J. Dairy Sci. 98 :1 14 american Dairy Science association, PDF

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J. Dairy Sci. 98 :1 14 american Dairy Science association, Rapeseed or linseed in dairy cow diets over 2 consecutive lactations: Effects on adipose fatty acid
J. Dairy Sci. 98 :1 14 american Dairy Science association, Rapeseed or linseed in dairy cow diets over 2 consecutive lactations: Effects on adipose fatty acid profile and carry-over effects on milk fat composition in subsequent early lactation S. Lerch,* 1 J. A. A. Pires,* C. Delavaud,* K. J. Shingfield, 2 D. Pomiès,* # B. Martin,* Y. Chilliard,* and A. Ferlay * * INra, UMr1213 herbivores, F Saint-Genès-champanelle, France clermont Université, VetagroSup, UMr1213 herbivores, BP 10448, F clermont-ferrand, France Université de Lyon, VetagroSup, UMr1213 herbivores, F Marcy l etoile, France Mtt agrifood research Finland, animal Production research, FI Jokioinen, Finland # INra, Ue1296 Monts d auvergne, F Orcival, France ABSTRACT During early lactation, milk fatty acid (FA) composition is influenced by diet, animal genetics, and the high availability of preformed FA from body-fat mobilization. Long-term prepartum dietary oilseed supplementation could, therefore, modify milk FA composition postpartum in the subsequent lactation through changes in adipose tissue (AT) FA profile. To test this hypothesis, measurements were made in 19 Holstein cows fed grassbased diets containing no additional lipid (control, CTL; n = 4) or supplemented with extruded linseeds (EL; n = 4), cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal (FRM; n = 6), or whole unprocessed rapeseeds (WR; n = 5) over 2 consecutive lactations (yr 1 and 2) and 2 dry periods. Oilseed supplements were withdrawn from the diets 23 d before the calving of yr 3, following the end of the previous experimental periods in yr 1 to 2. Thereafter, all cows received a total mixed ration composed of grass silage, grass hay, and concentrates (forage:concentrate ratio of 70:30 on a dry-matter basis). Cows previously fed EL and WR had a lower milk fat content (6.32% for CTL and FRM vs. 5.46% for EL and WR) and yield (1.90 kg/d for CTL and FRM vs kg/d for EL and WR) during the first week of lactation. Treatment effects on milk fat content and yield did not persist into lactation wk 3 and 7. Whatever the week, EL and WR increased concentration of FA in milk synthesized de novo (i.e., carbon number 15; 17.1 g/100 g of FA for CTL and FRM vs g/100 g of FA for EL and WR) and decreased concentration and secretion of preformed FA (i.e., carbon number 17; 56.1 g/100 g of Received July 7, Accepted October 22, Corresponding author: 2 Current address: Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, SY23 3EB, United Kingdom. 1 FA for CTL and FRM vs g/100 g of FA for EL and WR). Alterations in milk FA composition may be explained by the lower availability of mobilized FA for uptake by the mammary gland, as indicated by the lower plasma nonesterified FA concentrations for EL and WR compared with CTL and FRM. Prepartum EL feeding increased AT and milk concentration of 18:3n-3 (0.96 vs g/100 g of milk FA for EL and the other groups, respectively) and intermediates of ruminal 18:3n-3 biohydrogenation. In contrast, FRM increased AT and milk concentration of ruminal cis-9 18:1 biohydrogenation intermediates. However, EL and FRM supplements resulted in a similar profile of 18-carbon FA isomers in AT (yr 2) and milk (yr 3, 4 10 wk after removing oilseeds from the diet). In conclusion, results confirm that long-term feeding of oilseed supplements alter AT FA composition and may influence milk FA composition during periods of extensive body-fat mobilization such as early lactation. Key words: dairy cow, oilseed supplementation, carryover effect, adipose-tissue mobilization, milk fatty acid INTRODUCTION The effects of dietary oilseed supplements on bovine milk FA composition have been examined extensively (Chilliard et al., 2007; Ferlay et al., 2013; Shingfield et al., 2013). Feeding oilseeds to lactating cows decreases milk fat 4- to 16-carbon