June The role of faith centres in the provision of sport and physical activity. Summary Report by Sporting Equals

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Promoting ethnic diversity across sport & physical activity The role of faith centres in the provision of sport and physical activity June 2012 Summary Report by Sporting Equals Contents 1 Introduction
Promoting ethnic diversity across sport & physical activity The role of faith centres in the provision of sport and physical activity June 2012 Summary Report by Sporting Equals Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Methodology 3 3 The National Picture 4 4 The Regional Picture 6 5 Faith Centre Research Churches in the UK Mosques in the UK Synagogues in the UK Temples in the UK Gurdwaras in the UK 15 6 Insight Research The Role of Faith Centres On-line Participant Research 19 7 Sporting Equals Faith Centre Model 20 8 Selection of Case Studies 21 9 Conclusion Recommendations Appendices 25 Appendix 1 Faith Centre Model 25 Appendix 2 Faith Centres in London 26 Appendix 3 Faith Centres in Birmingham 30 Appendix 4 Faith Centres in Leicester 33 02 Promoting ethnic diversity across sport & physical activity 1Introduction 2Methodology Religion plays an extremely important role for many communities in the UK and earlier research carried out by Sporting Equals into the role of faith centres to help drive growth in sports participation 1 revealed that faith centres are a central resource accessed by individuals who may otherwise be disengaged from wider society due to cultural or religious barriers. Often faith centres hold the key to community engagement and are well placed to offer outreach services such as sports, as well as having untapped potential in available land and facilities which could be utilised for the benefit of the community. This paper aims to explore these areas further and look at how faith establishments can be accessed by the sports sector to grow participation from underrepresented groups. The research paper focuses on the five main religious groups in the UK: Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, Hinduism and Judaism and looks at the role of Churches, Mosques, Gurdwaras, Temples and Synagogues in the context of sport and physical activity provision and opportunities for growth in relation to facilities and wider engagement. The paper also seeks to provide an evidence base to support the Sporting Equals Faith Centre Model 1 and demonstrates how governing bodies can utilise Sporting Equals community engagement expertise to tap into hard to reach markets. The research methods used in this report include a mixture of desktop and on-line research, questionnaires and telephone surveys. These surveys were carried out between April and June A questionnaire survey was sent out to a random sample of faith establishments to identify whether they offered any sport or physical activity, had suitable facilities where sport and physical activity could be delivered and what support they needed to allow them to offer sport or physical activity. This was administered directly to faith centres by and was also sent via the Hindu Council UK, Muslim Council of Britain and Sikh Council UK. Alongside this a further sample of telephone interviews were conducted to maximise response rate. An on-line survey was administered through the Sporting Equals website and facebook page to identify whether people would do more sport or physical activity if it was offered through their place of worship. The desktop research aims to cover all main faith groups, however, it should be noted that more information was available for the Muslim community than for other faith groups and more case study material for this community has been utilised as examples in the report. In addition to this, London, Birmingham and Leicester, 3 major cities with a significant proportion of black and minority ethnic (BME) communities, have been mapped and the locations of a variety of places of worship identified. These have been added as appendices to the report. 1 The role of faith centres in helping drive growth in Sports Participation, Sporting Equals, December 3The National Picture This research uses the 2001 Census figures which are the most recent as the 2011 Census figures have not yet been released. The 2001 Census for the United Kingdom reported that approximately 42 million people (almost 72% of the population) identify themselves as Christians. Approximately 1.6 million (2.7%) identify themselves as Muslims. The next largest religious groups are Hindus (1%), followed by Sikhs (0.6%) and Jews (0.5%). More than 9 million (15.5%) respondents stated they have no religion. The Census's religion question was voluntary, and 7.3% chose not to respond. 2 Overall 76.8% of the United Kingdom population regard themselves as having some religious affiliation (2001 Census). Whilst many of these people will not be actively involved in the worship activities of a faith community, a substantial number are committed members of faith groups whose teachings, to a greater or lesser extent, guide their values and beliefs. 