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L3: Introduction to Verilog (Combinational Logic) Acknowledgements : Rex in Verilog References: Samir Palnitkar, Verilog HDL, Pearson Education (2nd edition). Donald Thomas, Philip oorby, The Verilog Hardware

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L3: Introduction to Verilog (Combinational Logic) Acknowledgements : Rex in Verilog References: Samir Palnitkar, Verilog HDL, Pearson Education (2nd edition). Donald Thomas, Philip oorby, The Verilog Hardware Description Language, Fifth Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers. J. Bhasker, Verilog HDL Synthesis (A Practical Primer), Star Galaxy Publishing 1 Synthesis and HDLs Hardware description language (HDL) is a convenient, deviceindepent representation of digital logic Verilog input a,b; output sum; assign sum = {1b 0, a} + {1b 0, b}; Compilation and Synthesis Netlist g1 and n1 n2 n5 g2 and n3 n4 n6 g3 or n5 n6 n7 apping HDL description is compiled into a netlist Synthesis optimizes the logic apping targets a specific hardware platform FPGA PAL ASIC (Custom ICs) 2 The FPGA: A Conceptual View An FPGA is like an electronic breadboard that is wired together by an automated synthesis tool Built-in components are called macros SU DQ sel interconnect counter a b c d LUT F(a,b,c,d) G(a,b,c,d) ADR R/W RA DATA (for everything else) 3 Synthesis and apping for FPGAs Infer macros: choose the FPGA macros that efficiently implement various parts of the HDL code... (posedge clk) count = count + 1;... HDL Code This section of code looks like a counter. y FPGA has some of those... counter Inferred acro Place-and-route: with area and/or speed in mind, choose the needed macros by location and route the interconnect This design only uses 10% of the FPGA. Let s use the macros in one corner to minimize the distance between blocks. 4 Verilog: : The odule Verilog designs consist of interconnected modules. A module can be an element or collection of lower level design blocks. A simple module with combinational logic might look like this: module mux_2_to_1(a, b, out, outbar, sel); // This is 2:1 multiplexor input a, b, sel; output out, outbar; assign out = sel? a : b; assign outbar = ~out; a b 1 0 sel out outbar Out = sel a + sel b 2-to-1 multiplexer with inverted output Declare and name a module; list its ports. Don t forget that semicolon. Comment starts with // Verilog skips from // to of the line Specify each port as input, output, or inout Express the module s behavior. Each statement executes in parallel; order does not matter. Conclude the module code. 5 Continuous (Dataflow) Assignment module mux_2_to_1(a, b, out, outbar, sel); input a, b, sel; output out, outbar; assign out = sel? a : b; assign outbar = ~out; a b 1 0 sel out outbar Continuous assignments use the assign keyword A simple and natural way to represent combinational logic Conceptually, the right-hand expression is continuously evaluated as a function of arbitrarily-changing inputs just like dataflow The target of a continuous assignment is a net driven by combinational logic Left side of the assignment must be a scalar or vector net or a concatenation of scalar and vector nets. It can t be a scalar or vector register (discussed later). Right side can be register or nets Dataflow operators are fairly low-level: Conditional assignment: (conditional_expression)? (value-if-true) : (value-if-false); Boolean logic: ~, &, Arithmetic: +, -, * Nested conditional operator (4:1 mux) assign out = s1? (s0? i3 : i2) : (s0? i1 : i0); 6 AX+plusII: : Simulator, Synthesis, apping ust be synthesizable Verilog files Step by step instructions on the course WEB site Create *.v file (module name same as file name) Select area and set inputs through overwrite or insert menu (under edit) Glitch 7 Gate Level Description module muxgate (a, b, out, outbar, sel); input a, b, sel; output