancient prejudice in both Western and other sedentary cultures writings, reflected in the etymological roots of words such as civilization, cosmopolitan and urbane, assuming civilization be to urban. Specific uses of savage and pagan for nomadic peoples on the other hand demonstrated a deep-seated assumption about their incapacity to generat
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