SFA and increases 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans FA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations. Such changes in milk FA composition may potentially influence the incidence of several chronic human diseases (Shingfield et al., 2008; Givens, 2010). During early lactation, dairy cows experience negative energy balance and extensive body-fat mobilization. At the same time, milk fat concentration of FA synthesized de novo is lower, and the content of preformed FA is higher, compared with mid or late lactation (Palmquist et al., 1993). Thus, the profile of preformed 18:1, 18:2, 2 Lerch et al. and 18:3 isomers in milk fat during early lactation partially reflects the FA composition of adipose tissue (AT; Chilliard et al., 2000). Furthermore, FA composition of AT in dairy cows is known to be altered by duodenal infusion of rapeseed oil in periods of positive energy balance during mid lactation but not during early lactation when energy balance is negative and extensive body-fat mobilization is used to support milk production (Chilliard et al., 1991). Investigations on the carry-over effects of lipid supplementation on milk fat composition in the subsequent lactation are limited to studies examining the role of oilseeds fed during 5 to 7 wk prepartum (Morel et al., 2008; Santschi et al., 2009; Leiber et al., 2011). Supplementing with processed linseeds resulted in marginal increases in 18:3n-3 concentration of colostrum 1 or 2 d postpartum (Santschi et al., 2009; Leiber et al., 2011), whereas sunflower seeds caused a minor increase of 18:2n-6 in milk during the first week of lactation (Morel et al., 2008). We hypothesize that the relatively short duration of oilseed supplementation prepartum in these studies was insufficient to change the FA profile of AT and that a longer exposure to oilseed supplements would induce larger effects on AT FA composition, and thereby influence milk FA composition early postpartum in the subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to assess whether long-term oilseed supplementation would alter AT FA profile in lactating cows and cause residual carry-over effects on milk FA composition during the beginning of the subsequent lactation. Animals and Diets MATERIALS AND METHODS All experimental procedures were conducted in accordance with the French guidelines for experimental animal use. Fifty-eight dairy Holstein cows were recruited to a long-term experiment (Figure 1) and fed a control diet or a similar diet supplemented with processed oilseeds over 2 consecutive lactations. Details of the experimental design have been reported elsewhere (Lerch et al., 2012a,b,c). On completion of the second lactation of the experiment, only 19 out of the 58 cows initially recruited to the study were available during the beginning of the subsequent lactation, which was mostly because of reproduction problems. Those cows had been on one of the following experimental treatments during yr 1 and 2: control (CTL, 4 cows), extruded linseeds (EL, 4 cows), cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal (FRM, 6 cows), or unprocessed whole rapeseeds (WR, 5 cows). Oilseed supplements were withdrawn 3 wk before calving to investigate possible carry-over effects on milk FA composition early postpartum. During yr 1 and 2 of the experiment, cows received grass-based diets containing no additional lipid or supplemented with oilseed by-products. The control concentrate comprised pelleted wheat and solventextracted rapeseed meal (CTL), which was partially substituted by EL [extruded blend of linseeds and wheat (70:30, wt/wt); INZO, Argentan, France], FRM (by-product of rapeseed oil extraction by cold pressure; Dock Moulin SA, Marneffe, Belgium), or WR (INZO ). For EL, FRM, and WR, oilseed supplements provided a minimum of 2.5% and a maximum of 5.1% of oil in diet DM (mean values of 2.9, 3.1, and 3.3% for EL, FRM, and WR, respectively, over the 2 yr of the supplementation period). By design, cows received experimental treatments until the end of yr 2 of the experiment (26 ± 9 d before calving in yr 3), which corresponded to 732 ± 40 d (mean ± SD) of oilseed supplementation. Thereafter, experimental concentrates were progressively removed from the diet over a period of 3 d. From 23 ± 9 d (mean ± SD) before calving, all 19 cows Figure 1. Summary of the experimental design used in study yr 1 to 3. 