IJETT-V4I4P298 Direct Signalling for the CREW Inside Loco Motive | Modulation | Transmitter

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Direct Signalling for the CREW Inside Loco Motive
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   International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue4- April 2013 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org  Page 991 Direct Signalling for the CREW inside Loco Motive Kanimela Pradeep Kumar  #1 , Vemu Samson Dev Kumar  #2 , Ravi Kumar Rayala *3   #1 Final Year B.Tech, Dept. of ECE, KL University, Vaddeswaram, AP, India, #2 Project Manager, Software training & development centre, SCR-WWO, Vijayawada, AP, India. *  Associate Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University, Vaddeswaram, AP, India.   Abstract  —   In winter season most of the long  journey express trains passing from north India are delayed for around 6-7 hours per day due to invisibility of the signals caused by the fog which necessitates the reduction in train speed. In these foggy conditions we can directly provide signalling cautions to the CREW inside the Locomotive in-order to reduce train delays in hours per day. By installing a transmitter on the signal pole to transmit the ASK modulated encoded train signalling information like red, green and yellow through a directional antenna. These signals will be received by the receiving antenna installed in the train, whenever the locomotive comes into the signal vicinity of transmitter installed on the signal pole. The receiver demodulates the received modulated signal and sends the same to the decoder which decodes the signals which are displayed through the display arranged inside the locomotive with the help of relays or through LCD display if required. With this the loco-pilots can maintain good speed at nights and further we can reduce the delay that trains encountered in the winter season and can assure the passengers of Indian railways a convenient journey in winter. Keywords — Crew, Locomotive, relays. I.   I  NTRODUCTION  Indian Railways is the biggest organization in India and it is widest used transport portal both for the passenger and goods. But, somehow it fails to provide better services to the passengers. In the winter season most of the trains from north India were delayed due to the severe foggy conditions in the winter. In general the visibility range of a Loco Pilot is 500-700 meters, but due to the bad weather in the winter i.e. fog, the visibility range is reduced to just 200-300 meters for the CREW from night to 8-9’O clock in the morning. Hence the crew faces terrible situation in following the caution order and runs the Loco Motive at a speed of 30-60 kmph instead of 90-110 kmph at the above mentioned period. So the trains are running late nearly by 3-6 hours per day in winter season. The passengers are crowded at railway stations and consuming railway facilities such as electricity, waiting halls etc. The passengers also facing panic situation with the inconvenience occurred due to the train delays. Recently, CRIS i.e. Centre for Railway Information Systems had launched NTES i.e.  National Train Enquiry System which fills communication gap between the Indian Railways and the Passengers. Here the passenger can access the current location of their train through 1. www.trainenquiry.com 2. www.spoturtrain.com And the passenger can track the updated location of their train for every 10 minutes through railradar.com. The above system helps in controlling the consumption of railway resources,  boosting this system below mentioned project will able to control the delay encountered in the night times completely, without replacing entire existing signalling system of railways simply by installing one module inside the locomotive. II.   I  NTERFACING  In the signal poles the voltage is 12V dc, which is stepped down by the transformer from 440V ac  to 12V ac  and then converted to 12 dc  by rectifiers such as full-wave rectifiers and bridge rectifiers .  This 12V D.C.,   is given to the signal pole lights i.e. red, green and yellow through relays by   International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue4- April 2013 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org  Page 992 the station masters. Relays perform switching operation through a magnetic link. In the transmitter interfacing section, we further regulate the 12V dc  to 5V dc  using 7805IC regulator which in-turn used as supply voltage entire transmitter section VOLTAGE REGULATION This regulated three 5V dc  supply is then given to the encoder. Here out of three inputs only one at a is 5V dc  while rest are at the 0V dc    Block Diagram: III.   T RANSMITTER DESIGN   A.  Encoding Unit This is the integrated module in the transmitter module. The 5V dc  is taken as continuous analog input from the voltage regulator .This input is processed by the micro-controller with the code dumped on it ,and converts it into series of digital bits .These coded data is needed since the signals are only meant for the loco-pilots, so that no trespasser can access the transmitted signal if coded. For the security purpose the encoder that properly programmed i.e; adds some extra bits so that most of the transmission difficulties are solved. One of them is Inter Symbol Interference occurred when one bit data is overlapped on the other data i.e. signal distortion occurs. A necessary and sufficient condition for distortion less transmission or zero ISI, is given by a function B . FM Modulator The series of the coded digital data is given to the FM modulator which is multiplied with high frequency (433  MHZ  ) carrier and transmitted through the antenna. Modulation is the process of re-encoding the digital coded bits into a continuous signal which is needed to assure the proper transfer of the data over long distances; here in this case we need to transfer the caution signals to around 700-900 meters. The modulation technique used here is  ASK   i.e. Amplitude Shift Keying. In ASK the high frequency carrier amplitude is varied in accordance to the amplitude of the message signal. Here the transmitting module used is TRX-433  MHZ   modulator IV.   RECEIVER DESIGN   A.  