out, outbar; wire out1, out2, selb; and a1 (out1, a, sel); not i1 (selb, sel); and a2 (out2, b, selb); or o1 (out, out1, out2); assign outbar = ~out; a sel selb b out1 out2 out outbar Verilog supports basic logic gates as primitives and, nand, or, nor, xor, xnor, not, buf can be exted to multiple inputs: e.g., nand nand3in (out, in1, in2,in3); bufif1 and bufif0 are tri-state buffers Net represents connections between hardware elements. Nets are declared with the keyword wire. 8 Procedural Assignment with always Procedural assignment allows an alternative, often higher-level, behavioral description of combinational logic Two structured procedure statements: initial and always Supports richer, C-like control structures such as if, for, while,case module mux_2_to_1(a, b, out, outbar, sel); input a, b, sel; output out, outbar; reg out, outbar; (a or b or sel) if (sel) out = a; else out = b; outbar = ~out; Exactly the same as before. Anything assigned in an always block must also be declared as type reg (next slide) Conceptually, the always block runs once whenever a signal in the sensitivity list changes value Statements within the always block are executed sequentially. Order matters! Surround multiple statements in a single always block with /. 9 Verilog Registers In digital design, registers represent memory elements (we will study these in the next few lectures) Digital registers need a clock to operate and update their state on certain phase or edge Registers in Verilog should not be confused with hardware registers In Verilog, the term register (reg) simply means a variable that can hold a value Verilog registers don t need a clock and don t need to be driven like a net. Values of registers can be changed anytime in a simulation by assuming a new value to the register 10 ix-and and-atch Assignments Procedural and continuous assignments can (and often do) co-exist within a module Procedural assignments update the value of reg. The value will remain unchanged till another procedural assignment updates the variable. This is the main difference with continuous assignments in which the right hand expression is constantly placed on the left-side module mux_2_to_1(a, b, out, outbar, sel); input a, b, sel; output out, outbar; reg out; (a or b or sel) if (sel) out = a; else out = b; assign outbar = ~out; a b procedural description continuous description 1 0 sel out outbar 11 The case Statement case and if may be used interchangeably to implement conditional execution within always blocks case is easier to read than a long string of if...else statements module mux_2_to_1(a, b, out, outbar, sel); input a, b, sel; output out, outbar; reg out; (a or b or sel) if (sel) out = a; else out = b; assign outbar = ~out; module mux_2_to_1(a, b, out, outbar, sel); input a, b, sel; output out, outbar; reg out; (a or b or sel) case (sel) 1 b1: out = a; 1 b0: out = b; case assign outbar = ~out; Note: Number specification notation: size base number (4 b1010 if a 4-bit binary value, 16 h6cda is a 16 bit hex number, and 8 d40 is an 8-bit decimal value) 12 The Power of Verilog: n-bit Signals ulti-bit signals and buses are easy in Verilog. 2-to-1 multiplexer with 8-bit operands: module mux_2_to_1(a, b, out, outbar, sel); input[7:0] a, b; input sel; output[7:0] out, outbar; reg[7:0] out; (a or b or sel) if (sel) out = a; else out = b; a b sel 8 8 out outbar assign outbar = ~out; Concatenate signals using the { } operator assign {b[7:0],b[15:8]} = {a[15:8],a[7:0]}; effects a byte swap 13 The Power of Verilog: : Integer Arithmetic Verilog s built-in arithmetic makes a 32-bit adder easy: module add32(a, b, sum); input[31:0] a,b; output[31:0] sum; assign sum = a + b; A 32-bit adder with carry-in and carry-out: module add32_carry(a, b, cin, sum, cout); input[31:0] a,b; input cin; output[31:0] sum; output cout; assign {cout, sum} = a + b + cin; 14 Dangers of Verilog: : Incomplete Specification a b c Goal: sel out 3-to-1 UX ( 11 input is a don t-care) 2 Proposed Verilog Code: module maybe_mux_3to1(a, b, c, sel, out); input [1:0] sel; input a,b,c; output out; reg out; or b or c or sel) case (sel) 2'b00: out = a; 2'b01: out = b; 2'b10: out = c; case Is this a 3-to-1 multiplexer? 