1 From wk 6 of lactation in yr 1, until 23 ± 9 d (mean ± SD) before calving in yr 3, concentrates contained no additional lipid (control) or oilseed supplements (extruded linseeds, cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal, and whole unprocessed rapeseeds; Lerch et al., 2012a). Thereafter, all cows received the control concentrate until 49 d postpartum into the third lactation. 2 Timing relative to measurement and sampling initiated at the onset of lactation in yr 2 and 3. CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OILSEED SUPPLEMENTS 3 Table 1. Chemical composition of forages and concentrate mixtures fed during pre- and postpartum periods Item Grass silage Forage 1 Concentrate mixture 2 Grass hay Prepartum 3 CTL EL FRM WR Postpartum 4 Nutrient (% of DM, unless otherwise noted) OM CP NDF ADF Starch ND 6 ND Ether extract PDIN 7, PDIE 8, Energy 9 (MJ of NE/kg of DM) FA concentration (g/100 g of FA) 16: : cis-9 18: cis-11 18: :2n :3n Forage mixtures contained (% DM) grass silage (75) and grass hay (25) prepartum and grass silage (68) and grass hay (32) postpartum. 2 Cows received 4.5 kg of DM per day of concentrate prepartum and 30% of concentrate in diet DM postpartum. 3 Before 26 ± 8.8 d (mean ± SD) prepartum, concentrate mixtures contained (% DM) no oilseed supplement [control, CTL, n = 4; pelleted wheat (73; 95 wheat + 5 molasses) and solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (27)] or an estimated amount of 2.5% of oil in diet DM from extruded linseeds [EL, n = 4; pelleted wheat (9), solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (51), and EL (40; extruded blend of 70% linseeds and 30% wheat, weight basis)], cold-pressed fat-rich rapeseed meal [FRM, n = 6; pelleted wheat (40) and FRM (60)], or whole unprocessed rapeseeds [WR, n = 5; pelleted wheat (9), solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (60), and WR (31)]. After 23 ± 8.8 d (mean ± SD) prepartum, all cows (n = 19) received the CTL concentrate mixture containing no oilseed supplement. 4 Postpartum, all cows (n = 19) received the same concentrate mixture without oilseed supplement (83% of pelleted wheat and 17% of solventextracted rapeseed meal, DM basis). 5 Estimated, based on published values (INRA, 2007). 6 ND = not determined. 7 True protein digestible in the small intestine when protein supply is limited (INRA, 2007). 8 Determined from chemical analyses using the INRAtion and Prev Alim Software (INRA, 2006). 9 True protein digestible in the small intestine when energy supply is limited (INRA, 2007). received a similar control diet containing no oilseed supplements, until the end of the experiment (wk 7 postpartum). Before calving in yr 3, cows were dried off for 61 ± 17 d (mean ± SD) and received a grass silage and grass hay based diet and 4.5 kg of concentrate DM per day. Concentrates were fed twice daily in equal amounts separately from forages. After calving, cows received a TMR (70:30 forage-to-concentrate ratio) composed of (on a % DM basis) grass silage (46.5), grass hay (22), pelleted wheat (25), solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (5), and a mineral and vitamin premix (1.5) offered at 1000 h to ensure 10% refusals. The same sources of grass hay, grass silage, and concentrates were used for the pre- and postpartum diets. Composition of forages and concentrate mixtures fed before and after calving in yr 3 are presented in Table 1. Cows were housed in a freestall barn with individual feed bunks equipped with automatic gates, milked at 0630 and 1600 h, and had free access to fresh water. Feed refusals were weighed on 4 d per week. Sampling, Measurements, and Chemical Analysis Feed and Feedstuffs. Subsamples of feed and refusals were collected weekly and composited monthly for the determination