FM Demodulator The received signal through antenna in RX-433MHZ demodulator module, The RF receiver(RX-434) module can receive the signal transmitted by the transmitter from a distance up-to 1 to 1.5km. The range can be increased up to 30 meters using a good antenna and, the received signal is demodulated with help of multiplier and synchronized decision device in the Fm   International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue4- April 2013 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org  Page 993 demodulator and the output is in the digital form as encoder produce. This digital data is given to the decoder further. The demodulator also uses Amplitude Shift Keying modulation technology. This demodulator module is integrated in the receiver which is fixed on the Locomotive. This receiver gets the supply voltage from the 5V dc  battery or the available ac supply in the locomotive is step-down and rectified to the required level i.e. 5V dc  and served to FM Demodulator module, Display and the Decoding Unit as Power Supply. B . Decoding Unit The serial data from the FM demodulator os given to the decoder. The purpose of decoding is essential in these cases 1. If there two are signal  poles, one meant for up-direction and another meant for down-direction signalling, if two trains crossing each other at an instant of time, then interference occurs in received signals 2. When a train comes nearer to a signal pole meanwhile another train crossed from another direction then there is a probability of both trains capturing the same signal. In order to solve both the above  problems, in the decoder we set an address which is not same for all trains for up direction and similarly for down-direction also. Then the signals are meant for trains in a particular direction only. We can achieve the same result using the Signal Jammer for some extent, which is discussed later. The decoded signals are given to the display unit. The micro-controller used for the decoding unit is AT89C51. C. Display Unit The output of the decoding unit is the 5V dc , through three wires from the micro-controller always one wire contains the voltages these used in display unit to lit corresponding signal transmitted through relays. The power supply to the bulbs is taken from the process of step-down and rectification of the ac power available in the locomotive itself. We can also interface LCD to display the signals transmitted. V.   ANTENNAS  An antenna is a passive device which does not offer any added power to the signal. Instead, an antenna simply redirects the energy it receives from the transmitter. The redirection of this energy has the effect of providing more energy in one direction, and less energy in all other directions. For this  project, we used directional antennas such as  parabolic antenna, horn antenna, patch antenna and slotted antennas to interface at the transmitter and the receiver ends VI.   SIGNAL JAMMER   Jamming is a process in which the receiver is blocked from receiving a signal by using a  jamming circuit which transmits a random signal of higher power in the same frequency .    A.Working Principle Jammers work by outputting a RF signal at the same frequency expected by the device that’s  being jammed, but at a higher power compared to the normal signal. The jamming signal itself is usually random noise or a pure signal. The device  being jammed will then receive the higher power signal which is from the jammer, and then the devices can no longer function correctly. A jammer circuit works on receiver section of the communication not on the transmitter section.  B. Block Diagram of Jammer   International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue4- April 2013 ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org  Page 994 We need need to restrict the signal in the confined region at some instances so we place a  jammer in required zone which jams transmitted frequencies. Here we use a 433mhz frequency as it is a license free band that can be used for experimentation purpose. In the case of real time application of we can use the frequency band that is allocated by the Government of India to the Indian Railways.. The range of the jammer should be fixed in such a way that the jamming signal makes the locomotivr receiver to capture signals only when it comes to the range of specified i.e; 500-700 meters. We can use a random pulse generator or any random noise for the purpose of jamming. C.Jammer Circuit VII.   CONCLUSION In this project RF based communication is established to exchange information between signalling department and the Locopilot by utilizing micro-controller coading.The future scope of the  project is to develop less no of transmitters installing at the signal poles instead of installing at each pole,and we can use same module to convey digital caution order also. VIII.   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  This Project work has been done in the  period of Practice school at Software training and Developement Centre South Central Railway Women Welfare Organization ,as a part of college curriculum. The authors acknowledge the support of Practice school Manager Mr. B Suresh, , Operational Guide Mr. A Suresh. R  EFERENCES [1] The IEEE website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/ [2] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay [3]http://www.electronicslab.com [4] http://www.engineers- garrage.com [5] www.cris.org.in/ [6] en.wikipedia.org/ [7] www.scr.indianrailways.gov.in/ [8] The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems Using Assembly and C 2nd-edition by Muhammad Ali Mazid BIOGRAPHY   Kanimela Pradeep Kumar was  born in 1992 in Nellore district.Currently he is pursuing his b. tech final year in K.L. UNIVERSITY in Electronics and Communication stream. His areas of interest are embedded systems and digital Communication. E mail:sunnykpradeep@gmai.com  Rayala Ravi Kumar    pursued his masters M.E. in Communication systems from P.S.G. College of technology. For the past 15 years he is associated with Telecom industry and Academia at various capacities He has 9 year experience in association with Academic Institutions worked as lecturer, Associate Professor, Professor and Head of the Department and Prof. Currently he is working as
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