15 Incomplete Specification Infers Latches module maybe_mux_3to1(a, b, c, sel, out); input [1:0] sel; input a,b,c; output out; reg out; or b or c or sel) case (sel) 2'b00: out = a; 2'b01: out = b; 2'b10: out = c; case a b c Synthesized Result: sel 2 sel[1] sel[0] D G Q out if out is not assigned during any pass through the always block, then the previous value must be retained! Latch memory latches old data when G=0 (we will discuss latches later) In practice, we almost never int this 16 Avoiding Incomplete Specification Precede all conditionals with a default assignment for all signals assigned within them or b or c or sel) out = 1 bx; case (sel) 2'b00: out = a; 2'b01: out = b; 2'b10: out = c; case or b or c or sel) case (sel) 2'b00: out = a; 2'b01: out = b; 2'b10: out = c; default: out = 1 bx; case or, fully specify all branches of conditionals and assign all signals from all branches For each if, include else For each case, include default 17 Dangers of Verilog: : Priority Logic Goal: Proposed Verilog Code: 4-to-2 Binary Encoder I 3 I 2 I 1 I 0 I 3 I 2 I 1 I all others E 1 E E 1 E X X module binary_encoder(i, e); input [3:0] i; output [1:0] e; reg e; if (i[0]) e = 2 b00; else if (i[1]) e = 2 b01; else if (i[2]) e = 2 b10; else if (i[3]) e = 2 b11; else e = 2 bxx; What is the resulting circuit? 18 Priority Logic Intent: if more than one input is 1, the result is a don t-care. I 3 I 2 I 1 I all others E 1 E X X Code: if i[0] is 1, the result is 00 regardless of the other inputs. i[0] takes the highest priority. if (i[0]) e = 2 b00; else if (i[1]) e = 2 b01; else if (i[2]) e = 2 b10; else if (i[3]) e = 2 b11; else e = 2 bxx; Inferred Result: 2 b11 2 bxx b b b e[1:0] i[3] i[2] i[1] i[0] if-else and case statements are interpreted very literally! Beware of uninted priority logic. 19 Avoiding (Uninted) Priority Logic ake sure that if-else and case statements are parallel If mutually exclusive conditions are chosen for each branch......then synthesis tool can generate a simpler circuit that evaluates the branches in parallel Parallel Code: inimized Result: module binary_encoder(i, e); input [3:0] i; output [1:0] e; reg e; if (i == 4 b0001) e = 2 b00; else if (i == 4 b0010) e = 2 b01; else if (i == 4 b0100) e = 2 b10; else if (i == 4 b1000) e = 2 b11; else e = 2 bxx; I 3 I 1 I 0 E 0 E 1 20 Interconnecting odules odularity is essential to the success of large designs A Verilog module may contain submodules that are wired together High-level primitives enable direct synthesis of behavioral descriptions (functions such as additions, subtractions, shifts ( and ), etc. Example: A 32-bit ALU Function Table A[31:0] B[31:0] F2 F1 F0 Function 32 d1 32 d * F[0] F[2:0] X A + B A + 1 A - B A - 1 A * B F[2:1] R[31:0] 21 odule Definitions 2-to-1 UX module mux32two(i0,i1,sel,out); input [31:0] i0,i1; input sel; output [31:0] out; assign out = sel? i1 : i0; 3-to-1 UX module mux32three(i0,i1,i2,sel,out); input [31:0] i0,i1,i2; input [1:0] sel; output [31:0] out; reg [31:0] out; (i0 or i1 or i2 or sel) case (sel) 2 b00: out = i0; 2 b01: out = i1; 2 b10: out = i2; default: out = 32 bx; case 32-bit Adder 32-bit Subtracter 16-bit ultiplier module add32(i0,i1,sum); input [31:0] i0,i1; output [31:0] sum; assign sum = i0 + i1; module sub32(i0,i1,diff); input [31:0] i0,i1; output [31:0] diff; assign diff = i0 - i1; module mul16(i0,i1,prod); input [15:0] i0,i1; output [31:0] prod; // this is a magnitude multiplier // signed arithmetic later assign prod = i0 * i1; 22 Top-Level ALU Declaration Given submodules: module mux32two(i0,i1,sel,out); module