3 Religions by ethnic group, 2001 Ethnic group Christian Buddhist Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Other No religion Not stated White British 75.94% 0.11% 0.01% 0.48% 0.14% 0.01% 0.24% 15.45% 7.62% White Irish 85.42% 0.19% 0.02% 0.18% 0.14% 0.02% 0.26% 6.35% 7.42% Other White 62.67% 0.33% 0.09% 2.39% 8.61% 0.04% 0.57% 15.91% 9.38% Mixed 52.46% 0.70% 0.87% 0.47% 9.72% 0.42% 0.58% 23.25% 11.54% Indian 4.89% 0.18% 45.00% 0.06% 12.70% 29.06% 1.75% 1.73% 4.63% Pakistani 1.09% 0.03% 0.08% 0.05% 92.01% 0.05% 0.04% 0.50% 6.16% Bangladeshi 0.50% 0.06% 0.60% 0.05% 92.48% 0.04% 0.01% 0.43% 5.83% Other Asian 13.42% 4.85% 26.76% 0.30% 37.31% 6.22% 0.93% 3.44% 6.79% Black Caribbean 73.76% 0.17% 0.29% 0.10% 0.79% 0.02% 0.59% 11.23% 13.04% Black African 68.87% 0.07% 0.21% 0.05% 20.04% 0.09% 0.21% 2.31% 8.14% Other Black 66.61% 0.20% 0.36% 0.13% 5.97% 0.07% 0.65% 12.09% 13.93% Chinese 25.56% 15.12% 0.07% 0.05% 0.33% 0.03% 0.49% 9.75% 52.60% Other 32.98% 15.49% 1.32% 1.05% 25.68% 1.02% 0.90% 14.08% 7.48% Source: UK 2001 Census 2 (accessed ) 3 Working together, co-operation between government and faith communities, Home Office, Faith Communities Unit, Promoting ethnic diversity across sport & physical activity Religious affiliation is not evenly distributed among ethnicities. In the 2001 Census data for Great Britain, approximately 70% of the white population described themselves as Christians. Almost 75% of black Caribbean respondents stated that they were Christians, as did 70% of black Africans. Meanwhile, 45% of Indians were Hindus, and 29 % were Sikhs. Approximately 92% of Pakistanis and Bangladeshis were Muslims. 2 Non-Christian populations are concentrated in London and other large urban areas. While religious groups are not required to register with the Government, many are charities and are registered with the Charities Commission. No church or religious organisation receives direct funding from the State. Religious bodies are expected to finance their own activities through donations, endowments, investments, and fundraising. The Government sometimes funds the repair of historic religious buildings, such as cathedrals and churches, and other funding grants programmes exist which, financed largely through the lottery, help fund, repair and maintain listed places of worship of all religions nationwide. There are nearly 50,000 places of worship of all denominations and religions in the UK, attended by over 6 million people. 5 Faith establishments have had an immense historic influence in shaping society, and make significant contributions in a wide range of areas such as community development, education, and social inclusion. Together, the faith communities make an extremely significant contribution to the richness of society. Faith organisations are gateways to accessing the tremendous reserves of energy and commitment of their members, which can be of great importance to the development of civil society. In the case of some of the newer communities that include among their members many recent arrivals to the UK, they are perhaps the principal gateway since new arrivals frequently relate to the wider community mostly through trusted organisations serving their religious and/or ethnic group. 6 Most churches, mosques, synagogues, gurdwaras and temples are a good source of information, advice and guidance on working with the local community and will have a broad spectrum of membership from the surrounding community (accessed ) 5 Working with BME communities, Communities and local Government, March unities.gov.uk/documents/fire/doc/toolkitaudiences1 (accessed ) 6 Working together, co-operation between government and faith communities, Home Office, Faith Communities Unit, 4The Regional Picture Distribution of Ethnic Minority Population in the UK Region Ethnic Minority Representation of Proportion of UK Population Ethnic Minorities Ethnic Minority Population East of England 435, % 6.7% East Midlands 371, % 5.7% North East 100, % 1.6% North West 543, % 8.4% South East 583, % 9.0% South West 163, % 2.5% West Midlands 792, % 12.3% Yorkshire & Humber 471, % 7.3% London 2,735, % 42.3% United Kingdom 6,465, % 100% Source: NOMIS number and proportion of ethnic minority population in regions in the UK Of the 6.4 million ethnic minority people in the UK, nearly half (42.3%) live in London. After London, the second largest proportion of the ethnic minority population live in the West Midlands (12%), followed by the South East (9%), the North West (8%), and Yorkshire and Humber (7%). 8 7 Business in the Community Regional Factsheet, Ethnic Minorities in the UK, West Midlands, Race for Opportunity (RFO), Business in the Community Regional Factsheet, Ethnic Minorities in the UK, London, Race for Opportunity (RFO), Migration Trends 9.9, Bull Points on Report, Minority Ethnic Groups in Britain By Ruth Lupton & Anne Power, Migration Watch UK, Dec The Indian population is concentrated in London, and in the cities of the Midlands, Lancashire and West Yorkshire. The Pakistani population is strongly represented in Manchester, Lancashire and West Yorkshire and also in Birmingham and other Midlands cities, with a smaller proportion of the population in London than is the case with Indians. The Bangladeshi population is concentrated in London, and to a lesser extent in Birmingham. The Black Caribbean population has a similar distribution pattern to the Bangladeshi population but with London even more dominant, whilst Black Africans are mostly concentrated in London. The Chinese groups are more widely dispersed than other groups. 