of DM. Samples of oilseed supplements (EL, FRM, and WR) fed during the dry period for chemical analyses were collected on September 1, Subsamples of other feedstuffs were collected 5 times during the dry period and subsequent lactation, composited by feed type, and analyzed for ash, CP, NDF, ADF, starch, ether extract, and FA composition (Lerch et al., 2012a,b). Chemical composition and nutritional value of forages and concentrates are presented in Table 1. Animal Measures and Sampling. Individual BW and BCS were recorded during wk 1, 3, and 7 of lactation [7.9 ± 0.7, 21.9 ± 0.7, and 49.3 ± 3.3 DIM (mean ± SD), respectively]. Daily milk yield was recorded individually, and milk samples (30 ml) were collected over 4 consecutive milkings at wk 1, 3, and 7 of lactation [9.3 ± 1.9, 23.3 ± 1.9, and 51.2 ± 1.9 DIM (mean 4 Lerch et al. ± SD), respectively] and analyzed for fat, protein, and lactose content and SCC (Lerch et al., 2012a). Additional samples of milk were collected without preservative over 2 consecutive milkings during wk 1, 3, and 7 of lactation [6.4 ± 1.0, 20.4 ± 1.1, and 48.4 ± 1.1 DIM (mean ± SD), respectively], stored at 20 C, and analyzed for FA composition (Lerch et al., 2012b). Blood sampling was performed at 0900 h, after morning milking and before feeding on the same dates as for milk FA analyses [6.4 ± 1.0, 20.4 ± 1.1, and 48.4 ± 1.1 DIM (mean ± SD)]. Blood samples were collected from coccygeal vessels into tubes containing EDTA (2.1 mg/ml), and plasma was separated and frozen until analyses (Lerch et al., 2012a). Intra- and interassay CV were 6.4 and 6.6% for NEFA, 2.5 and 2.7% for BHBA, and 0.9 and 1.5% for glucose, respectively. AT Biopsies. On 6 ± 2 DIM (mean ± SD) in study yr 2, corresponding to 355 ± 2 d on experimental treatments, samples of subcutaneous AT were collected for FA composition analysis. Skin was incised (4 cm) with a scalpel under local subcutaneous anesthesia (5 ml of 2% lidocaine; Aguettant, Lyon, France). All AT was collected from the left side of the thorax, immediately behind to the point of the elbow. Approximately 50 mg of AT harvested was rinsed with 0.9% sterile saline solution (wt/vol) at 37 C, inspected to verify tissue homogeneity, and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Samples were stored at 80 C before FA analysis. Following the biopsy, incisions were sutured and treated with a general antiseptic (chlorhexidine, Cicajet 18; Virbac France, Carros, France). Lipid Analyses. Lipids were extracted from AT samples according to Folch et al. (1957). Briefly, 50 mg of AT was weighted in glass tubes and homogenized in 9 ml of a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1, vol/vol). Once homogenization was complete, 18 ml of NaCl 0.75% (wt/vol) was added, and tubes were vigorously agitated and centrifuged at 10 C and 1,100 g during 10 min. A total of 3 ml of the lower phase was collected, and the upper phase was reextracted with 3 ml of a mixture of chloroform, methanol, and 0.58% (wt/vol) of NaCl (86:14:1, vol/vol). Lower phases were combined, dried under nitrogen, and resuspended in 500 μl of chloroform. Neutral and polar lipids in organic extracts were separated by solid-phase extraction using Sep-pack Vac RC (500 mg)-nh2 columns (WAT ; Waters, Saint-Quentin, France) according to Juaneda and Rocquelin (1985). In brief, 500 μl of extracted lipid was loaded at the top of the cartridge, and neutral lipids were eluted with 20 ml of chloroform. The neutral lipids fraction recovered was dried under nitrogen, resuspended in 100 μl of toluene, and converted into FAME, using methanol, boron trifluoride (95:5, vol/vol) as catalyst according to Glass (1971). The total profile of neutral lipid FAME in a 1-μL sample at a split ratio of 1:50 was determined by GC using a Trace-GC 2000 Series gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (Thermo Finnigan, Les Ulis, France) and a 100-m fused silica capillary column (i.d. of 0.25 mm) coated with a 0.2-μm film of cyanopropyl polysiloxane (CP-Sil 88; Chrompack Nederland BV, Middelburg, the Netherlands). The injector temperature