mux32three(i0,i1,i2,sel,out); module add32(i0,i1,sum); module sub32(i0,i1,diff); module mul16(i0,i1,prod); Declaration of the ALU odule: module alu(a, b, f, r); input [31:0] a, b; input [2:0] f; output [31:0] r; wire [31:0] addmux_out, submux_out; wire [31:0] add_out, sub_out, mul_out; A[31:0] B[31:0] 32 d1 32 d1 F[0] * F[2:1] R[31:0] intermediate output nodes alu F[2:0] mux32two adder_mux(b, 32'd1, f[0], addmux_out); mux32two sub_mux(b, 32'd1, f[0], submux_out); add32 our_adder(a, addmux_out, add_out); sub32 our_subtracter(a, submux_out, sub_out); mul16 our_multiplier(a[15:0], b[15:0], mul_out); mux32three output_mux(add_out, sub_out, mul_out, f[2:1], r); module names (unique) instance names corresponding wires/regs in module alu 23 Simulation addition subtraction multiplier 24 ore on odule Interconnection Explicit port naming allows port mappings in arbitrary order: better scaling for large, evolving designs Given Submodule Declaration: module mux32three(i0,i1,i2,sel,out); odule Instantiation with Ordered Ports: mux32three output_mux(add_out, sub_out, mul_out, f[2:1], r); odule Instantiation with Named Ports: mux32three output_mux(.sel(f[2:1]),.out(r),.i0(add_out),.i1(sub_out),.i2(mul_out)); submodule s port name corresponding wire/reg in outer module Built-in Verilog gate primitives may be instantiated as well Instantiations may omit instance name and must be ordered: buf(out1,out2,...,outn, in); and(in1,in2,...inn,out); 25 Useful Boolean Operators Bitwise operators perform bit-sliced operations on vectors ~(4 b0101) = {~0,~1,~0,~1} = 4 b b0101 & 4 b0011 = 4 b0001 Logical operators return one-bit (true/false) results!(4 b0101) = ~1 = 1 b0 Reduction operators act on each bit of a single input vector &(4 b0101) = 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 = 1 b0 Comparison operators perform a Boolean test on two arguments Bitwise ~a a & b a b a ^ b a ~^ b NOT AND OR XOR XNOR Logical!a a && b a b NOT AND OR Note distinction between ~a and!a Reduction &a ~& XOR 26 ~ ^ AND NAND OR NOR a b a b a = b a = b a == b a!= b a === b a!== b Comparison Relational [in]equality returns x when x or z in bits. Else returns 0 or 1 case [in]equality returns 0 or 1 based on bit by bit comparison Testbenches (odelsim) Demo this week in Lab by TAs Full Adder (1-bit) Full Adder (4-bit) Testbench module full_adder (a, b, cin, sum, cout); input a, b, cin; output sum, cout; reg sum, cout; or b or cin) sum = a ^ b ^ cin; cout = (a & b) (a & cin) (b & cin); Endmodule odelsim Simulation module full_adder_4bit (a, b, cin, sum, cout); input[3:0] a, b; input cin; output [3:0] sum; output cout; wire c1, c2, c3; // instantiate 1-bit adders full_adder FA0(a[0],b[0], cin, sum[0], c1); full_adder FA1(a[1],b[1], c1, sum[1], c2); full_adder FA2(a[2],b[2], c2, sum[2], c3); full_adder FA3(a[3],b[3], c3, sum[3], cout); Courtesy of F. Honore, D. illiner module test_adder; reg [3:0] a, b; reg cin; wire [3:0] sum; wire cout; full_adder_4bit dut(a, b, cin, sum, cout); initial a = 4'b0000; b = 4'b0000; cin = 1'b0; #50; a = 4'b0101; b = 4'b1010; // sum = 1111, cout = 0 #50; a = 4'b1111; b = 4'b0001; // sum = 0000, cout = 1 #50; a = 4'b0000; b = 4'b1111; cin = 1'b1; // sum = 0000, cout = 1 #50; a = 4'b0110; b = 4'b0001; // sum = 1000, cout = 0 // initial // test_adder 27 Summary ultiple levels of description: behavior, dataflow, logic and switch (not used in 6.111) Gate level is typically not used as it requires working out the interconnects Continuous assignment using assign allows specifying dataflow structures Procedural Assignment using always allows efficient behavioral description. ust carefully specify the sensitivity list Incomplete specification of case or if statements can result in non-combinational logic Verilog registers (reg) is not to be confused with a hardware memory element odular design approach to manage complexity 28

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