9 06 Promoting ethnic diversity across sport & physical activity London has the highest proportion of Muslims, Hindus, Jews and Buddhists. 9 All BME groups except the Chinese have at least 25% of their population concentrated in just 5 local authorities and over 50% in 20 local authorities. Bangladeshis are the most concentrated, with 46% in just 5 local authorities; 23% in Tower Hamlets alone. The concentration of BME people means that in % of local authorities had BME populations at or below the national average. 9 Outside London, local authorities with more than 15% BME population are: Slough (36%), Leicester (36%), Birmingham (30%), Luton (28%), Wolverhampton (22%), Blackburn-with-Darwen (22%), Bradford (22%), Sandwell (20%), Manchester (19%), Coventry (16%) and Oadby & Wigston (16%). These are all urban areas. London, West Yorkshire and the West Midlands both have a small number of majority minority wards. 10 Both religious and national history and more recent patterns of migration and settlement have affected the religious composition of local and regional areas. Therefore, some areas have a more multi-faith character, and others have concentrations of people of particular religion and or traditions within these regions. 10 Migration Trends 9.9, Bull Points on Report, Minority Ethnic Groups in Britain By Ruth Lupton & Anne Power, Migration Watch UK, Dec 5Faith Centre Research 5.1 Churches in the UK The English region with the highest proportion of Christians is the North East (80.1%). Outside London, the counties with the highest proportion of Christians are Durham, Merseyside and Cumbria, each with 82% or more. The districts with the highest proportions of Christians are all in the North West: St Helens, Wigan and Copeland (Cumbria) each have 86% or more. 11 Christianity is the most popular religion in the world with over 2 billion adherents. 42 million Britons see themselves as nominally Christian, and there are 6 million who are actively practising. In 2005, the total number of churches in the UK was estimated at 47, In 2010 it was estimated that there were around 5.2 million Christians in the UK. Immigration from the EU has led to large increases in numbers over the last 10 years. Many of these immigrants come from Christian countries, both Protestant and Catholic, and have joined local churches wherever they have settled in the UK. More seem to have settled in England and Scotland than Wales and Northern Ireland. The increase in church membership is seen especially in the Catholic, Orthodox, Presbyterian, Pentecostal and the Protestant Overseas Nationals churches many of which are small but provide a useful role to the community. There has also been noticeable growth in many ethnic churches, especially among the black churches of London. Although some of this growth, especially the non-black, is fuelled by immigration as described above, this is less true of the black churches. Some of these are being started by people coming particularly from African countries such as Ghana and Nigeria, in what is called reverse mission, that is, to start churches here in order to help bring the UK back to the Christianity from which they benefited a century or two ago. Some of these black churches are seeing spectacular growth and are now among the largest churches in the country. 13 It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 Black Christians in over 4,000 local congregations in the United Kingdom, the majority of which are in England, particularly in London. 14 The Census showed that 34% of churches in England grew between 1998 and In 2000, 33% of churchgoers were under the age of 30 and in 2005 the average age of churchgoers was 47 for congregations in Great Britain. 13 Some churches have halls which are often available for local community provision and in some cases these are often used for sport and physical activity. Region Distribution of Churches in England 15 Number of Churches North East 85 Yorkshire & Humber Office for National Statistics 2001, April Census summary of religion in Britain released, Feb (accessed ) 13 (accessed ) 14 (accessed ) 15 (accessed ) North West 78 East Midlands 155 West Midlands 174 East 414 South East 291 South West Promoting ethnic diversity across sport & physical activity 5.2 Mosques in the UK Mosques are a central feature of Islamic life. Their role is twofold: to meet the spiritual needs of Muslims as a place of worship, and to meet the practical educational and social needs of the Muslim community. 16 Today, there are approximately 1,880 mosques in Britain serving the country s 2.4 million Muslims. 