was maintained at 250 C and the detector temperature at 255 C. Hydrogen was used as the carrier and fuel gas. The injector pressure was held constant at kpa. The FAME were separated using an oven gradient program (Loor et al., 2004). Isomers of 18:1 were further resolved in a separate analysis under isothermal conditions (170 C; Shingfield et al., 2003). Two samples of AT were found to contain very small amounts of lipid and were therefore excluded from statistical analysis (one sample for both FRM and WR). The FAME for samples of ground, lyophilized feeds were prepared using a one-step extraction and methylation procedure (Sukhija and Palmquist, 1988). The profile of total FAME in feed ingredients was determined by GC as used for AT. Lyophilized milk samples from morning and evening milking were pooled (60 and 40 mg of morning and evening samples, respectively) to provide a daily composite sample for each cow. The FAME in 100-mg samples of lyophilized milk were prepared using a one-step extraction and methylation procedure, and the entire profile of FAME in a 0.6-μL sample at a split ratio of 1:50 was determined by GC as previously described for FAME analysis of AT (Lerch et al., 2012b). Independent of sample matrix (feedstuff, AT, or milk), chromatographic peaks were routinely identified by retention-time comparisons with commercial authentic standards containing mixtures of FAME (Lerch et al., 2012b). Correction factors to account for the carbon deficiency in the flame-ionization detector response were estimated as described elsewhere (Lerch et al., 2012b). Methyl esters in milk fat not available as authentic standards were identified by retention time and elution order comparisons with samples collected during yr 1 and 2 for which electron impact ionization spectra of FAME and 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives were obtained by GC-MS analysis (Lerch et al., 2012b,c). Calculations and Statistical Analysis Milk secretion of individual FA was calculated according to Glasser et al. (2007). Statistical analyses were performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (2003). For AT FA composition, data were analyzed by a model that included the fixed effects of dietary treat- CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM OILSEED SUPPLEMENTS 5 ment (CTL, EL, FRM, or WR) and parity and random effect of cow. For all other measurements collected in yr 3, data were analyzed by a model for repeated measures that included group (corresponding to CTL, EL, FRM, or WR treatment applied during yr 1 and 2), lactation week (1, 3, or 7), and interactions of group by lactation week as fixed effects and cow as a random effect, using a spatial power covariance structure. Denominator degrees of freedom were calculated using the Kenward-Rogers adjustment. When interactions of group by lactation week were significant, the SLICE option was used to compare group differences at each sampling time. Logarithmic transformation (base 10) of experimental data was performed when required to comply with the assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity of residuals. When transformation was necessary (milk SCC, plasma NEFA, and BHBA concentrations), least squares means and standard error of the mean were calculated from untransformed values, whereas declared P-values reflect statistical analysis of transformed data. Treatment or group, and lactation week differences were determined based on t-tests and declared significant at P Trends toward significance were considered at 0.05 P Values reported are least squares means and standard error of the mean. RESULTS Intake, Milk Production, and Plasma Metabolites Lactation week and carry-over effects of oilseed supplements on intake, milk yield and composition, BW, BCS, energy and true protein truly digestible in the small intestine balances, and plasma metabolite concentrations during yr 3 are presented in Table 2. Temporal changes in these parameters are described in Figures 2A, 2B, and 2C. Compared with the CTL group
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