17 According to the Charity Commission s Faith and Social Cohesion Unit 2009 survey of mosques, approximately 500 mosques are registered charities. The survey also found that the average number of attendees at Friday prayer gatherings is over 400, rising to over 600 for Eid, and that the average annual income for mosques is 233, Region Distribution of Mosques in England 18 Number of Mosques North East 46 places such as hired halls. 20 Nearly three quarters of mosques have facilities for women. Most of the smaller mosques are typically small house conversions which people access on a daily basis for prayers and are often used for afterschool madrassah for children to help them study the Qu ran. The larger mosques are often more centrally located and are likely to be purpose built close to transport links. These often play a more central role within the community offering wedding, funeral, education and outreach support services. For example the Central Mosque in Birmingham offers all of the above and has an annex which also provides additional services such as library, classrooms where language classes take place and a community hall. The main hall has a capacity of around 3,000 which is the average turnout on a busy Friday. On special occasions such as Eid there are five services one after the other and it is estimated that between 15,000 and 20,000 walk through the doors of the main hall for special prayer services. 21 North West & Yorkshire Humber 619 Midlands 489 East 26 London & South East 628 South West 80 TOTAL 1,888 Facilities Muslim communities in Britain are made up of several denominations and ethnicities, and so are the mosques that serve them. Muslim communities and cultures have become an integral part of the British landscape, adding to the rich diversity of the country. 19 There are currently 2,178 locations listed in the mosques directory 18 which are a mixture of mosques, prayer rooms, and shared 16 Muslim Council of Britain, Voices from the Minarets: Empower not control, London; (accessed ) 18 (accessed ) 19 Engaging Mosques, toolkit for involving young people Hasib Rahman, Jamie Bartlett, Jen Lexmond, UK Mosque Statistics/Masjid Satistics, Mehmod Naqshbandi, (accessed ) 21 (accessed ) 09 In the last five years there have been dramatic changes in the way British mosques are run. The Charity Commission s 2009 survey of mosques in Britain found that over 90% of mosques now provide educational programmes for youth and children and 82% fundraise to alleviate poverty and hardship. Many also provide community services and are increasing youth participation in their management structures. 22,23 The Muslim community as a whole has been driving this change in many places, recognising that mosques need to improve the way they operate, and open up more, especially for the young. The Muslim Council of Britain and the Islam Channel for example initiated Beacon Mosque initiatives, recognising that improvement among mosques does not always need to come from government intervention, but can be achieved through promoting positive examples for other mosques to follow, such as the Golden Mosque in Rochdale. 24,25 A recent study carried out by the Mosques and Imams National Advisory Board, 26 revealed the types of services and activities Muslim youngsters want their mosques to provide range from sports activities and youth clubs to chill-out rooms, community events and interfaith activities. In a survey conducted by Policy Exchange in 2007, 86% of Muslims felt that my religion is the most important thing in my life. 27 In a further research study carried out by the Mosque & Imams National Advisory Board in the young participants felt that in order to engage the youth in mosques, mosques should organise sports activities. They could be either indoor or outdoor activities. The study also revealed that some of the larger mosques have community halls adjacent to the mosque s building or owned by the mosque nearby. These community centres could be used by the youth to chill-out to play pool, table tennis or such similar activities. The study highlighted that basements of the mosque or any room which is not used for prayers could be turned into a chill-out room which could be used by the youth to socialise, in the comfort and safety of a supervised environment (detailed in case studies, section 8 of report). Feedback from research also supported the idea that mosques should get involved and help organise football teams and intra-faith and inter-faith tournaments. This would demonstrate to the youth that the mosque is genuinely interested in them and can cater for their needs. Sports activities could be organised around prayer times or study circles so that the youth have the opportunity to attend both study circles and/ or pray in the mosque as well as taking part in sports. 22 BMG Survey of Mosques, London: Charity Commission, Good Spaces for Young People, Leicester: National Youth Agency, Engaging Mosques, toolkit for involving young people. Hasib Rahman, J
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